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Wake Forest 
University 

The Undergraduate Schools 







•'■rrrss/"' 



1993-94 

Bulletin of Wake Forest University 



Photography Credits: Bernard J. Carpenter - page 57; Susan MulMly Clark - page 101; Jack 
Mellott - page 126; lee Runion - pages 13, 29, 44, 66, 75, 109, 125, 180 



New Series June 1993 Volume 88, Number 3 



Wake Forest College 

and 

The School of Business 
and Accountancy 



The Undergraduate Schools 
of Wake Forest University 



Announcements for 
1993-94 

This bulletin represents a record of the year 1992-93. 



BULLETIN of Wake Forest University (USPS 078-320) is published seven times a year in March, April, May, June 
(2 issues), July and November by the University Editor's Office, Wake Forest Universi ty, P.O. Box 7205 Reynolda 
Station (1834 Wake Forest Road), Winston-Salem NC 27109. Second class postage paid at Winston-Salem NC, 
and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER Send address changes to BULLETIN of Wake Forest University, 
Director of Admissions, Box 7305 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, NC 27109. 



Fall Semester 1993 

August 26 Thursday 

August 26-30 Thursday-Monday 

August 28 Saturday 



August 29 
August 30 



Sunday 
Monday 



Residence halls open at 8:00 a.m. for 

first-year and transfer students 
Orientation for first-year and transfer 

students 
Registration for first-year, transfer, and 

readmitted students, 2:00-5:00 p.m. 
Residence halls open noon-6:00 p.m. 

for returning students 
Residence halls open noon-6:00 p.m. 

for returning students 
Validation/registration for returning 

students 



August 31 


Tuesday 


Classes begin 


September 2 


Thursday 


Opening Convocation* 


September 13 


Monday 


Last day to add courses 


September 27 


Monday 


Last day to drop courses 


October 22 


Friday 


Midterm grades due 


November 19 


Friday 


All residence halls close at 7:00 p.m. 


November 20-28 


Saturday-Sunday 


Thanksgiving recess 


November 29 


Monday 


Classes resume 


December 10 


Friday 


Classes end 


December 11 


Saturday 


Examinations (afternoon only) 


December 13-18 


Monday-Saturday 


Examinations 


December 18 


Saturday 


All residence halls close at 7:00 p.m. 


Dec. 19-Jan. 12 


Sunday- Wednesday 


Christmas recess 


Spring Semester 1994 




January 13 


Thursday 


Residence halls open at noon 


January 14 


Friday 


Validation of registration for all 
students 


January 17 


Monday 


Martin Luther King Jr. Day — no classes 


January 18 


Tuesday 


Classes begin 


January 31 


Monday 


Last day to add courses 


February (Date to be announced) 


Founders' Day Convocation 


February 14 


Monday 


Last day to drop courses 


March 4 


Friday 


Midterm grades due 

All residence halls close at 7:00 p.m. 


March 5-13 


Saturday-Sunday 


Spring recess 


March 14 


Monday 


Classes resume 


April 29 


Friday 


Classes end 


April 30 


Saturday 


Examinations (afternoon only) 


May 2-7 


Monday-Saturday 


Examinations 


May 15 


Sunday 


Baccalaureate 


May 16 


Monday 


Commencement 


*Subject to change 







asm 

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nwHaHRKSBsi 



Table of Contents 



The Academic Calendar 2 

The University 7 

Buildings and Grounds 8 

Computer Center 9 

Microcomputer Center 10 

Communication Services 11 

Libraries 11 

Recognition and Accreditation 12 

The Undergraduate Schools 12 

Wake Forest College 14 

Statement of Purpose 14 

History and Development 15 

Chronological History of Wake Forest University 16 

Presidents of Wake Forest University 16 

Procedures 17 

Admission 17 

Application 17 

Early Decision 18 

Admission of Handicapped Students 18 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 19 

Admission of Transfer Students 19 

Expenses 19 

Tuition 20 

Room Charges 20 

Food Services 20 

Other Charges 21 

Refunds 21 

Housing 22 

Academic Calendar 22 

Orientation and Advising 22 

Registration 23 

Classification 23 

Class Attendance 23 

Auditing Courses 24 

Dropping a Course 24 

Withdrawal from the College 24 

Examinations 25 

Grading 25 

Grade Reports and Transcripts 26 

Dean's List 26 

Graduation Distinctions 26 

Repetition of Courses 26 

Probation 27 



Requirements for Acceptable Academic Standing 27 

Requirements for Readmission 28 

Summer Study 28 

Transfer Credit 29 

Scholarships and Loans 30 

Scholarships 30 

Federal Financial Aid Programs 41 

Exchange Scholarships 41 

Loans 42 

Concessions 43 

Other Financial Aid 43 

Special Programs 45 

Honors Study 45 

Open Curriculum 45 

Study at Salem College 45 

International Studies 46 

Office of International Studies 46 

International Students 46 

Residential Language Centers 46 

International Studies House 46 

Foreign Area Studies 46 

Opportunities for Study Abroad 46 

England (London) 46 

Italy (Venice) 47 

France (Dijon) 47 

Spain (Salamanca) 47 

Institute of European Studies 47 

China (Beijing) 48 

Japan (Hiratsuka) 48 

Russia 48 

Experiment in International Living 48 

Study Abroad in Non- Wake Forest Programs 48 

Requirements for Degrees 49 

Degrees Offered 49 

General Requirements 49 

Basic Requirements 50 

Divisional Requirements 50 

Requirement in Health and Sport Science 51 

Proficiency in the Use of English 51 

Basic and Divisional Requirements 52 

Declaring a Major 52 

Maximum Number of Courses in a Department 53 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 53 

Double Majors and Joint Majors 53 

Minors 54 



Interdisciplinary Minors 54 

Foreign Area Studies 54 

Senior Testing 55 

Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 55 

Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 55 

Degrees in Microbiology 56 

Degrees in Dentistry 56 

Degrees in Engineering 56 

Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 57 

Courses of Instruction — Wake Forest College 58 

Anthropology 58 

Art 61 

Asian Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 65 

Biology 67 

Chemistry 73 

Classical Languages 76 

Cultural Resource Preservation (Interdisciplinary Minor) 80 

Early Christian Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 81 

East Asian Languages and Literatures 82 

East Asian Studies (Foreign Area Study) 83 

East European Studies (Foreign Area Study) 84 

Economics 85 

Education 89 

English 95 

German and Russian 102 

German Studies (Foreign Area Study) 105 

Health and Sport Science 105 

History 110 

Humanities 116 

Interdisciplinary Honors 120 

International Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 123 

Italian Studies (Foreign Area Study) 124 

Latin American Studies (Foreign Area Study) 125 

Mathematics and Computer Science 127 

Military Science 133 

Music 135 

Natural Sciences 142 

Philosophy 143 

Physics 147 

Politics 150 

Psychology 156 

Religion 160 

Romance Languages 166 

Sociology 176 

Spanish Studies (Foreign Area Study) 180 



Speech Communication 181 

Theater 185 

Dance 188 

Women's Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 189 

Overseas Courses 191 

School of Business and Accountancy 197 

Mission 197 

Objectives 197 

Goals 198 

Admission 198 

Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 199 

Requirements for Continuation 199 

Requirements for Graduation 199 

Senior Honors Program 200 

Beta Gamma Sigma, National Honor Society 200 

Courses of Instruction 201 

Business 201 

Accountancy 204 

Enrollment 207 

Governing and Advisory Boards 208 

The Administration 211 

The Undergraduate Faculties 223 

Emeriti 244 

The Committees of the Faculty 248 

Index 253 




The University 




Wake Forest University is characterized by its devotion to liberal learning 
and professional preparation for men and women, its strong sense of 
community and fellowship, and its encouragement of free inquiry and 
expression. 

Founded in 1834 by the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, the school 
opened its doors on February 3 as Wake Forest Institute, with Samuel Wait as 
principal. It was located in Wake County, North Carolina, on the plantation of Calvin 
Jones, near which the village of Wake Forest later developed. 

Rechartered in 1838 as Wake Forest College, it is one of the oldest institutions of 
higher learning in the state. It was exclusively a college of liberal arts for men until 
1894, when the School of Law was established. The School of Medicine, founded in 
1902, offered a two-year medical program until 1941. In that year, the school was 
moved from the town of Wake Forest to Winston-Salem, became associated with the 
North Carolina Baptist Hospital, and was renamed the Bowman Gray School of 
Medicine. In 1942, Wake Forest admitted women as regular undergraduate students. 

A School of Business Administration was established in 1948. In 1969, the under- 
graduate school was succeeded by the Department of Business and Accountancy and 
the Department of Economics in Wake Forest College; at the same time the Babcock 
Graduate School of Management was established. In 1980, the undergraduate pro- 
gram in business and accountancy was reconstituted as the School of Business and 
Accountancy. The Division of Graduate Studies, established in 1961, is now organized 
as the Graduate School and encompasses advanced work in the arts and sciences on 
both the Reynolda and Hawthorne campuses in Winston-Salem. 

In 1946, the trustees of Wake Forest College and the Baptist State Convention of 
North Carolina accepted a proposal by the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation to relocate 
the non-medical divisions of the College to Winston-Salem. The late Charles H. 
Babcock and his wife, the late Mary Reynolds Babcock, contributed a campus site, and 
building funds were received from many sources. Between 1952 and 1956, the first 
fourteen buildings were erected in Georgian style on the new Winston-Salem campus. 
In 1956, the College moved all operations, leaving the 122-year-old campus in the town 
of Wake Forest to the Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. 

In 1967, the College's augmented character was recognized by the change in name 
to Wake Forest University. Today, enrollment in all schools of the University stands 
at over 5,000. Governance remains in the hands of the board of trustees, and develop- 
ment for each of the six schools of the University is augmented by advisory boards of 
visitors. A joint board of University trustees and trustees of the North Carolina Baptist 
Hospital is responsible for the Medical Center, which includes the hospital and the 
medical school. 

Wake Forest's relationship with the Baptist State Convention is an important part 
of the school's heritage. Wake Forest and the Convention have a fraternal, voluntary 
relationship under which Wake Forest is autonomous in governance. 

The College, School of Business and Accountancy, Babcock Graduate School of 
Management, School of Law, and the Graduate School are located on the Reynolda 
Campus in northwest Winston-Salem. The Bowman Gray School of Medicine is about 



four miles away, near the city's downtown, on what is known as the Hawthorne 
Campus. The University also offers instruction regularly at Casa Artom in Venice, at 
Worrell House in London, and in other places around the world. 

The College offers courses in more than forty fields of study leading to the 
baccalaureate degree. The School of Business and Accountancy offers courses of study 
leading to the baccalaureate in business and accountancy. The School of Law offers the 
juris doctor degree and the Babcock Graduate School of Management, the master of 
business administration degree. In addition to the doctor of medicine degree, the 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine offers, through the Graduate School, programs 
leading to the master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees in the basic medical 
sciences. The Graduate School confers the master of arts, master of arts in education, 
master of arts in liberal studies, and master of science degrees in the arts and sciences 
and the doctor of philosophy degree in biology, chemistry, and physics. 

Buildings and Grounds 

The Reynolda Campus of Wake Forest is situated on approximately 340 acres; its 
physical facilities consist of over thirty buildings, most of which are of modified 
Georgian architecture and constructed of Old Virginia brick trimmed in granite and 
limestone. The Reynolda Gardens annex, consisting of about 150 acres and including 
Reynolda Woods, Reynolda Village, and Reynolda Gardens, is adjacent to the cam- 
pus. The Graylyn Estate, an educational conference center, is nearby. 

Wait Chapel, named in memory of the first president of the College, seats 2,300. The 
Wait Chapel tower contains the Janet Jeffrey Carlisle Harris Carillon, an instrument 
of forty-eight bells. Wingate Hall, named in honor of President Washington Manly 
Wingate, houses the Department of Religion, the offices of the University chaplaincy 
and the Wake Forest Baptist Church, and other classrooms and offices. 

Reynolda Hall, across the upper plaza from Wait Chapel, houses most of the 
administrative offices for the Reynolda Campus as well as the Computer and Micro- 
computer Centers. The Benson University Center is the central hub for student activities 
and events. The Z.Smith Reynolds Library and its Edwin Graves Wilson Wing house the 
main collection of books and documents on the Reynolda Campus. Along with eight 
floors of open stacks, with a capacity for over 1,000,000 volumes, it has reading and 
reference rooms for study and some academic offices. Carswell Hall houses the 
Departments of Economics, Sociology and Speech Communication. 

Winston Hall houses biology and psychology; Salem Hall, the chemistry depart- 
ment. Both buildings have laboratories as well as classrooms and special research 
facilities. The Olin Physical Laboratory is a new facility for the physics department. 
Harold W. Tribble Hall accommodates primarily humanities departments, and has 
seminar rooms, a philosophy library, and a larger lecture area, Del amble Auditorium. 
The Museum of Anthropology houses the anthropology department. The School of 
Business and Accountancy and the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science are in the Cliarles H. Babcock Hall. 

The James R. Scales Fine Arts Center is of contemporary design appropriate to the 
functions of studio art, theater, musical and dance performances, and instruction in art 
history, drama, and music. Off its lobby is a large gallery for special exhibitions. In the 



art wing are spacious studios for drawing, painting, sculpture, and printmaking, 
along with a smaller gallery and classrooms. In the theater wing are design and 
production areas and two technically complete theaters, the larger of traditional 
proscenium design and the smaller for experimental ring productions. The music 
wing contains Brendle Recital Hall for concerts and lectures, classrooms, practice 
rooms for individuals and groups, and the offices of the music department. 

The new Worrell Professional Center for Law and Management houses the School of 
Law and Babcock Graduate School of Management under one roof. 

The William N. Reynolds Gymnasium has classrooms for instruction in health and 
sport science, courts for indoor sports, a swimming pool, and offices for the Depart- 
ments of Health and Sport Science and Military Science. Adjacent are tennis courts, 
sports fields, the Campus Stadium, an Indoor Tennis Center, and the Athletic Center for 
intercollegiate athletics. 

The Wake Forest campus has a wide variety of housing choices available to 
students. There is one residence hall which houses only male students: Taylor House. 
Three residence halls house only female students: Bostwick, Babcock, and Efird Halls. 
Davis House, Huffman House, Johnson Hall, Kitchin House, LuterHall, Palmer Hall, Piccolo 
Hall, Poteat House, and South Hall are coeducational by floor or wing. First-year 
students live in Bostwick, Davis, Huffman, Johnson, Kitchin, South, and Taylor. Upper 
class students may choose to live in one of a variety of theme houses including the Fine 
Arts House, French House, German House, International Studies House, Italian House, Nia 
House, Russian House, WAKE Radio House, and Wesley Houses, or others which are 
currently being developed. Student housing also is available in the townhouse 
apartments and several small houses owned by the University. On the edge of the 
main campus are apartments for faculty and staff as well as graduate and married 
students. 

Computer Center 

The Computer Center supports University instruction, research, and administrative 
needs. The University has three mainframe computers. A Hewlett-Packard series 
3000/948, used by the administration, has 128 million bytes of memory and 5.6 billion 
bytes of disk storage. Academic and library computing use two Hewlett-Packard 
series 9000/852 computers. These systems currently offer 192 million bytes of memory 
and ten billion bytes of disk storage. The latter two computers are available twenty- 
four hours a day from terminals in the library, by dial-in modems, from Macintoshes 
in the microcomputer labs, and across the campus network. 

All students on the Reynolda Campus are given a login ID on the academic 
computer, and the login is maintained as long as the student is enrolled. This single 
account provides students access to electronic mail, programming languages, and 
software packages. There is no charge to students for computing either on the 
mainframe or in the microcomputer labs. 

Computer languages available include FORTRAN77, COBOL 85, Pascal and C. 
Statistical packages such as SPSSX, BMDP, SAS, and Minitab can be used for data 
analysis, forecasting, and financial modeling. Maple, a symbolic algebra package, is 
a new addition to the software. DISSPLA, a powerful graphics package, is available on 
the mainframe. 



10 



A graphics workstation offers a DOS-based computer and a Macintosh, along with 
a scanner, Polaroid Bravo slidemaker, and a six-pen plotter. Software available 
includes HARVARD GRAPHICS, LOTUS 1-2-3, Aldus FreeHand and Persuasion, 
Digital Darkroom, Microsoft Word, Word Perfect, and SIMSCRIPT/SIMGRAPH, 
simulation and modeling software. Output can also be sent to a laser printer. 

Many departments on campus have their own computing resources in addition to 
those available through the Computer Center. For example, Physics and Chemistry 
share two Convex mini-supercomputers, and those departments and Mathematics 
and Computer Science have Sun workstations. The School of Business and Accoun- 
tancy and the Department of Education have their own microcomputer labs. 

Wake Forest has access to computing resources outside the University. The 
University is a member of the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social 
Research (ICPSR), located at the University of Michigan. Membership in ICPSR 
provides faculty and students with access to a large library of data files, including 
public opinion surveys, cross-cultural data, financial data, and complete census data. 
The University is a member of EDUCOM, a national consortium of colleges and 
universities concerned with computing issues. 

Wake Forest belongs to the Internet, an international network used to send 
electronic mail, as well as log on and transfer files to and from remote computers. 
Wake Forest has access to a CRAY supercomputer through the Microelectronics 
Center in the Research Triangle. 

There are seven microcomputer labs available for general student use. Each lab 
contains a mixture of Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. The labs are net- 
worked together and with the Computer Center. Each lab has two dot-matrix printers 
and a letter-quality printer. Students in the lab also can print to laser printers in the 
Computer Center and in the Student Union. Four of the labs, in Luter, Poteat, Wingate, 
and the area between Johnson and Bostwick residence halls, are open on a 24-hour 
basis through a card-entry system. The library lab is available during library hours and 
the Benson lab during Benson hours. The Davis lab is staffed with assistants, and is 
open twelve hours a day. The Computer Center has student assistants staffing a 
telephone help line. Software available in the labs includes DeltaGraph, HyperCard, 
MacPaint, MacWrite II, Microsoft Word, NCSA Telnet, and Word Perfect. There is a 
software library from which students may copy shareware and freeware. 



Microcomputer Center . 



The Microcomputer Center provides sales and service of personal computers, periph- 
erals and software to full-time students, faculty, and staff. Wake Forest has educa- 
tional and volume discount contracts with Apple Computer, Gateway Computer 
Systems, and a variety of peripheral and software vendors. Sales consultants are 
available to assist with the selection and purchase of systems. 

The Microcomputer Center is an authorized warranty repair center for Apple and 
Zenith products purchased through the University. The technical staff provides 
assistance with installation and service questions, and performs on-campus mainte- 
nance of equipment purchased from the University. 



11 



Communications Services 



Communications Services provides telephone and cable television services to the 
students, faculty, and staff of Wake Forest University. All residence hall rooms are 
equipped with telephone jacks and cable TV connections. Local dial service for the 
campus and Winston-Salem area is provided as part of the housing package. Students 
who wish to place long distance calls over the University network can apply for 
services at the Telecommunications Department located in Room 23, Reynolda Hall. 
Cable television, while providing a recreational outlet, plays an important role by 
providing access to campus information and educational offerings. Cable channel 2 is 
the Wake Forest University information channel, providing information and a calen- 
dar of campus events. WAKE Radio, a student-run station, provides background 
music for this channel. Channel 17 carries SCOLA, which provides domestic and 
foreign educational programming. 

Libraries 

The libraries of Wake Forest University support instruction and research at the 
undergraduate level and in the disciplines awarding graduate degrees. The libraries 
of the University hold membership in the Association of Southeastern Research 
Libraries and rank among the top schools in the Southeast in library expenditures per 
student. 

Facilities in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, which have recently been augmented 
by an addition, include an Information Technology Center with multimedia viewing 
and editing and a Macintosh lab for student use. All-night study rooms are available 
to students with a key-card. Group study rooms are provided for student use. A new 
Professional Center Library, combining the Law Library and the Babcock Manage- 
ment Library, is housed in the Worrell Professional Center, which opened in 1993. 

The libraries share an online catalog which may be consulted at terminals in the 
buildings, from the campus network or remotely through a modem. The Reference 
Department of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library provides a complete range of reference 
services including online searching, tours, freshman orientation, presentation to 
individual classes, and assistance with directed and independent studies. Reference 
tools are available in electronic and print formats. Interlibrary loan service is available 
for Wake Forest students, faculty, and staff. Books, photocopies, and other materials 
may be borrowed from other libraries at no charge. The reference staff oversees the 
operation of a telefacsimile machine which sends and receives printed information. 

The library collections total 1,188,534 volumes. Of these, 919,603 constitute the 
general collections in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library; 145,604 are in the new Profes- 
sional Center Library; and 123,327 are in the Carpenter Library of the Bowman Gray 
School of Medicine. Subscriptions to 19,252 periodicals and serials, largely of scholarly 
content, are maintained at the three libraries of the University. The holdings of the Z. 
Smith Reynolds Library include 42,818 reels of microfilm, 1,283,569 pieces in other 
microformats, and 117,132 titles of United States government publications, as well as 
a growing collection of videotapes. 



12 



Special collections in the Reynolds Library include the Rare Books Collections and 
the Ethel Taylor Crittenden Baptist Historical Collection. The Rare Books collection, 
greatly enhanced by the donation of rare and fine books of the late Charles H. Babcock, 
emphasizes American and British authors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth 
centuries. Among such collections are those of Mark Twain, Gertrude Stein, William 
Butler Yeats and T.S. Eliot. There is also an extensive Anglo-Irish literature collection. 
The Baptist Historical Collection contains significant books, periodicals, manuscripts, 
and church records relating to North Carolina Baptists as well as a collection of the 
personal papers of prominent ministers, educators and government officials. The 
Wake Forest College/University Archive is also maintained in this area. 



Recognition and Accreditation 



Wake Forest College was first accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Schools, the regional accrediting agency, in 1921. The reaccreditation of 1965 included 
the master's and doctoral degree programs in the Division of Graduate Studies. The 
University's accreditation was last reaffirmed in December 1987. 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine is a member of the Association of American 
Medical Colleges and is on the approved list of the Council on Medical Education of 
the American Medical Association. The School of Law is a member of the Association 
of American Law Schools and is listed as an approved school by the Council of the 
Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar of the American Bar Association 
and by the Board of Law Examiners and the Council of the North Carolina State Bar. 
The Babcock Graduate School of Management and the School of Business and 
Accountancy are accredited by the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of 
Business. The program in counseling leading to the master of arts in education degree 
is accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education. 

Wake Forest University is a member of many of the major institutional organiza- 
tions and associations at the national, regional, and statewide levels, including the 
following: the American Council on Education, the Association of American Colleges, 
the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, the Council of 
Graduate Schools in the United States, the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Schools, the Southern Universities Conference, the Council of Southern Graduate 
Schools, the North Carolina Association of Colleges and Universities, and the North 
Carolina Association of Independent Colleges and Universities. In addition, many 
offices of the University are members of associations which focus on particular aspects 
of university administration. 

Wake Forest has chapters of the principal national social fraternities, professional 
fraternities, and honor societies, including Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi. There is an 
active chapter of the American Association of University Professors on campus. 

The Undergraduate Schools 



There are two undergraduate schools at Wake Forest University: Wake Forest College 
and the School of Business and Accountancy. The undergraduate schools are gov- 
erned by the board of trustees, the University administration, and by their respective 



13 



faculties. Responsibility for academic administration is delegated by the president 
and trustees to the provost, who is the chief academic officer of the University. 
Collaborating with the provost is the associate provost. The deans of the schools report 
to the provost and are responsible for academic planning and administration for their 
schools. Collaborating with the undergraduate deans are three associate deans of the 
College and one assistant dean of the School of Business and Accountancy. 







Wake Forest College 



Wake Forest College is the undergraduate school of arts and sciences of Wake 
Forest University. It is the center of the University's academic life; through it, 
the University carries on the tradition of preparing men and women for 
personal enrichment, enlightened citizenship, and professional life. 

Wake Forest College is a place of meeting. Its teachers and students are of diverse 
backgrounds and interests, and that diversity is crucial to the distinctive character of the 
College. Wake Forest continually examines its educational purpose and evaluates its 
success in fulfilling it. A formal statement of purpose was prepared as part of the school's 
decennial reaccreditation process and was adopted by the Board of Trustees. 

Purpose 

Following is the official statement of purpose of Wake Forest College. 

Statement of Purpose 

Wake Forest is a university dedicated to the pursuit of excellence in the liberal arts and in 
graduate and professional education. Its distinctiveness in its pursuit of its mission 
derives from its private, coeducational, and residential character; its size and location; and 
its Baptist affiliation. Each of these factors constitutes a significant aspect of the unique 
character of the institution. 

The University is now comprised of six constituent parts: two undergraduate institu- 
tions, Wake Forest College and the School of Business and Accountancy; the Graduate 
School; and three professional schools: the School of Law, the Bowman Gray School of 
Medicine, and the Babcock Graduate School of Management. It seeks to honor the ideals 
of liberal learning, which entail commitment to transmission of cultural heritages; 
teaching the modes of learning in the basic disciplines of human knowledge; developing 
critical appreciation of moral, aesthetic, and religious values; advancing the frontiers of 
knowledge through in-depth study and research; and applying and using knowledge in 
the service of humanity. 

Wake Forest has been dedicated to the liberal arts for over a century and a half; this 
means education in the fundamental fields of human knowledge and achievement, as 
distinguished from education that is technical or narrowly vocational. It seeks to encour- 
age habits of mind that ask "why," that evaluate evidence, that are open to new ideas, that 
attempt to understand and appreciate the perspectives of others, that accept complexity 
and grapple with it, that admit error, and that pursue truth. Wake Forest College has by 
far the largest student body in the University, and its function is central to the University's 
larger life. The College and the Graduate School are most singularly focused on learning 
for its own sake; they therefore serve as exemplars of specific academic values in the life 
of the University. 

Beginning as early as 1894, Wake Forest accepted an obligation to provide professional 
training in a number of fields, as a complement to its primary mission of liberal arts 
education. This responsibility is fulfilled in the conviction that the humane values 



15 



embodied in the liberal arts are also centrally relevant to the professions. Professional 
education at Wake Forest is characterized by a commitment to ethical and other profes- 
sional ideals that transcend technical skills. Like the Graduate School, the professional 
schools are dedicated to the advancement of learning in their fields. In addition, they are 
specifically committed to the application of knowledge to solving concrete problems of 
human beings. They are strengthened by values and goals which they share with the 
College and Graduate School, and the professional schools enhance the work of these 
schools and the University as a whole by serving as models of service to humanity. 

Wake Forest was founded by private initiative, and ultimate decision-making author- 
ity lies in a privately appointed Board of Trustees rather than in a public body. "Funded 
to a large extent from private sources of support, [Wake Forest] is determined to chart its 
own course in the pursuit of its goals. As a coeducational institution it seeks to 'educate 
together' persons of both sexes and from a wide range of backgrounds — racial, ethnic, 
religious, geographical, socio-economic, and cultural. . . Its residential features are condu- 
cive to learning and to the pursuit of a wide range of co-curricular activities. It has made 
a conscious choice to remain small in overall size; it takes pride in being able to function 
as a community rather than a conglomerate. Its location in the Piedmont area of North 
Carolina engenders an ethos that is distinctively Southern, and more specifically North 
Carolinian... As it seeks further to broaden its constituency and to receive national 
recognition, itisalso finding ways to maintain the ethos associated with its regional roots." 

Wake Forest is proud of its Baptist and Christian heritage. For more than a century and 
a half, it has provided the University an indispensable basis for its mission and purpose, 
enabling Wake Forest to educate thousands of ministers and laypeople for enlightened 
leadership in their churches and communities. Far from being exclusive and parochial, 
this religious tradition gives the University roots that ensure its lasting identity and 
branches that provide a supportive environment for a wide variety of faiths. The Baptist 
insistence on both the separation of church and state and local autonomy has helped to 
protect the University from interference and domination by outside interests, whether 
these be commercial, governmental, or ecclesiastical. The Baptist emphasis upon revealed 
truth enables a strong religious critique of human reason, even as the claims of revelation 
are put under the scrutiny of reason. The character of intellectual life at Wake Forest 
encourages open and frank dialogue and provides assurance that the University will be 
ecumenical and not provincial in scope, and that it must encompass perspectives other 
than the Christian. Wake Forest thus seeks to maintain and invigorate what is noblest in 
its religious heritage. 



History and Development 



Since 1834, Wake Forest College has developed its distinctive pattern of characteristics: 
tenacity, independence, a fierce defense of free inquiry and expression, and a concern that 
knowledge be used responsibly and compassionately. That these characteristics have 
served the school well is displayed by its growth from a small sectarian school to one of 
the nation's significant small private universities. 

A brief history of Wake Forest is useful in understanding the University as it is today 
and appreciating the process through which it developed. 



16 



Chronological History of Wake Forest University. 



1834 Founded in the town of Wake Forest, N.C., as Wake Forest Manual Labor Institute 

in cooperation with the N.C. Baptist State Convention 
1838 Named Wake Forest College 
1894 School of Law established 
1902 School of Medicine founded 
1921 First summer session 
1936 Approval of the School of Law by the American Bar Association 

1941 Relocation of the School of Medicine to Winston-Salem and eventual change of 
name to Bowman Gray School of Medicine and association with the North Carolina 
Baptist Hospital 

1942 Women admitted as undergraduate students 

1956 Move to Winston-Salem in response to an endowment from the Z. Smith Reynolds 

Foundation 
1961 Graduate studies instituted 
1967 Became Wake Forest University 
1969 Babcock Graduate School of Management established 
1976 James R. Scales Fine Arts Center opened 
1984 Sesquicentennial anniversary 
1986 End of governing ties to the N.C. Baptist State Convention 

1989 Olin Physical Laboratory opened 

1990 Clifton L. Benson University Center opened 

1992 Edwin Graves Wilson Wing of Z. Smith Reynolds Library dedicated 

1993 Worrell Professional Center for Law and Management opened 

Presidents of Wake Forest University 



1834 Samuel Wait 1905 William Louis Poteat 

1845 William Hooper 1927 Francis Pendleton Gaines 

1849 John Brown White 1930 Thurman D. Kitchin 

1854 Washington Manly Wingate 1950 Harold Wayland Tribble 

1879 Thomas Henderson Pritchard 1967 James Ralph Scales 

1884 Charles Elisha Taylor 1983 Thomas K.Hearn Jr. 



All students are responsible for familiarizing themselves with the portions of this 
bulletin which pertain to their course of study. Statements concerning courses 
and expenses are not to be regarded as irrevocable contracts between the student 
and the institution. The University reserves the right to change the schedule of classes and 
the cost of instruction at any time within the student's term of residence. 

Admission 

Candidates for admission must furnish evidence of maturity and educational achieve- 
ment. The Committee on Admissions carefully considers the applicant's academic 
records, scores on tests, and evidence of character, motivation, goals, and general fitness 
for study in the College. The applicant's secondary school program must establish a 
commitment to the kind of broad liberal education reflected in the academic requirements 
of the College. 

Admission as a freshman normally requires graduation from an accredited secondary 
school with a minimum of sixteen units of high school credit. These should include four 
units in English, three in mathematics, two in history and social studies, two in a single 
foreign language, and one in the natural sciences. An applicant who presents at least 
twelve units of differently distributed college preparatory study can be considered. A 
limited number of applicants may be admitted without the high school diploma, with 
particular attention given to ability, maturity, and motivation. 

All persons admitted are required to submit a health history, along with the results of 
a physical examination, certain laboratory tests, and immunization records to the director 
of the Student Health Service. If a person who has been accepted but has not yet enrolled 
has or develops a health problem which, in the judgment of the director of the health 
service, creates a danger to the safety and well-being of the student or others, that person 
may be required to delay matriculation until the problem is resolved. 

North Carolina law and Wake Forest University require that all new, transfer, readmit, 
unclassified or visiting students submit proof of immunization against tetanus and 
diphtheria (Td), polio, rubeola, rubella, and mumps before registration. The student 
handbook has a detailed statement. A certificate from the student's high school, physician, 
or county health department director containing the approved dates is acceptable proof 
of immunization. The Student Health Service will furnish a form for this purpose. North 
Carolina law requires that students who do not submit proper proof of immunization 
within thirty days of enrollment cannot attend Wake Forest University until these 
immunizations have been documented. 

Application 

An application is secured from the Office of Admissions in person or by mail (Box 7305 
Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109). It should be completed and 
returned to that office no later than January 15 for the fall semester. Most admissions 
decisions for the fall semester are made by April 1, with prompt notification of applicants. 
For the spring semester, applications should be completed and returned no later than 



18 



October 15 . Except in emergency, the final date for applying for the fall semester is August 
1 and for the spring semester, January 1 . Application on this last-date basis is primarily for 
nonresident students. 

Wake Forest accepts the Common Application in lieu of its own form and gives equal 
consideration to both. Students may obtain copies of the Common Application from their 
high schools. 

The admission application requires records and recommendations directly from 
secondary school officials. It also requires test scores, preferably from the senior year, on 
the Scholastic Aptitude Test of the College Entrance Examination Board. Accompanying 
achievement tests are optional. All test scores should be sent directly to the University by 
Educational Testing Service. A $25 fee to cover the cost of processing must accompany an 
application. It cannot be applied to later charges for accepted students or refunded for 
others. The University reserves the right to reject any application without explanation. 

A $200 admission deposit is required of all students accepted and must be sent to the 
Office of Admissions no later than May 1 following notice of acceptance. It is credited 
toward first semester fees. Students notified of acceptance after May 1 for the fall semester 
or November 1 for the spring semester should make the admission deposit within two 
weeks of notification. Deposits made after May 1 and November 1 are not refundable. 
Failure to make the admission deposit is taken as cancellation of application by the 
student. No deposit is required for summer session enrollment. 



Early Decision 



An early decision plan is available to well-qualified high school students who decide, by 
the close of their junior year, to apply only to Wake Forest University. An early decision 
agreement is required with the application, which is sent to the Office of Admissions after 
completion of the junior year and not later than November 15 of the senior year. Along 
with the high school record, recommendations, and scores on the Scholastic Aptitude 
Test, at least one achievement test, especially in English composition, is strongly recom- 
mended. 

Candidates for early decision are normally expected to have completed, or be enrolled 
in courses to complete, all the natural science, foreign language, literature, and mathemat- 
ics requirements of the secondary school . Decisions are based upon junior year grades and 
test scores; SATs and achievement tests taken in the fall of the senior year cannot be 
considered for early decision. 

Early decision applicants with completed applications are notified of acceptance on a 
rolling ba sis and not later than December 1 for the fall semester, and the admission deposit 
is required by January 1. Applicants not admitted are asked to submit a senior year 
Scholastic Aptitude Test score and first semester senior year grade record, or are advised 
to apply elsewhere. 

Admission of Handicapped Students 



Wake Forest College will consider the application of any qualified student, regardless of 
handicap, on the basis of the selection criteria established by the University which include 
personal and academic merit. Upon matriculation, all students will be required to meet 



19 



the same standards for graduation. Programs at Wake Forest are accessible to all of its 
students. The University will assist handicapped students in making arrangements to 
meet special needs. Students who seek further information should consult the Office of 
Admissions or the University's equal opportunity officer. 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 



Advanced placement credit for college level work done in high school is available on the 
basis of the Advanced Placement Examination of the College Entrance Examination 
Board and supplementary information. Especially well-qualified applicants for advanced 
standing may also be exempt from some basic and divisional courses with credit on the 
authorization of the department concerned. Credit by advanced standing is treated in the 
same manner as credit transferred from another college. 

Under certain conditions, especially well-prepared applicants may be granted limited 
college credit through the subject tests of the College Level Examination Program (CLEP) 
of the Educational Testing Service. Such credit may be assigned with the approval of the 
department concerned or the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy. 

Admission of Transfer Students 



The number of transfer students who can be admitted each year depends upon the 
availability of space in the freshman (second semester), sophomore, and junior classes. In 
recent years, such space has been very limited. An applicant for admission who has 
attended another college must be a graduate of a standard junior college or furnish a 
certificate of honorable dismissal stating eligibility in all respects to enter the college last 
attended, and must have an overall average of at least C on all college work attempted. A 
student who is admitted from another college before fully meeting the prescribed 
admissions requirements for entering freshmen must remove the entrance conditions 
during the first year at Wake Forest. 

The writing of transfer students is evaluated during the orientation period each 
semester, and students whose writing is deficient are given a composition condition. For 
removal of a composition condition the student is required to take English 1 1 during the first 
semester for which he or she registers following the assignment of the cc. Removal of the 
deficiency is prerequisite to graduation. 

Courses satisfactorily completed in other accredited colleges are accepted subject to 
faculty approval. In general, no credit is allowed for courses not found in the Wake Forest 
curriculum. The minimum residence requirement for a baccalaureate degree is two 
academic years, the senior and one other. 

Expenses 

Statements concerning expenses are not to be regarded as forming an irrevocable contract 
between the student and the University. The costs of instruction and other services 
outlined herein are those in effect on the date of publication of this bulletin, and the 
University reserves the right to change without notice the cost of instruction and other 
services at any time. 



20 



An admission deposit of $200, which is applied toward tuition and fees for the semester 
for which the student has been accepted, is required to complete admission. Charges are 
due in full on August 1 for the fall semester and December 15 for the spring semester. 
Faculty regulations require that student accounts be settled in full before the student is 
entitled to receive a grade report, transcript, or diploma, or to register for the following 
semester or term. 

Tuition 

Per Semester Per Year 

Full-time (twelve or more credits) $6,500 $13,000 

Part-time $370 per credit 

Students should expect an average increase of about eight percent yearly in tuition. 
However, admittance to the undergraduate college is not based on financial resources. 
The University meets the demonstrated financial needs of all qualified students. 

Students enrolled in the College or in the School of Business and Accountancy for full- 
time residencecreditareentitled to full privileges regarding libraries, laboratories, athletic 
contests, concerts, publications, the Student Union, the University Theater, and the health 
service. Part-time students are entitled to the use of the libraries and laboratories but not 
to the other privileges mentioned above. They may secure a part-time student ID card, 
admissions to games and concerts, and publications by paying an activity fee of $160 per 
semester. 



Room Charges 



Per Semester Per Year 

Double occupancy $950 $1,900 

Most rooms available for first-year students are $950 per semester. Other room rentals 
range from $765 to $1,235. 

Food Services 

A cafeteria and table service dining room are located in Reynolda Hall; there is a food court 
in the Benson University Center. Board plans are available which range from $1,440 to 
$2,350 per year. The format of these plans is a credit card system in which the student is 
charged only for the amount of food purchased at the time it is purchased. The plan may 
be used at any University food services facility, and it allows a great deal of flexibility for 
eating off campus. 

Freshmen living in residence halls are required to participate in both the fall and spring semesters 
in one of the board plans. 



21 



Other Charges 

Admissionapplicationfeeof$25is required with each application for admission to cover the 
cost of processing and is nonrefundable. 

Admission deposit of $200 is required of each student entering for the first time or returning 
after a period of non-attendance and must be sent to the director of admissions. The 
deposit is credited to the student's charges for the semester for which he or she has been 
accepted for admission. 

Applied music fees are required in addition to tuition for students enrolling for individual 
study in applied music in the Department of Music and are payable in the controller's 
office. The fee for one credit per semester is $110; for more than one credit per semester, 
$175. 

Hospital charges, made when the student is confined to the Student Health Service, are 
$75 per day. Additional charges are made for medications, laboratory tests, and special 
supplies. Students must have hospital insurance. A group plan is available through the 
University for those not covered by a family plan. A $2 charge is added to overdue bills. 

Late registration fee of $10 is charged to students registering after the dates set by the 
faculty. 

Library fines are charged for lost books and for violation of other library regulations and 
are payable in the library. 

A tuition deposit of $200 is required, at a date set by the Office of the Controller, of students 
enrolled in the spring semester who expect to return for the fall semester. It is credited to 
the student's University charges and is refunded if the controller is notified in writing 
prior to June 1 that the student will not return. 

Room change fee of $25 is charged for any unauthorized change. 

Motor vehicle registration is $60 and traffic fines are $10 to $50. All students operating a 
vehicle on campus (including student apartments, theme, and satellite houses) must 
register vehicles they are operating day or night, whether or not owned by the operator. 
All vehicle registrations must be completed within twenty-four hours from the first time 
the vehicle is brought to campus or the next business day. Proof of ownership must be 
presented when applying for vehicle registration. Fines are assessed against students 
violating parking regulations; copies of the violations are obtainable from the Office of 
Parking Management in the University security office. 

Transcripts of a student's record are issued at a cost of $2 each. 

Refunds 

During the academic year, all students, full-time and part-time, receive tuition refunds 
according to the following schedule. This policy applies to students dropping courses as 
well as those withdrawing. Withdrawals must be official and students must return their 
ID cards before claiming refunds. There is no refund of room rent or parking decals that have 
been placed on vehicles. 



22 



Number of Weeks Attendance Percentage of Total Tuition 

(Including first day of registration) to be Refunded 

1 week Total tuition less $200 

2 weeks 75 percent 

3 weeks 50 percent 

4 weeks 25 percent 

Fees for applied lessons in the Department of Music will be refunded on the following 
basis: If a student drops the course before the seventh lesson, the fee will be one-fourteenth 
the full semester's instruction fee times the number of lessons the student has had. There 
is no refund after the seventh lesson. 

Housing 

All unmarried first-year students are required to live in residence halls, except (1) when 
permission is given by the dean of student services for the student to live with parents or 
a relative in the Winston-Salem area or (2) by special arrangement when space is not 
available on campus or (3) if the student has lost residence hall space because of a room 
contract violation or disciplinary action. Fifth-year students and part-time students are 
ineligible for housing except when permitted to do so by the director of residence life and 
housing. Married students are not usually allowed to live in residence halls except when 
permitted to do so by the director of residence life and housing. Residence halls and 
apartments are supervised by the director of residence life and housing, associate 
directors of residence life and housing, assistant directors of residence life and housing, 
and residence hall directors. 

The charges for residence hall rooms for 1993-94 will range from approximately $1,530 
per year for a triple room to $2,470 for a single room in an air-conditioned building. These 
rates will vary depending upon the building to which a student is assigned. 

Academic Calendar 

The academic calendar of the College and the School of Business and Accountancy 
includes a fall semester ending before Christmas, a spring semester beginning in January 
and ending in May, and two five-week summer sessions. Semesters usually last fifteen 
weeks. 

Orientation and Advising 



A four-day orientation period for new students in the College precedes registration for the 
fall semester. A faculty adviser and an upperclass student provide guidance during and 
between registration periods throughout the student's freshman and sophomore years. 
Advisers meet with students both individually and in small groups. Students are 
encouraged to take the initiative in arranging additional meetings at any time they feel a 
need for advice or other assistance. The adviser suggests and approves courses of 
instruction until the student declares a major in a field of study toward the end of the 



23 



sophomore year. At that time, a new adviser is assigned from the department or 
departments concerned. 



Registration 



A registration period for all students in the College and the School of Business and 
Accountancy opens the fall semester and the spring semester. Registration involves (1) 
payment of all tuition and fees in full to the controller, (2) obtaining a summary of prior 
record from the registrar, (3) consultation with the academic adviser, and (4) sectioning 
into courses. In certain semesters, part of the process is accomplished ahead of time 
through preregistration. 

Classification 

Classification of students by class standing and as full-time or part-time is calculated in 
terms of credits. Most courses in the College and the School of Business and Accountancy 
have a value of four credits, but others vary from one credit to five. The normal load for 
a full-time student is eighteen credits per semester, with a maximum of twenty permitted 
on registration day. A student wishing to register for more than twenty credits per 
semester must seek the permission of the appropriate dean or the Committee on 
Academic Affairs after registration day. 

Twelve credits per semester constitute minimum full-time registration. (Recipients of 
North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants must be enrolled by the tenth day of cla sses for 
at least fourteen credits each semester. Recipients of veterans' benefits, grants from state 
government, and other governmental aid must meet the guidelines of the appropriate 
agencies.) A student may not register for fewer than twelve credits without specific 
permission from the Committee on Academic Affairs to register as a part-time student. 

A full-time student in the fall semester of any year may not be a part-time student in the 
spring semester immediately following. Any student who petitions for part-time status 
within the semester in which he or she wishes to gain such status is not eligible for a tuition 
refund. 

The requirements for classification after the freshman year are as follows: sophomore — 
the removal of all entrance conditions and the completion of no fewer than 29 credits 
toward a degree, with a minimum of 58 grade points; junior — the completion of no fewer 
than 60 credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 120 grade points; senior — no fewer 
than 108 credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 216 grade points. 

Qass Attendance 

Attendance regulations place the responsibility for class attendance on the student, who 
is expected to attend classes regularly and punctually. A vital aspect of the residential 
college experience is attendance in the classroom; its value cannot be measured by testing 
procedures alone. Students are considered sufficiently mature to appreciate the necessity 
of regular attendance, to accept this personal responsibility, to demonstrate the self- 
discipline essential for such performance, and to recognize and accept the consequences 
of failure to attend. Students who cause their work or that of the class to suffer because of 



24 



absence or lateness may be referred by the instructor to the dean of the College or to the 
dean of the School of Business and Accountancy for suitable action. Any student who does 
not attend classes regularly or who demonstrates other evidence of academic irresponsi- 
bility is subject to such disciplinary action as the Committee on Academic Affairs may 
prescribe, including immediate suspension from the College or from the School of 
Business and Accountancy. 

The Office of the Dean of the College maintains a list of students who have missed class 
while acting as duly authorized representatives of the College. Such absences are 
considered excused and a record of them is available to the student's instructors upon 
request. The instructor determines whether work missed may be made up. For policies 
pertaining to absences resulting from illness, please see the statement on the Student 
Health Service and class excuses in the Student Handbook. 



Auditing Courses 



When space is available after the registration of regularly enrolled students, others may 
request permission of the instructor to enter the course as auditors. No additional charge 
is made to full-time students in the College or the School of Business and Accountancy; 
for others the fee is $80 per course. Permission of the appropriate dean, as well as mat of 
the instructor, is required. An auditor is subject to attendance regulations and to other 
conditions imposed by the instructor. Although an auditor receives no credit, a notation 
of audit is made on the final grade report and entered on the record of regularly enrolled 
students who have met the instructor's requirements. In no case may anyone register for 
an audit course before the first meeting of the class. An audit course may not be changed 
to a credit course, and a credit course may not be changed to an audit course. 

Dropping a Course 

The last day in each term for dropping a class without a grade of F is listed in the calendar 
in the front of this bulletin. A student who wishes to drop any course before this date must 
obtain the necessary form from the registrar and confer with his or her faculty adviser. 
After this date, a student who wishes to drop a course must consult his or her faculty 
adviser, the course instructor, and the dean of the College or the dean of the School of 
Business and Accountancy, as appropriate. If the dean approves the request, he or she 
authorizes the student to discontinue the course. Except in cases of emergency, the grade 
in the course will be recorded as F. 

If, at any time, a student drops any course without prior written approval of the 
appropriate dean, the student will be subject to such penalties as the Committee on 
Academic Affairs of the faculty may impose. 

Withdrawal from the College 



A student who finds it necessary to withdraw from the College or the School of Business 
and Accountancy must do so through the office of the appropriate dean. With the 
approval of the dean of the College or the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, 
no grades are recorded for the student for that semester, but the student's standing in 



25 



courses at the time of the withdrawal may be taken into consideration when readmission 
is sought. If withdrawal is for academic reasons, failing grades may be assigned in all 
courses in which the student is doing unsatisfactory work. A student who leaves the 
College or the School of Business and Accountancy without officially withdrawing is 
assigned failing grades in all current courses, and the unofficial withdrawal is recorded. 

Examinations 

Final examinations are given at regularly scheduled times. All examinations are con- 
ducted in accordance with the honor system adopted by the student body and approved 
by the faculty. Under it, the student is expected to refrain from unfairness in any form and 
to report to the Honor Council any student whom he or she knows to be cheating. 

Grading 

For most courses carrying undergraduate credit, there are five final and two conditional 
grades: A (exceptionally high achievement), B (superior), C (satisfactory), D (passing but 
unsatisfactory), E (conditional failure), F (failure), and I (incomplete). 

Grade ofE. The grade of E entitles the student to reexamination at any regular examina- 
tion period within a year, or during the first week of the fall semester. A permit for 
reexamination must be obtained in advance from the registrar, and no grade higher than 
D may be assigned as a result of reexamination. A student who does not remove a 
conditional failure by reexamination must repeat the course to obtain credit for it. 

A candidate for graduation in the final semester who has received a grade of E in the 
previous semester may apply to the registrar for reexamination thirty days after the 
opening of the final semester but no later than thirty days before its close. All conditions, 
including the grade of E, must be removed no later than thirty days before the end of the 
term in which the student graduates. The name of a candidate who has a condition after 
that date is dropped from the list of candidates. A candidate who receives a grade of E in 
the final semester or term of the graduation year is not allowed reexamination before the 
next examination period. 

Grade of I. The grade of I may be assigned only when a student fails to complete the 
work of a course because of illness or some other emergency. If the work recorded as I is 
not completed within thirty days after the student enters for his or her next semester, the 
grade automatically becomes F. The instructor must report the final grade to the registrar 
within forty-five days after the beginning of that semester. 

Grade Points. Grades are assigned grade points for the computation of academic 
averages, class standing, and eligibility for continuation, as follows: for each credit of A, 
four points; for each credit of B, three points; for each credit of C, two points; for each credit 
of D, one point; for each credit of E or F, no points. 

Pass/Fail. To encourage students to venture into fields outside their major areas of 
competence and concentration, the undergraduate schools make available the option, 
under certain conditions, of registering in courses on a pass/fail basis rather than for a 
letter grade. Courses taken under the pass/fail option yield full credit when satisfactorily 
completed but, whether passed or not, they are not computed in the grade-point average. 
In no case may a student change from grade to pass/fail mode, or from pass/fail to grade 
mode, after the last day to add a course, listed in the calendar at the front of this bulletin. 



26 



A student may count toward the degree no more than twenty-four credits taken on a 
pass/fail basis. Freshmen and sophomores are not eligible to elect the pass/fail mode, but 
may enroll for courses offered only on a pass/fail basis. Juniors and seniors may elect as 
many as sixteen credits on a pass/fail basis, but no more than five credits in a given 
semester. Courses used to fulfill basic, divisional, or major requirements may not be taken 
on a pass/fail basis unless they are offered only on that basis. Courses in the major(s) not 
used for satisfying major requirements may be taken on a pass/ fail basis if the department 
of the major does not specify otherwise. 



Grade Reports and Transcripts 



A mid -term report and a final report of grades are issued to students by the registrar in the 
fall and spring semesters. A final report of grades is issued for each summer term. 

Copies of a student's cumulative record are issued by the registrar, but only on the 
written authorization of the student and payment of $2 per transcript. 

Dean's List 

The Dean's List is issued at the end of the fall and spring semesters. It includes all full-time 
students in the College and the School of Business and Accountancy who have a grade- 
point average of 3.0 or better for the semester and who have earned no grade below C 
during the semester. 

Graduation Distinctions 



Graduation distinctions are determined by the grade-point system. A degree candidate 
with a cumulative average of not less than 3.80 for all courses attempted is graduated with 
the distinction summa cum laude. A candidate with a cumulative average of not less than 
3.50 for all courses attempted is graduated with the distinction magna cum laude. A 
candidate with a cumulative average of not less than 3.00 for all courses attempted is 
graduated with \he distinction cum laude. The entire record of a student is considered, with 
the understanding that a student offering transfer work for credit may receive no 
distinction which requires a grade-point average greater than that earned at Wake Forest 
University. Details are available in the Office of the Registrar. 

Repetition of Courses 

A student may not repeat a course in which he or she has received a grade of C or higher. 
A student may, however, repeat at Wake Forest a Wake Forest course for which he or she 
has received a grade of D or F. In this case, all grades received will be shown on the 
transcript, but the course maybe counted only one time for credit. If a student fails a course 
previously passed, the credit originally earned will not be lost. For purposes of determin- 
ing the grade-point average, a course will be considered as attempted only once, and the 
grade points assigned will reflect the highest grade received. These provisions do not 
apply to any course for which the student has received the grade of F in consequence of 
an honor violation. 



27 



Probation 

Any student who is placed on probation because of honor code or conduct code violations 
may be placed on such special academic probation as the Committee on Academic Affairs 
imposes. The Committee on Academic Affairs may at any time suspend or place on 
probation any student who has given evidence of academic irresponsibility, as, for 
example, by failing to attend class regularly or to complete papers, examinations, or other 
work on time. 

If poor academic performance is attributable to circumstances over which the student 
clearly had no control (e.g., serious injury or illness), the student may, after consultation 
with one of the academic deans, petition the Committee on Academic Affairs for further 
consideration of his or her status. 

In deciding whether to permit exceptions to the foregoing eligibility requirements, the 
Committee on Academic Affairs will take into account such factors as convictions for 
violations of the College honor code or social conduct code, violations of the law, and any 
other behavior demonstrating disrespect for the rights of others. 

Any student convicted of violating the honor code is ineligible to represent the 
University in any way until the period of suspension or probation is completed and the 
student is returned to good standing. Students who are on probation for any reason may 
not be initiated into any fraternity, society, or sorority until the end of their probationary 
period. 

Under the law, the University has the right to inform parents of dependent students and 
certain other qualified individuals of the contents of educational records. 

Requirements for Acceptable Academic Standing 



Students are expected to be aware at all times of their academic status and to be responsible 
for knowing whether they have met the minimum academic requirements for continua- 
tion in the undergraduate schools of the University. The committee of the faculty which 
oversees the academic progress of students is the Committee on Academic Affairs. 

Whether a student is academically eligible to continue is determined by the number of 
course credits accumulated and the grade-point average. The number of credits accumu- 
lated is the sum of the credits transferred from other institutions and the credits earned in 
the undergraduate schools of the University. The grade-point average is computed only 
on work attempted in the undergraduate schools of the University and excludes both non- 
credit and pass/ fail courses. 

To be considered in acceptable academic standing, a student is expected to: 

a. accumulate at least 24 credits during each 12-month period the student is 
enrolled; 

b. accumulate at least 8 credits each semester which fulfill basic or divisional 
requirements, until all of these requirements have been satisfied; 

c. achieve a grade-point average of at least 

1) 1 .45 if between 1 and 36 credits have been accumulated; 

2) 1.60 if between 37 and 72 credits have been accumulated; 

3) 1 .75 if between 73 and 108 credits have been accumulated; 

4) 1 .90 if more than 108 credits have been accumulated. 



28 



A student whose academic standing is unacceptable for a continuous period of two 
semesters and one summer (in any order) is ineligible to continue. 

Any student who is in academic difficulty is strongly urged to seek advice and counsel 
from the Office of the Dean, the Office of Learning Assistance, the Counseling Center, 
and/or the student's academic adviser. 

Any student suspended from the University for failing to maintain an acceptable 
academic standing has the right to petition the Committee on Academic Affairs, through 
the Office of the Dean of the College, for reconsideration. The Committee will base a 
decision to allow the student to continue on whether there were adverse circumstances, 
such as a prolonged illness, over which the student had no control. If such is the case, the 
Committee will expect the student to demonstrate that he/she made every effort to 
maintain acceptable academic standing in spite of circumstances. 

A student whose petition for reconsideration is granted or who is readmitted after 
academic suspension and who fails in a period prescribed by the Committee on Academic 
Affairs to achieve acceptable academic standing is ineligible to continue. 

A student who ha s or develops a health problem which, in the judgment of the director 
of the Student Health Service, creates a danger to the safety and well-being of the student 
or others may be required to withdraw until the problem is resolved. 



Requirements for Readmission 



The Committee on Academic Affairs oversees the readmission of former students. In 
making a decision on whether to readmit, the Committee considers both the academic and 
non-academic record of the student. Academic grounds for denying readmission are 
based upon evidence of irresponsible academic performance. Students who have been 
ineligible to continue for academic reasons must present to the Committee a list of steps 
they plan to take to raise their academic standing to acceptable standards. Non-academic 
grounds for denial may include convictions for violations of the honor system or the social 
conduct code, for violations of the law, and for other behavior showing disrespect for the 
rights of others. 

Summer Study 

In addition to regular courses, a number of special summer programs for credit are 
described in the bulletin of the summer session. 

In order to be eligible to take summer courses at another college or university, the 
student must have a cumulative grade-point average of no less than 2.0, and must obtain 
advance approval of the head of the department concerned, the registrar, and in some 
cases, the office of the dean of Wake Forest College or the dean of the School of Business 
and Accountancy. Courses taken elsewhere on the semester-hour plan are computed as 
transfer credit at 1.125 credits for each approved semester hour. 

Courses taken outside the U.S. require, in addition, prior approval from the Office of 
International Studies. Students must obtain a transfer of credit form from the Office of 
International Studies. 



29 



Transfer Credit 



All work attempted in other colleges and universities must be reported to the registrar of 
Wake Forest University. Students wishing to receive transfer credit for work to be 
undertaken elsewhere musthave a cumulative grade-point average of no less than 2.0and 
must obtain faculty approval in advance. If a student plans to seek approval for transfer 
courses after the completion of the sophomore year, such courses must be taken in an 
approved four-year institution. 

Students who wish to receive transfer of credit for courses taken outside the U.S., need 
to obtain prior approval from the Office of International Studies and then faculty 
approval. Transfer of credit forms are available in the Office of International Studies. 

Students should be aware that the minimum grade-point average for graduation and 
for graduation distinctions is computed in two ways: on all work attempted in Wake 
Forest College and the School of Business and Accountancy; and also on work attempted 
at Wake Forest and other accredited colleges and universities collectively. 




Win-Chiat Lee, associate professcr of philosophy and coordinator of Asian Studies 




Scholarships and Loans 




Any student regularly admitted to Wake Forest College who demonstrates 
financial need will receive assistance commensurate with that need. 
. By regulation of the Board of Trustees, all financial aid must be approved by 
the Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid. Applications should be requested from 
the committee at Box 7246 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109. 
Scholarships supported by funds of the undergraduate schools are not granted to students 
enrolled in other schools of the University. To receive consideration for financial aid, the 
applicant must either be enrolled as an undergraduate or have been accepted for 
admission. The financial aid program comprises institutional, state, and federal scholar- 
ship, loan, and work funds. Students enrolled at least half-time are eligible to apply for 
federal funds. Half-time and part-time students are eligible to apply for limited institu- 
tional funds. 

The University offers a number of scholarships based upon merit. Those with a stipend 
based upon tuition will increase as tuition increases; those with a dollar stipend remain 
fixed for the four years of enrollment. 

Need is a factor in the awarding of most financial aid, and each applicant must file an 
annual financial statement with the application for financial aid. After reviewing the 
standard financial analysis, the Committee on Scholarships determines aid awards, and 
aid is credited, by semester, to the student's account in the Office of the Controller. The 
calculation of need, and therefore the amount of an award, may vary from year to year. 
The Committee on Scholarships reserves the right to revoke financial aid for unsatisfac- 
tory academic achievement or for violation of University regulations or federal, state, or 
local laws. To be eligible for renewal of aid, a student must remain enrolled on a normal 
full-time basis and be in good standing, making satisfactory progress toward a degree. 
The committee does not award institutional scholarships to students earning less than a 
2.0 grade average on all work attempted at Wake Forest. 

Scholarships 

The Reynolds Scholarships are awarded each year to five extraordinarily capable men and 
women entering the College as first-year students. Made possible through a grant from 
the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation in honor of Nancy Susan Reynolds, these scholarships 
cover the cost of tuition, room, and board, and include an allowance for books and 
personal expenses. Scholars may receive up to $1,500 each summer for travel or study 
projects approved by the Reynolds Committee. The Reynolds Scholarships are awarded 
without regard to financial need and will be renewed annually through the recipient's 
fourth year of college, subject to satisfactory performance. A separate application is 
required by December 1. 

The Graylyn Scholarship provides two to three undergraduate renewable one-half year 
tuition merit scholarships, two to three Bowman Gray School of Medicine renewable 
$6,000 merit scholarships, and one School of Law renewable $1,000 merit scholarship to 
students who demonstrate outstanding evidence of academic leadership and commit- 
ment to campus life. 



31 



The O. W. Wilson Scholarship, created under the will of O. W. Wilson of Yancey County, 
N.C V is awarded to an individual who demonstrates outstanding qualities of intellectual 
promise and leadership. The scholarship has a value equivalent to annual tuition and 
provides summer grant opportunities to encourage individual study projects. No sepa- 
rate application is required. 

The Doctor George E. and Lila C. Bradford Fund awards a renewable full-tuition academic 
scholarship annually to a student possessing outstanding leadership and aptitude who 
intends to pursue a pre-medical course of study. No separate application is required. 

The Guy T. Carswell Scholarships, made possible by and established in honor of the late 
Guy T. Carswell and his wife Clara Carswell of Charlotte, N.C., have an annual value 
ranging from a minimum stipend of $4,500 to a maximum stipend of $1 5,200, with awards 
for more than $4,000 determined on the basis of need. Each scholar may apply for at least 
one summer grant of up to $1,000 to fund travel and study projects of the student's design . 
A Carswell scholar must be a student applying to the College who possesses outstanding 
qualities of intellect and leadership. Up to forty scholars are selected annually. A separate 
application is due by January 15. 

The Presidential Scholarships forDistinguishedAchievement,estab]ishedby\he\Jtuversity's 
alumni, award twenty renewable $4,500 scholarships on the basis of exceptional talent 
and leadership. Candidates must be students who will enrich and add to the diversity of 
life at Wake Forest through their special talents in the areas of the fine arts (including 
music, art, theater, dance, film, and other arts), debate and public speaking, writing, 
leadership, public service, and entrepreneurial achievement. A separate application must 
be submitted by December 15. 

The Joseph Gordon and Wake Forest Black Student Scholarships, established by endowment 
from the University's Sesquicentennial Fund and gifts from the Z. Smith Reynolds 
Foundation, recognize the outstanding achievements of black students and are awarded 
each year to entering freshmen who demonstrate academic promise and leadership 
potential. This program provides seven full-tuition scholarships and three $2,000 per year 
scholarships. All scholarships are renewable annually through the recipient's fourth year. 
Awards are made without regard to financial need. A separate application is required by 
January 15. 

Wake Forest Honor Scholarships provide an annual renewable grant of $3,000 to students 
who apply for the Reynolds or Carswell Scholarships and who demonstrate exceptional 
academic ability and leadership. 

The George Foster Hankins Scholarships, made possible by the late Colonel George Foster 
Hankins of Lexington, N.C., for residents of North Carolina or children of alumni living 
in other states with preference given to residents of Davidson County, have an annual 
value of up to $16,650. Recipients must demonstrate need as well as academic promise. A 
separate application is due by January 15. 

The Robert P. and Dorothy Caldwell Scholarships, given by family and friends of Robert P. 
and Dorothy Caldwell, provide up to three scholarships annually on the basis of 
outstanding academic achievement, demonstrated leadership ability, record of commu- 
nity service, and a commitment to helping others. A portion of these funds gives 
preference to students from Gaston and Catawba (N.C) counties who need assistance in 
order to attend Wake Forest. 



32 



The Holding Scholarship, provided by a gift from the Robert P. Holding Foundation in 
memory of Mr. Holding, a member of the Class of 1916, offers one full tuition renewable 
scholarship annually to a student of exceptional leadership and academic promise, who 
is in residence at least one year in North Carolina. Separate application is not required, but 
the student must complete an application for either the Nancy Susan Reynolds or 
Carswell Scholarship. 

The Junius C. and Eliza P. Brown Scholarships are designed to recognize excellence among 
North Carolina students demonstrating financial need in order to attend Wake Forest. 
Preference for selection is given first to students from the Madison area of Rockingham 
County, second to students from the Reidsville area of Rockingham County, and third to 
other applicants from Rockingham County. A separate application is due by January 15. 

For all the following scholarships, there is no separate application required except 
where noted. Students who complete the normal application for financial aid, includ- 
ing the Wake Forest application and an FAF (Financial Aid Form), will be considered 
for appropriate scholarships. 

The Alcoa Foundation Scholarship, donated by the Alcoa Foundation, is available to a 
freshman from the Piedmont area of North Carolina who is majoring in chemistry. The 
scholarship has a value of $2,000 and is awarded on the basis of need. 

The Charles I. and Louise Allen Scholarship Fund, established under the will of Louise 
Lambeth Allen, is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student who may be 
interested in pursuing a medical career. 

The Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) Scholarships are awarded for aca- 
demic and personal achievement. These four-, three-, and two-year scholarships annually 
pay: (1) $8,000 or 80% of tuition, whichever is higher; (2) a flat rate for texts, equipment, 
and supplies (presently $450); (3) a subsistence allowance of up to $1,000 ($100 per month 
for the months spent in school); and (4) up to a maximum amount (presently $400) for 
certain required on-campus educational and laboratory fees. All benefits are tax-free. 
Recipients must enroll and fully participate in Army ROTC. Four-year AROTC scholar- 
ships are applied for during the latter part of the junior or the early part of the senior year 
of high school. Two- and three-year AROTC scholarships are applied for during the 
sophomore and freshman years, respectively, through the Department of Military 
Science. 

The Arthur Andersen Accounting Leadership Award is presented to a senior accounting 
major who has demonstrated excellence in the areas of academic performance, leadership, 
and civic /community responsibility. 

The Teresa Mae Arnold Scholarship is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student 
enrolled in Wake Forest College. 

The Camillo Artom Fund for Italian Studies was established in 1976 in honor of Camillo 
Artom, professor of biochemistry from 1939 to 1969. Scholarship aid is made available, 
usually to one or two students each semester, to assist with their expenses. Well-qualified 
students who can demonstrate need are eligible to apply. (Interested persons should 
apply to the Office of the Provost.) 



33 



The Donald A. Baur Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of leadership, dedica- 
tion, competitiveness, and citizenship, with preference given to members of Delta Nu 
Chapter, Sigma Chi Fraternity. 

TheBeach Scholarship, established in memory of the Reverend Benjamin Beach, provides 
funding for the Poteat Scholarship winner from the congressional district encompassing 
Caldwell County, N.C. 

The George M. and Daisy Olive Beavers Scholarship Fund, donated by Lydia Beavers in 
memory of her parents, is for one scholarship awarded on the basis of leadership, good 
citizenship, and excellence of character. 

The J. Irvin Biggs Scholarship is awarded to needy and deserving undergraduates, with 
preference given to students from Lumberton or Robeson County, North Carolina. 

The Charles Spurgeon and Inez Black Scholarship provides one annual scholarship to that 
chemistry major having the second highest academic record in the given year. 

The Robert D. Bridgerjr. Scholarship, donated by George R. Bridger in honor of his father, 
is made to a senior major in the School of Business and Accountancy. Selection of the 
recipient is based on demonstrated academic ability and financial need, with preference 
given to students from Bladen County or southeastern North Carolina. 

The Claude U. Broach Scholarship is awarded to a freshman or upperclassman with 
preference given to students from St. John's Baptist Church of Charlotte. 

The J.Melville and Alice W. Broughton Scholarship Fund, established in honor of Governor, 
Senator, and Wake Forest Trustee J. Melville Broughton and his wife, Alice W. Broughton, 
by the Broughton family of Raleigh, N.C, awards one scholarship annually to a North 
Carolina student on the basis of academic ability and financial need. 

The Dean D. B. Bryan Memorial Scholarship Fund was established in honor of D. B. Bryan, 
dean of Wake Forest College from 1923 to 1957. It awards a partial or full-tuition 
scholarship to a student who plans to pursue a career in education, and who demonstrates 
financial need and academic ability. The recipient must pledge to work in the education 
field for a minimum of five years following graduation or must repay the scholarship to 
the University. 

The Lib and Joyner Burns Scholarship is awarded on thebasisof both ability and need, with 
preference given first to students having a physical handicap and second to students from 
Forsyth or Guilford County, N.C. 

The Jack Buchanan Scholarship is awarded on the basis of financial need and academic 
ability, with preference given to students from western North Carolina planning a 
business major. 

The John Douglas Cannon Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
need. 

The J. G. Carroll Memorial Athletic Scholarship, donated in memory of J. G. Carroll, former 
associate professor of mathematics, is made to a deserving athlete who is not on a regular 
athletic scholarship, for a value of approximately $100. 

The James Lee Carver Scholarship, donated by Jean Freeman Carver with her children, 
James Lee Carver II and Elizabeth Jeanine Carver, in memory of her husband, James Lee 
Carver, is for deserving and promising students who demonstrate a need for financial 
assistance, with preference given to students from the Oxford Orphanage in Oxford, N.C. 



34 



The J. D. Cave Memorial Scholarship is awarded to a North Carolina male student who 
demonstrates strong character, a willingness to grow intellectually, and evidence of need, 
for an approximate annual value of $600. 

The Neal M. Chastain Memorial Scholarship, established by Mrs. June Booth of Charlotte 
in memory of her son, is awarded to a senior business major exhibiting Christian ideals 
and good academic achievement. 

The Wake Forest College Scholarships, in the amount of $100 to $10,800 each, are available 
to freshmen and upperclassmen presenting satisfactory academic records and evidence 
of need. 

The William Henry Crouch Scholarship for ministerial students has been established by the 
Providence Baptist Church of Charlotte in honor of its pastor. The scholarship is valued 
at $3,000 per year and is available for a North Carolina Baptist ministerial student or 
students based upon merit or need. 

The O. B. Crowell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donated by Louise T. Crowell of 
Hendersonville, N.C, in memory of her husband, O. B. Crowell, is awarded on the basis 
of character, need, and promise. 

The Gary Franklin Culler Scholarship Fund, donated in memory of Gary Franklin Culler, 
is awarded on the basis of academic ability and outstanding leadership potential, with 
preference given to students from High Point, N.C. 

The Egbert L. Davis Jr. Scholarship, provided by the Davis family in honor of Egbert L. 
Davis Jr., noted Wake Forest alumnus and benefactor, provides merit and need assistance 
to one or more students demonstrating outstanding academic performance, diligence, 
integrity, character, leadership, and reasonable athletic competence. Awards are renew- 
able on the basis of a B average, exemplary personal conduct, and participation in the 
religious life of the University. 

The Eleanor Layfield Davis Art Scholarship Fund awards a scholarship to a student with 
interest and ability in studio art, who has been recommended by the chair of the art 
department, to exemplify the talents and interests of Eleanor Layfield Davis. 

The Thomas H. Davis Business Scholarship, established by employees of the former 
Piedmont Aviation Inc. in honor of its founder and retired chair, is awarded to a senior 
business major based on academic achievement, financial need, and potential for business 
leadership. 

The Elizabeth S. Drake Scholarship is awarded to an English major who demonstrates 
academic ability and financial need, upon the recommendation of the chair of the English 
department. 

The A. J. Fletcher Music Scholars Program, established by the A. J. Fletcher Foundation, 
awards eight scholarships annually. All awards are based on musical merit. Applications 
must be made to the Department of Music. 

The Bobbie Fletcher Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
uncommon leadership qualities to a female student from North Carolina. Recipients will 
possess the qualities of kindness, thoughtfulness, unselfishness, patience, and determina- 
tion which distinguished Bobbie Fletcher. Preference will be given to students demon- 
strating financial need. 

The Lecausey P. and Lula H. Freeman Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. G. H. Singleton 
of Raleigh, in memory of the parents of Mrs. Singleton, is available to a freshman, 
sophomore, or junior whose home is within the West Chowan Baptist Association of 



35 



North Carolina, with preference given to Bertie County students, on the basis of need and 
ability. Residents of the Roanoke Association may be considered for the scholarship. 

The Wallace G. Freemon Memorial Scholarship is awarded to premedical students in Wake 
Forest College. 

The Charles A. Frueauff Scholarships are provided annually by the Charles A. Frueauff 
Foundation for middle-income students who live outside North Carolina. Amounts vary 
according to need. 

The F. Lee Fulton Scholarship Fund, established by friends and associates of F. Lee Fulton, 
is awarded on the basis of leadership, citizenship, moral character, academic ability, and 
need. 

The Gaddy Scholarship Fund awards a need-based scholarship each year to a North 
Carolina student, with preference given to residents of Anson, Union, and Wake counties. 

The Lewis Reed Gaskin Scholarship Fund, established by E. Reed Gaskin and Jean H. 
Gaskin in honor of Lewis Reed Gaskin, is awarded to a freshman or upperclassman with 
preference given to a premedical student. The award shall be made on the basis of 
academic ability and potential as a physician. Recipients shall be known as Lewis Reed 
Gaskin scholars. 

The Daniel Eugene and Beulah B. Gatewood Scholarship in Accountancy, given by Beulah B. 
Gatewood in honor of her husband, is awarded to an undergraduate accounting major 
based on academic merit and financial need. 

The A. Royall Gay Scholarship is awarded on the basis of scholarship, character, and high 
ideals. Preference is given to graduating seniors from Youngsville, N.C 

The James W. Gill Scholarship, donated by Ruth R. Gill in memory of her husband, James 
W. Gill, provides a scholarship for a deserving student, with preference given to students 
from Montgomery and Prince Georges counties, Md. 

The Eugene Basil Glover Memorial Scholarship is awarded to an incoming or enrolled 
student based on ability and need, with slight preference given to students from Halifax 
County, N.C. 

The Wallace Barger Goebel Scholarship, made possible through a donation from Miriam M. 
Goebel, is based upon ability and financial need, with first preference given to a student 
with an interest in literature, second preference to a student with an interest in history, and 
third preference to a student enrolled in the pre-medical program. 

The Stanley McClayton Guthrie Scholarship Fund awards one scholarship each year to a 
needy student, with preference given to students from Halifax County, Va. 

The Fuller Hamrick Scholarship, created under the will of Everett C. Snyder of Wake 
Forest, N.C, in memory of Fuller Hamrick, is used to educate students from the Mills 
Home in Thomasville, N.C 

The George G. and Georgeine M. Harper Charitable Trust awards scholarships of varying 
stipends annually to students with high academic potential and financial need, with 
preference to a North Carolinian. 

The Henry Russell and Clara Stephenson Harris Scholarship Fund, established by Elizabeth 
Harris in memory of her parents, provides a scholarship awarded on the basis of academic 
ability and financial need to a senior business major who plans to pursue a career in 
banking. 



36 



The M. Elizabeth Harris Music Scholarship Fund provides an annual scholarship for a 
music major, with preference given to a student whose primary interest is church music. 
The award is made on the basis of academic ability and financial need. 

The Margaret S. Hasty Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Judge Fred H. Hasty in 
memory and honor of his beloved wife, is for one or more female undergraduate 
student(s) with good academic ability and financial need. The scholarship is renewable if 
the student places in the upper third of her class. 

The Louise Patton Hearn Scholarship for Human Service is awarded to a student who has 
demonstrated exceptional service to improve the well-being of other people and who 
shows interest and potential in leading others to make similar contributions to humanity. 

The Frank P. Hobgood Scholarship, donated by Kate H. Hobgood of Reidsville, N.C., in 
memory of her husband, is available to those who qualify on the basis of character, 
purpose, intelligence, and need, with preference given to those who plan to enter the 
ministry, do religious work, become teachers, or become lawyers, the preference being in 
the order named, for the residents of the Reidsville area recommended by the deacons of 
the First Baptist Church of Reidsville. 

The W. D. and Alberta B. Holleman Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Robert D. 
Holleman in memory of his parents, is awarded on the basis of academic ability, need, 
Christian commitment, and leadership to a student from Durham County. 

TheForrest H Hollifield Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Hollifield in memory 
of their son, Forrest H. Hollifield, is awarded to upperclassmen with evidence of character 
and need, with preference given to natives of Rowan and Rutherford counties, N.C., and 
to members of the Delta Nu Chapter of Sigma Chi Fraternity. 

The Jeanette Wallace Hyde Scholarship, donated by Jeanette Wallace Hyde of Raleigh, is 
awarded on the basis of financial need and academic ability. Preference is given, but not 
limited to, students from Yadkin County. 

The Jones-Holder Business Scholarship Fund, awarded upon the recommendation of the 
dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, recognizes a rising senior business major 
who has demonstrated a high level of achievement. 

The J. Lee Keiger Sr. Scholarship is an academic scholarship awarded annually to a North 
Carolina student, with preference given to students living in the ALLTEL-Carolina 
Telephone Company service region. 

The Sarah C. and C. A. Kent Scholarships are awarded to freshmen and upperclassmen on 
the basis of leadership, academic merit, and financial need, without regard to race, 
religion, sex, or geographical origin. 

The Kirkpatrick-Howell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donated by the Delta Nu Chapter of 
Sigma Chi Fraternity, makes available one or two scholarships, with preference given to 
members of the Sigma Chi Fraternity, upon recommendation of the Kirkpatrick-Howell 
Memorial Scholarship Board, for a value of approximately $800. 

The Charles L. Little Scholarship Fund, established by Charles L. Little, is given to 
upperclass students. Preference is given to pre-medical students from Anson County and 
immediately adjacent counties in North Carolina who provide satisfactory evidence of a 
willingness to give serious consideration to practicing medicine in Wadesboro or Anson 
County. 

The James C. Mason Scholarship Fund, created under the will of Oscar W. McManus of 
Laurinburg, N.C., is awarded to a worthy student. 



37 



The Burke M. McConnell Managemen t Excellence Scholarship, established by Pace Commu- 
nications, Inc. of Greensboro, is given to the senior in the School of Business and 
Accountancy who holds the highest grade-point average for his or her first three years at 
the University. 

The Wilma L. McCurdy Memorial Fund Scholarship is awarded on the basis of character, 
academic standing, and need. 

The Thane Edward McDonald and Marie Dayton McDonald Memorial Scholarship Fund, 
made possible by the late Thane Edward McDonald, professor of music, is available to a 
deserving and qualified music student. Applications must be made to the Department of 
Music. 

TheMcGladrey &Pullen Scholarship, granted by the public accounting firm, McGladrey 
& Pullen, is awarded to a senior accounting major designated by the accounting faculty 
on the basis of merit, financial need, and interest in public accounting, and has a value of 
$750. 

The Robert A. and Margaret Pope Mclntyre Scholarship is awarded annually, with prefer- 
ence given to students from Robeson County, N.C. 

The Robert LeeMiddleton Scholarship, donated by Sarah Edwards Middleton of Na shville, 
Tenn., in memory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of character, purpose, 
intelligence, and need, with preference given to the student planning to enter the field of 
literature, accounting, teaching, or the gospel ministry or other full-time religious work. 

The Mildred Bronson Miller Scholarship Fund, donated by Mildred B. Miller of Atlanta, 
Ga., is awarded to students on the basis of leadership, dedication, competitiveness, and 
citizenship. 

The Hiram Abif Myers III Scholarship Fund, established in memory of Hiram Abif ("Bif") 
Myers who died early in his freshman year at Wake Forest, awards one scholarship to a 
senior from Roswell High School, Roswell, Ga., who best exemplifies the ideals and 
characteristics of Bif Myers. The candidate is recommended by the Roswell High School 
principal. 

The Myers Memorial Scholarship is awarded to pre-ministerial students or to students 
contributing to Christianity. 

The George Thompson Noel, M.D., Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of 
academic ability and financial need, with preference given to students from Cabarrus 
County and North Carolina. The Noel Scholarship is renewable for succeeding school 
years, provided the recipient demonstrates continuing need and ranks in the top third of 
his or her class. 

The Norfleet Scholarships, donated by Mr. and Mrs. Eustace Norfleet of Wilmington, 
N.C, in memory of hisparents, John A. and Mary Pope Norfleet, are available to deserving 
and promising students needing financial assistance. 

The North Carolina Scholarships are made available by the North Carolina General 
Assembly and are awarded on the basis of financial need to full-time students who are 
bona fide residents of North Carolina. 

North Carolina Student Incentive Grants are available to undergraduate residents of 
North Carolina with exceptional financial need who require these grants in order to attend 
college, for a value up to $1,500 per year. The amount of assistance a student may receive 
depends upon need, taking into account financial resources and the cost of attending the 
college chosen. 



38 



The Curtis Eugene Overby Sr. Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability, 
financial need, and outstanding leadership potential to a North Carolina junior or senior 
majoring in communications, with an interest in broadcasting. Preference is given to 
students from Forsyth, Rockingham, and Caswell counties. 

The Benjamin Wingate Parham Scholarship, donated by Kate J. Parham of Oxford, N.C., in 
memory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need and may be renewed 
for succeeding years. 

The H. Franklin Perritt III Memorial Scholarship Fund provides a scholarship of at least 
$1,000 annually to one or more sophomores enrolled in the Reserve Officers' Training 
Corps. Selection is based upon outstanding leadership potential. 

The Thomas F. Pettus Scholarships, administered by the North Carolina Baptist Founda- 
tion under the terms of the will of the late Thomas F. Pettus of Wilson County, N .C, make 
two or more scholarships available each year in memory of Mr. Pettus and are awarded 
on the basis of merit and need, with preference given to North Carolina Baptist students. 

The William Louis Poteat Scholarships, valued at $4,500 per year, are available to twelve 
freshmen, one from each Congressional District of North Carolina, plus three scholarships 
at large from the state. To be eligible, a student must be an active member of a Southern 
Baptist Church in North Carolina, must be likely to make a significant contribution to 
church and society, and mustbe appreciative of the quality of education availableatWake 
Forest University. A separate application is required by December 15. 

The H. Ray Pullium Scholarship Fund, established by Mrs. H. Ray Pullium in honor of her 
husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need. Preference is given to students from 
North Carolina Baptist Children's Homes. 

The Kenneth Tyson Raynor Scholarship, donated by friends of the late Kenneth Tyson 
Raynor, professor of mathematics, is awarded annually by the mathematics faculty. The 
award is made on the basis of academic ability to an individual majoring in mathematics 
who has achieved junior standing. 

The Oliver D. and Caroline Revell Scholarship is awarded to needy pre-ministerial students 
or needy students entering full-time Christian service. 

The William Royall Scholarship Fund, given by family and friends of William Royall, 
provides a scholarship award for excellence in classical studies, with preference given to 
students planning to travel abroad to classical sites. Applications must be made to the 
Department of Classical Languages. 

The George D. Rovere Scholarship Fund awards a scholarship annually to a student 
planning to become an athletic trainer. 

The William Lee Rudd and Ruth Crosby Rudd Scholarship is awarded to worthy and needy 
students majoring in religion. 

The Sara Jo Broumlow Shearer Scholarship is awarded to students specializing in the area 
of learning disabilities. 

The W.D. Sanders Scholarship consists of two scholarships, each in the amount of $2,000, 
awarded annually for language study in Germany or Austria. Sophomores, juniors, or 
seniors who have completed German 153 or above are eligible, and the scholarships are 
designated, in order of priority, for summer language study, semester or year programs 
with the Institute of European Studies (IES), or junior year abroad programs with other 
institutions. Applications should be made to the Department of German and Russian. 



39 



The Franklin R. Shirley Debate Scholarship, established in honor of the late Franklin R. 
Shirley, professor emeritus of speech communication, is awarded to a student who has 
debate experience and who successfully participates in the University's debate program. 

The James F. Slate Fund provides an annual scholarship or loan to a student who plans 
a ministerial career. It is renewable upon evidence of a continuing need and interest in the 
ministry. 

The Joseph Pleasant and Marguerite Nutt Sloan Memorial Scholarship, established by 
Patricia Sloan Mize in honor of her parents, is awarded annually to an applied music 
student on the basis of academic ability. It has a value of approximately $500. Applications 
must be made to the Department of Music. 

The Robert Forest Smith III Scholarship Fund, donated by the Rev. and Mrs. Robert Forest 
Smith Jr. and other citizens of Hickory, N.C., in memory of Robert Forest Smith HI, is 
awarded to an entering freshman who qualifies on the basis of need and distinction in high 
school government. Preference is given to those who plan to enter government service, 
with strong preference given to students exemplifying positive Christian principles. It has 
a value of $1,000. 

The Gilbert T Stephenson Scholarship, established by Grace W. Stephenson in memory of 
her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student from Kirby Township 
or Northampton County, N.C. 

The Sigmund Sternberger Scholarships, donated by the Sigmund Stemberger Foundation, 
are for needy North Carolinians, with preference given to undergraduate students from 
Greensboro and Guilford County. 

The John Belk Stevens Scholarship in Business, donated by the Belk Foundation in honor 
of John Belk Stevens, is given to senior business majors with particular interests in retailing 
or marketing and is based on academic merit and financial need. 

The Edna and Ethel Stowe Scholarship is awarded to a freshman or an upperclassman, with 
preference given to female students who have a physical handicap. 

The J. W. Straughan Scholarship, donated by Mattie, Mable, and Alice Straughan in 
memory of their brother, J. W. Straughan, of Warsaw, N.C, with preference given to 
students from Duplin County, N.C, who are interested in pursuing a medical career 
(especially in the field of family practice), is for those who need financial assistance to 
continue their education. 

The Saddye Stephenson and Benjamin Louis Sykes Scholarship, donated by Charles L. Sykes 
and Ralph J. Sykes in memory of their mother and father, is awarded on the basis of 
Christian character, academic proficiency, and financial need, with preference given to 
freshmen from North Carolina; renewable. 

The Russell Taylor Scholarship is awarded to a high school senior with a distinguished 
record in citizenship and scholarship. Preference is given to students planning careers in 
the areas of religion or law, students exemplifying positive principles of the Christian 
faith, needy students, and students from Iredell County, N.C. 

The Harold Wayland and Nelle Futch Tribble Scholarship Fund, established to honor the late 
President Emeritus and Mrs. Tribble, provides a scholarship to students enrolled in the 
College who demonstrate superior academic ability. 



40 



The Kenneth Monroe Tucker Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic merit, with 
preference given to students from Wilkes, New Hanover, or Brunswick counties, North 
Carolina. It may be renewed provided the recipient's cumulative average is in the upper 
twenty percent of his or her class. 

The Tyner-Pitman Scholarship Fund, donated by Cora Tyner Pitman, makes available at 
least one scholarship for needy North Carolina students. 

The John W. Ward Jr. Scholarship is awarded on the basis of demonstrated need, with 
preference given to students from Robeson County, N.C. 

The Ware Foundation Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and financial 
need, with preference given first to students from Oxford Orphanage or other children's 
homes and second to students from Granville or Vance counties, N.C. 

The Watkins-Richardson Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
outstanding leadership potential to students from the southeastern United States. Watkins- 
Richardson Scholarship awards are renewable for succeeding school years, provided the 
recipient ranks in the top third of his or her class and continues to display leadership 
potential. 

The Lettie Pate Whitehead Scholarships provide support to needy Christian women 
students from the nine Southeastern states. 

The Alexander Hines Whitley Jr. Scholarship is awarded to qualified students selected by 
the Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid. 

The Jesse A . Williams Scholarships, created under the will of the late Jesse A. Williams of 
Union County, N.C, give preference to deserving students of Union County. 

The John G. Williard Scholarship is awarded to middle income students, with preference 
given to students from Davie County, N.C. 

The James Bennett Willis Scholarship Fund, established by James B. Willis of Hamlet, N.C, 
gives preference to North Carolina Baptist students interested in the ministry and 
Christian education. It is awarded on the basis of need. Applications must be made to the 
Departments of Religion or Philosophy. 

The Maria Thornton and Miriam Carlyle Willis Scholarship Fund, established by James B. 
Willis in memory of his wife and daughter, gives preference to North Carolina Baptist 
students who are interested in all phases of the ministry of music. It is a wa rded on the basis 
of need. 

The Charles Littell Wilson Scholarship, created under the will of Jennie Mayes Wilson in 
memory of her husband, Charles Littell Wilson, is for a freshman. 

The O. W. Wilson-Yancey County Scholarships, created under the will of O. W. Wilson of 
Yancey County, N.C, are awarded to students from Yancey County who have excellent 
academic records and who demonstrate need. 

The Phillip W. WUson/Peat Marzvick Memorial Scholarship, established as a memorial to 
Phillip W. Wilson by his friends, colleagues, and family, is awarded to a senior accoun- 
tancy major who has demonstrated leadership skills, outstanding interpersonal skills, and 
a strong commitment to the community and the accounting profession. The recipient 
must also be in the top fifth of his or her class based on grade-point average within the 
School of Business and Accountancy. 



41 



The William H. and Anne M. Woody Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of 
character, scholastic achievement, and financial need, with preference given to students 
from Person County, N.C., and to students intending careers in medicine, education, or 
ministry. 

The William Luther Wyatt III Scholarship Trust, donated by Mr. and Mrs. William L. 
Wyatt Jr. of Raleigh, in memory of their son, William Luther Wyatt HI, with preference 
given to a male student entering the junior year who has shown an interest and an ability 
in the field of biology, is based on need and ability. 

The Matthew T. Yates Scholarship Fund awards scholarships to the children of mission- 
aries of the Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention on the ba sis of merit 
and need. The applicant must notify the Office of Financial Aid of his or her eligibility to 
be considered for this award. 



Federal Financial Aid Programs 



The federal government, through the Department of Education, sponsors a number of aid 
programs to help pay college costs. Among these programs are Federal Pell Grants, 
Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants (FSEOG), Federal Work-Study 
(FWS), Federal Perkins Loans, and Federal Family Education Loans (including Federal 
Stafford Loans, both subsidized and unsubsidized, Federal PLUS Loans, Federal Supple- 
mental Loans for Students (FSLS), and Federal Consolidation Loans). 

To receive assistance through these programs, a student must complete the necessary 
applications, meet basic eligibility requirements, and maintain satisfactory academic 
progress, earning a minimum of 12 credits per semester of enrollment with a grade-point 
average at or above the published minimum level for continued enrollment. A Wake 
Forest grade-point average of at least 2.0 is required for consideration for need-based 
scholarship assistance. Need-based scholarship support is extended for a maximum of 
eight semesters, prorated for transfer students. A copy of the full policy on satisfactory 
academic progress is available upon written request from the financial aid office. 

Federal aid programs are described more fully in the Wake Forest University brochure, 
"Need-Based Financial Aid Information" and in the federal publication, 'The Student 
Guide," available upon request from the Financial Aid Office and the U.S. Department of 
Education. 

Exchange Scholarships 

The German Exchange Scholarship, established in 1 959 with the Free University of Berlin, 
is available to a student with at least two years of college German or the equivalent, who 
has junior standing by the end of the semester in which application is made, but who need 
not be a German major. It provides 750 German marks per month for ten months, 
remission of fees, 200 marks per semester for books, and 250 marks per month for rent. 
(Interested students should communicate with the chair of the Department of German.) 

The Spanish Exchange Scholarships are available for study at the University of the Andes 
in Bogota, Colombia, and at the University of Salamanca in Spain. The Bogota scholarship 
may be awarded to two students for one semester's study each or to one student for two 



42 



semesters. Applicants must have completed at least two years of college Spanish or the 
equivalent. Scholarships provide remission of fees and the cost of books, board, and 
accommodations. (Interested students should communicate with the chair of the Depart- 
ment of Romance Languages.) 

The French Exchange Scholarship, established with the University of Burgundy, France, 
is available to a graduating senior, who receives a graduate teaching assistantship at a 
lycee in Dijon for two semesters. (Interested students should communicate with the chair 
of the Department of Romance Languages.) 

Loans 

The James F. and Mary Z. Bryan Foundation Student Loan Plan is for residents of North 
Carolina enrolled full-time for a value of up to $7,500 for undergraduate study. The 
amount of each loan is determined by the College Foundation, with an interest rate of 1 
percent during the in-school and grace periods and 7 percent during the repayment 
period. 

The Bushnell Baptist Church Loan Fund, established in 1945 with funds supplied by the 
Bushnell Baptist Church of Fontana Dam, N.C., is for needy students. 

The Council Fund, established in 1935 by C. T. Council of Durham, is for the aid of senior 
students. 

The James W. Denmark Loan Fund, originated in 1875 by James William Denmark of 
Dudley, N.C., is available to qualified students, with preference given to students from 
North Carolina, for an amount not exceeding $2,500 each year and $10,000 during the 
entire period of enrollment. 

The Olivia Dunn Student Loan Fund, established under the will of Birdie Dunn of Wake 
County, N.C., in memory of her mother, is for needy students. 

The Duplin County Loan Fund, donated in 1942 by anonymous friends of the College, is 
limited to students from Duplin County, N.C. 

The Elliott B. Earnshaw Loan Fund, established by the Board of Trustees, is a memorial to 
the former bursar. 

The Friendly Student Loan Fund, established in 1948 by Nell E. Stinson of Raleigh, in 
memory of her sister, Mary Belle Stinson Michael, is for the benefit of worthy students who 
need financial aid. 

The George Foster Hankins Loan Fund, established under the will of George Foster 
Hankins of Lexington, gives preference to applicants from Davidson County, N.C. 

The Harris Memorial Loan Fund, established by the late J. P. Harris of Bethel, N.C, in 
memory of his first wife, Lucy Shearon Harris, and his second wife, Lucy Jones Harris, is 
for students who have demonstrated ability to apply educational advantages to the 
rendition of enriched and greater Christian service in life and who require financial 
assistance to prevent the disruption of their education. 

The Hutchins Student Loan Fund, originated by Robert W. Hutchins Jr. on behalf of 
himself and his late wife, Nancy D. Hutchins of Winston-Salem, is in honor of members 
of the Hutchins' family who have attended Wake Forest and is for the benefit of needy 
undergraduate students. 

The Edna Tyner Langston Fund, established in 1942 by Henry J. Langston of Danville, Va ., 
in memory of his wife, is available to a student agreed upon by the donor and the College. 



43 



The Watts Norton Loan Fund, established in 1949 by L. Watts Norton of Durham, is for 
worthy students enrolled with the Department of Religion who need financial assistance. 

The Powers Fund, established in 1944 by Frank P. Powers of Raleigh, in memory of his 
parents, Frank P. and Effie Reade Powers, is for the benefit of needy students, with 
preference given to orphans. 

The Grover and Addy Raby Loan Fund, established in 1945 by J. G. Raby of Tarboro, N.C., 
in memory of his parents, gives preference to applicants from the First Baptist Church of 
Tarboro. 

The James F. Slate Loan Fund, established in 1908 by J. F. Slate of Stokes County, N.C., is 
available for ministerial students who have been licensed to preach. 

The Sidney G. Wallace Loan Fund, created under the will of Mrs. Blanche Wallace, is used 
to assist undergraduate students. Preference is given to students studying in a Wake 
Forest-sponsored or approved overseas program. 

Concessions 

North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants. The North Carolina General Assembly 
provides yearly grants to all legal residents of North Carolina. To be eligible a student 
must be enrolled for at least fourteen credits each semester (through October 1 in the fall 
and through the tenth day of classes in the spring) and complete a Residency Form 100. 
The student must not have received a bachelor's degree previously. To receive the grant, 
the student must also complete an NCLTG application and return it to the financial aid 
office by a specified deadline. 

Ministerial students receive an $800 concession per year if they (1) have a written 
recommendation or license to preach from their own church body and (2) agree to repay 
the total amount, plus 4 percent interest, in the event that they do not serve five years in 
the pastoral ministry within twelve years of attendance in the College. 

Children and spouses of pastors of North Carolina Baptist churches receive an $800 conces- 
sion per year if they are the children or spouses of (1) ministers, (2) missionaries of the 
Southern Baptist Foreign Mission Board, (3) officials of the Baptist State Convention of 
North Carolina, or (4) professors in North Carolina Baptist colleges or universities who are 
ordained ministers. Pastors themselves are also eligible. 

Children of other ministers who are not eligible for the above concession receive a $150 
concession per year if their parent makes a living chiefly by the ministry and they have a 
demonstrated need. 

Other Financial Aid 

Church Choir Work Grants, given by the College and Wake Forest Baptist Church to 
encourage outstanding music students, are awarded on the basis of talent, reliability, and 
interest in the church on the recommendation of the music committee of the church and 
the Department of Music, for the value of $300. (Interested students should communicate 
with the chair of the Department of Music.) 



44 



The Ministerial Aid Fund, established in 1897 by the estate of J. A. Melke, is available to 
pre-ministerial students on a loan or grant program on the basis of merit and need, and, 
particularly in the case of grants, academic achievement. 

Student/Student Spouse Employment is possible for part-time, on-campus and off-cam- 
pus work, for a recommended maximum of twenty hours per week for full-time students. 
Summer employment may also be available. (Interested students should communicate 
with the Office of Career Services.) 

Veterans' Benefits are administered by the Office of the Veterans' Administration in the 
Federal Building at 251 North Main Street in Winston-Salem. Records of progress are kept 
by this institution on veteran and non-veteran students alike. Progress records are 
furnished to the students, veterans and non-veterans alike, at the end of each scheduled 
school term. 



Outside Assistance 



Students who apply for financial aid from Wake Forest must advise the College if they 
receive any assistance from outside organizations, including but not limited to National 
Meritor Achievement Scholarships; College Scholarship Service-sponsored scholarships; 
local, state, and national scholarship and loan programs. This outside assistance will be 
considered when the financial aid award is calculated. 





Special Programs 




Students in the College are encouraged to apply to special programs, both on and 
off campus, which correspond to their abilities and interests. These include the 
programs described below and the special degrees, minors, and concentrations 
described on page 49 and beyond. 

Honors Study 

For highly qualified students, a series of interdisciplinary honors courses is described 
under Courses of Instruction. Under the supervision of the coordinator of the Honors 
Program, students may participate in three or more honors seminars during the freshman, 
sophomore, and junior years. Those who complete four seminars with a superior record 
and who are not candidates for departmental honors may complete a final directed study 
course. With a superior record in that course and a grade-point average of 3.0 in all work, 
a student may be graduated with the distinction "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." 

For students especially talented in individual areas of study, most departments in the 
College offer special studies leading to graduation with honors in a particular discipline. 
The rninimum requirement is a grade-point average of 3.0 in all work and 3.3 (or higher 
in some areas) in the major. Other course, seminar, and research requirements vary from 
one department to another. 

Open Curriculum 

For students with high motivation and strong academic preparation, the Open Curricu- 
lum provides the opportunity to follow a course of study planned within the framework 
of a liberal arts education but not necessarily fulfilling all basic and divisional require- 
ments for the degree. Under the Committee on Open Curriculum, a limited number of 
students is selected by previous record of achievement, high aspirations, ability in one or 
more areas of study, strength of self-expression, and other special talents. The course of 
study for the lower division is designed by the student and his or her adviser. 

Study at Salem College 

For full-time students, Wake Forest and Salem College share a program of exchange 
credits for courses taken at one institution because they are not offered at the other. An 
application must be approved by the academic adviser and the dean of the College or the 
dean of the School of Business and Accountancy. Except in courses of private instruction, 
there is no additional cost to the student. Grades and grade points earned at Salem College 
are evaluated as if they were earned at Wake Forest. 




nternational Studies 




Office of International Studies 



The Office of International Studies provides information on all programs in international 
studies. Students interested in studying abroad should visit the office for assistance and 
program approval. Any student taking non-Wake Forest courses overseas for either the 
summer, semester, or year should visit the office for program approval and a transfer of 
credit form. The office also administers the international studies minor. For a full 
description of the minor see page 123. 

International Students 

International students can obtain information and assistance in the Office of International 
Studies. 

Residential Language Centers 



For students prepared to speak French, German, Italian, or Russian on a regular basis with 
other students studying the same language, the University offers residential language 
centers coordinated by members of the Romance languages department and the German 
and Russian department. Such students attend regular classes on the campus. Organized 
social and conversational programs are available in all these languages. 

International Studies House 



Students interested in international studies who would like to live with other students 
sharing these interests may apply to live in the International Studies House. Further 
information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Foreign Area Studies 

The Foreign Area Studies program enables students to choose an interdisciplinary 
concentration in the language and culture of a foreign area. For a full description of these 
programs, see page 54 and the various listings under Courses of Instruction. 



Opportunities for Study Abroad 

Wake Forest Programs 

England (London) 

A program of study is offered each semester at Worrell House, the University's residential 
center near Regent's Park in London. Courses typically encompass aspects of the art, 



47 



theater, literature, and history of London and Great Britain. (See, for example, Art 2320, 
English Art, Hogarth to the Presett t, and History 2260, History of London, in the course listings 
of those departments.) Each term a different member of the faculty serves as the director 
of the program, which accommodates sixteen students. Further information may be 
obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Italy (Venice) 

Students wishing to spend a semester in Italy may apply to study at Casa Artom, the 
University's residential center on the Grand Canal in Venice. Under the direction of 
various members of the faculty, approximately twenty students per semester focus on the 
heritage and culture of Venice and Italy. (Courses offered usually include Art 2693, 
Venetian Renaissance Art; Italian 153, Intermediate Italian; Italian 215, Introduction to Italian 
Literature I; Italian 216, Introduction to Italian Literature II; and other courses offered by the 
faculty member serving as director.) Students selected for the Venice program are 
required to have completed elementary training in Italian. Limited scholarship aid is 
available to one or two students each semester to assist with expenses. Further informa- 
tion may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

France (Dijon) 

Students wishing to study in France may apply for a semester's instruction at the 
University of Burgundy. Under the direction of a faculty residential adviser from the 
Department of Romance Languages, courses are taken at the University of Burgundy by 
student groups of varying levels of preparation. (A major in French is not required, but 
French 221 or its equivalent is recommended.) 

Spain (Salamanca) 

Students wishing to study in Spain may apply for a semester's instruction at the University 
of Salamanca. Under the direction of a faculty residential adviser from the Department of 
Romance Languages, courses are taken at the University of Salamanca by student groups 
of varying levels of preparation. (A major in Spanish is not required, but Spanish 221 or 
its equivalent is recommended.) 

Institute of European Studies 

Students who wish to spend a semester or year in a German- or Slavic-speaking country 
may apply to programs of study available through the Institute of European Studies. 
Qualified WakeForestapplicants may study during their junior or senioryear in Germany 
(Berlin or Freiburg) or Austria (Vienna). Two new exchange programs have been 
established, one in Kiev and the other in Moscow. As with other Wake Forest programs, 
students receive direct credit for all courses taken with I.E.S. and may apply any form of 
financial aid available to them here on campus to their program of study. Interested 
students should contact the Department of German and Russian. 



48 



China (Beijing) 

Students who wish to study in China may apply to participate in the Wake Forest/ 
SASASAAS Program in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. Offered in the fall semester, 
the program includes courses in both Chinese language and culture. It is open to students 
with no previous knowledge of Chinese or to those wishing to continue their study of the 
language. Further information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Japan (Hiratsuka) 

For students wishing to study in Japan, Wake Forest offers a fall semester in Tokai 
University, outside Tokyo. Coursework focuses on Japanese language and culture: one 
course is taught by a Wake Forest professor; another course is taught by Japanese faculty 
members, in English, on various aspects of Japanese society; a third course is the Japanese 
language at the appropriate level. No prior knowledge of Japanese is required. Further 
information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Russia 

One or two students wishing to study individually in Russia can apply to spend a fall or 
spring semester at Moscow University, formerly Moscow State University, each year. The 
requirements are a good academic record and the ability to attend and pass classes that 
are taught entirely in Russian. For more information, contact William Hamilton, associate 
dean of the College. 

Experiment in International Living 

The Independent Study Program of the Experiment in International Living is recognized 
by the College. To participate in this program, a student must be regularly enrolled and 
plan to return to the College after study abroad; arrangements must be made with the 
chair of the department of the major and the director of the Office of International Studies . 
Up to fourteen credits for a one-semester program may be granted upon evidence of 
satisfactory completion of work taken, but this is subject to evaluation by the dean of the 
College. 

Study Abroad in Non-Wake Forest Programs 

Students wishing to study abroad in a non-Wake Forest program should visit the Office 
of International Studies for assistance. The office houses a sizable collection of material on 
a wide variety of overseas programs. 

A student's participation in a non-Wake Forest program must be approved in advance 
by the Office of International Studies. A transfer of credit form, available in the Office of 
International Studies, must be filled out once one is accepted into a program. Transfer 
credit is computed at 1.125 credits for each approved semester hour and .75 for each 
quarter hour taken abroad. Scholarship and financial aid can now be applied to approved 
non-Wake Forest programs. Further information is available in the Office of International 
Studies. 



Requirements for Degrees 



Degrees Offered 



The College offers undergraduate programs leading to the bachelor of arts and bachelor 
of science degrees. The bachelor of arts degree is conferred with a major in anthropology, 
art, chemistry, classical studies, economics, English, French, French-Spanish, German, 
Greek, history, Latin, music, philosophy, physics, politics, psychology, religion, sociol- 
ogy, Spanish, speech communication, or theater. The bachelor of science degree is 
conferred with a major in biology, chemistry, computer science, health and sport science, 
mathematical economics, mathematics, or physics. The bachelor of arts degree is available 
with a major in elementary education or education with a state teacher's certificate in 
social studies. The bachelor of science degree is available with a major in education with 
a state teacher's certificate in science. The bachelor of science degree may be conferred in 
combined curricula in dentistry, engineering, forestry and environmental studies, medi- 
cal technology, microbiology, and the physician assistant program. The School of Busi- 
ness and Accountancy offers undergraduate programs leading to the bachelor of science 
degree with a major in accountancy or business. (See page 197 of this bulletin.) 

A student who receives the bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree may not 
thereafter receive another bachelor's degree from Wake Forest. 

General Requirements 

Students in the College have considerable flexibility in planning their courses of study. 
Except for two semesters of required health and sport science courses, only three specific 
courses are required, one in English composition and two in a foreign language. To 
complete preparation for more specialized work in a major field or fields, students select 
three courses in each of four divisions of the undergraduate curriculum: (1) literature and 
the arts; (2) the natural sciences and mathematics; (3) history, religion, and philosophy; 
and (4) the social and behavioral sciences. Normally the basic and divisional requirements 
are completed in the freshman and sophomore years and the requirements in the field or 
fields of the major are completed in the junior and senior years. 

All students must complete (1) the basic and divisional requirements (unless accepted 
for the Open Curriculum), (2) a course of study approved by the department or depart- 
ments of the major, and (3) elective courses for a total of 144 credits. No more than sixteen 
credits toward graduation may be earned from among all of the following courses: 
Education 353; all military science courses; Music 111-121 (ensemble courses); Dance 120- 
129 and 131; and elective 100-level courses in health and sport science. A cross-listed 
course may be taken one time for credit toward graduation, unless otherwise specified by 
the course description. 

All students must earn a C average on all work attempted at all colleges and universities 
and on all work attempted in Wake Forest College and the School of Business and 
Accountancy. Of the 144 credits required for graduation, at least 72 must be completed in 
the undergraduate schools of Wake Forest University, including the work of the senior 
year (except for combined degree curricula). All financial obligations to the University 
must be discharged. 



50 



A student has the privilege of graduating under the requirements of the bulletin of 
the year in which he or she enters, provided tha t course work is completed within six years 
of entrance. After six years, the student must fulfill the requirements for the class in which 
he or she graduates. 



Basic Requirements 



All students must complete three required basic courses (unless exempted through 
procedures established by the departments concerned): 

English 110 (composition) or 112 (composition and literature) 
Foreign language 153 (intermediate level) 
Foreign language (literature) 

French 213, 216, 217, or the equivalent 

Spanish 214, 217, 218, or the equivalent 

Italian 215, 216, or the equivalent 

German 215 or 216 

Russian 215 or 216 

Greek 211 or 212 

Latin 211, 212, or 216 

Near Eastern Languages & Literature 211 or 212 (Hebrew) 

Japanese 211 

Chinese 211 

No credit is given for any language course below the one recommended by the 
department on the basis of the placement test unless the student is given permission to 
earn such credit by the Language Placement Appeals Board. 

Divisional Requirements 



All students must complete three courses in each of the four divisions of the undergradu- 
ate curriculum (unless exempted by completion of advanced placement requirements or 
by participation in the open curriculum): 

Division I. Literature and the Arts (three courses; no more than one course from any 
one of the four groups) 

1 . English literature (English 160 or 165) 

2. American literature (English 170 or 175) 

3. Foreign literature (other than the one used for the basic requirement) 
Classical languages 

Greek 211, 212, 231, 241, or 242 

Latin 211, 212, 216, 221, 225, or 226 

Classics 253, 254, 263, 264, 265, or 272 
German 215 or 216 
Chinese 211 

Near Eastern Languages & Literature 211 or 212 (Hebrew) 
Japanese 211 



51 



Romance languages (French, Italian, or Spanish) literature 
Russian 215 or 216 

Humanities 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 221, or 222 
4. Fine Arts 

Art 103 or 111 

Music 101, 102, 181, or 182 

Theater 110 or 112 

Division II. The Natural Sciences and Mathematics (three courses, selected from two 
of the four groups) 

1. Biology 111, 112, 113, 114 (if one course, 111; if two courses, the pair 
must include 111) 

2. Chemistry 111, 116 (unless advanced preparation indicates a higher 
course); if one course, 111; if two courses, 111, 116 

3. Physics 109, 110, 113, 114 

4. Mathematics 108, 109, 111, 112, 117, Computer Science 111 (any one; 
if two, the pair must include 108 or 111 but not both) 

Division III. History, Religion, and Philosophy (three courses; no more than one course 
from each group) 

1. History 101, 102, 103, or 104 

2. Religion (any four credits at the 100-level) 

3. Philosophy 111 

Division IV. The Social and Behavioral Sciences (three courses, no more than one from 
any one department) 

1. Anthropology 151 or 152 

2. Economics 150 

3. Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116 

4. Psychology 151 

5. Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154 

Requirement in Health and Sport Science 



All students must complete Health and Sport Science 100 and 101 . This requirement must 
be met before enrollment in additional health and sport science elective courses, and in 
any case before the end of the second year. 

Proficiency in the Use of English 



Proficiency in the use of the English language is recognized by the faculty as a requirement 
in all departments. A composition condition, indicated by cc with the grade for any course, 
may be assigned in any department to a student whose writing is unsatisfactory, 
regardless of previous credits in composition. The writing of transfer students is checked 
during the orientation period each term, and students whose writing is deficient are given 
a composition condition. 



52 



A student who has been assigned a cc will receive an "Incomplete" for the course. The 
student will have one semester in which to work in the Writing Center, revising the course 
work to the instructor's satisfaction. If the student fails to work in the Writing Center, or 
fails to revise the work to the instructor's satisfaction, the grade will become an "F' 
automatically, unless some action is taken by the instructor. (If extenuating circumstances 
make it impossible for the student to make significant progress in a semester, the student 
may appeal to the dean's office for an additional semester of work to remove the 
"Incomplete.") Removal of the deficiency is prerequisite to graduation. 



Basic and Divisional Requirements 



The basic and divisional requirements are intended to introduce the student to various 
fields of knowledge and to lay the foundation for concentration in a major subject and 
related fields during the junior and senior years. For mis reason, as many of the 
requirements as feasible should be taken in the freshman and sophomore years. 

No course requirements may be set aside or replaced by substitutes except through 
regular procedures already established by the faculty, or through a specific vote of the 
faculty in regular session. 

Declaring a Major 

To enter upon a major, a student should ha ve earned at least sixty credits. The normal time 
for reaching this point i s the end of the second semester of the sophomore year . Thirty days 
before the end of the sophomore year, each student who will have acquired the requisite 
credits by the end of the semester or the end of the summer school is required to indicate 
to the registrar and to the department or departments concerned the selection of a major 
for concentration during the junior and senior years. Before this selection is recorded by 
the registrar, the student must present a written statement from the authorized represen- 
tative of the department or departments indicating that the student has been accepted as 
a candidate for the major in that department. An adviser is available to assist the student 
in planning a course of study for the junior and senior years. A department which rejects 
a student as a major must file with the dean of the College a written statement indicating 
the reason(s) for the rejection. 

If thirty days before the end of the sophomore year a student sees that he or she will 
begin the fifth semester without attaining sixty credits, he or she should consult the 
registrar's office about the proper course to follow. 

A student wishing to major in business or in accountancy should make application to 
the School of Business and Accountancy. (See page 197 of this bulletin.) 

The undergraduate schools try to provide ample space in the various major fields to 
accommodate the interests of students. It must be understood, however, that the under- 
graduate schools cannot guarantee the availability of space in a given major field or a given 
course, since the preferences of students change and there are limits to both faculty and 
facilities. 

After the beginning of the junior year, a student may not change from one major to 
another without the approval of the departments concerned. The student's course of 



53 



study for the junior and senior years includes the minimum requirements for the 
departmental major, with other courses selected by the student and approved by the 
adviser. 

At least half of the major must be completed at Wake Forest University. 

The following fields of study are recognized for the major: accountancy, anthropology, 
art, biology, business, chemistry, classical studies, computer science, economics, educa- 
tion, English, French, French-Spanish, German, Greek, health and sport science, history, 
Latin, mathematical economics, mathematics, music, philosophy, physics, politics, psy- 
chology, religion, Russian, sociology, Spanish, speech communication, and theater. 
Students preparing for the ministry are advised to elect three courses in religion beyond 
the course included in the divisional requirements. 

Maximum Number of Courses in a Department 



Within the College, a maximum of 48 credits in a single field of study is allowed within 
the 144 credits required for graduation. Fifty-six credits toward graduation are allowed 
in any department authorized to offer two fields of study or more, except for the 
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. 

These stipulations exclude required related courses from other departments. They 
further exclude, for students majoring in English, English 110 and 112; and, for students 
majoring in a foreign language, elementary courses in that language. These limits may be 
exceeded in unusual circumstances only by action of the dean of the College. 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 



For purposes of satisfying graduation requirements, a student must select one, and only 
one, of the following options, which will receive official recognition on the student's 
permanent record: (1) a single major, (2) a joint major, (3) a single major and a minor, (4) 
a single major and a double minor, (5) a double major. In addition to the options above, a 
student may complete the requirements of a foreign area studies program. 

Double Majors and Joint Majors 



A student may major in two departments in the College with the written permission of the 
chair of each of the departments and on condition that the student meet all requirements 
for the major in both departments. A student may not use the same course to meet 
requirements in both of the majors. For administrative purposes, the student must 
designate one of the two fields as the primary major, which appears first on the student's 
record . For purposes of the double major, the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science is considered as two departments. 

A joint major consisting of fifty-six credits in two fields of study is available in classical 
studies and in mathematical economics. 



54 



Minors . 



A minor is not required. Those students, however, who select a single major — not those 
working toward a double or joint major — may choose a minor field from among the 
following: anthropology, art, biology, chemistry, computer science, dance, educational 
studies, professional education, English, French language and culture, French literature, 
German, Greek, history, Italian, Latin, mathematics, music, philosophy, physics, politics, 
psychology, religion, Russian, sociology, Spanish language and culture, Hispanic litera- 
ture, speech communication, and theater. 

For details of the various minors, see the appropriate departmental headings in the 
section of this bulletin that lists course offerings. 

Interdisciplinary Minors 



Interdisciplinary minors are listed alphabetically under Courses of Instruction in the 
bulletin. The following programs are offered (bulletin page number in parentheses): 

Asian Studies (page 65) 
Cultural Resource Preservation (page 80) 
Early Christian Studies (page 81) 
International Studies (page 123) 
Women's Studies (page 189) 

Foreign Area Studies 

The foreign area studies programs enable students to choose an interdisciplinary concen- 
tration in the language and culture of a foreign area. An area studies concentration may 
include courses in the major and also in the minor field, if a minor is chosen. Foreign area 
studies programs do not replace majors or minors; they may supplement either or both. 
A faculty adviser coordinates each foreign area studies program and advises students, 
and students who wish to participate in one of these programs must consult with the 
program coordinator, preferably in their sophomore year. Questions may also be directed 
to the Office of International Studies. 

Foreign area studies are listed alphabetically under Courses of Instruction in the 
bulletin. The following programs are offered (bulletin page numbers in parentheses): 

East Asian Studies (page 83) 
East European Studies (page 84) 
German Studies (page 105) 
Italian Studies (page 124) 
Latin American Studies (page 125) 
Spanish Studies (page 180) 



55 



Senior Testing 

All seniors are required to participate in a testing program designed to provide objective 
evidence of educational development and employing measures of academic achievement 
such as selected portions of the Graduate Record Examination and other tests deemed 
appropriateby the Committee on Academic Affairs. The tests are administered during the 
spring semester, and relevant results are made available to the student for his or her 
information. The primary purpose of the program is to provide the University with 
information for assessing the total educational process. The program does not supplant 
the regular administration of the Graduate Record Examination for students applying for 
admission to graduate school. 



Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 



Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in medical technology by 
completion of the academic requirements outlined in the following paragraph and by 
satisfactory completion of the full program in medical technology offered by the Division 
of Allied Health Programs of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. A grade of at least C 
is required in all courses taken in the program in medical technology. At least one year 
(thirty-six credits) of the required academic work must be completed in the College. 
(Under current scheduling, successful candidates receive the baccalaureate degree in 
August rather than in May.) 

Students seeking admission to the program must file application in the fall of the junior 
year with the Division of Allied Health Programs of the medical school. Selection is based 
upon recommendations of teachers, college academic record, Allied Health Professions 
Admissions Test score, impressions made in personal interviews, and work experience 
(not essential, but important) . Students must complete the basic course requirements; the 
divisional course requirements in Divisions I, TEL, and TV; the health and sport science 
requirement; Biology 111, 112, 113, 114 (three courses or equivalents); Biology 326; 
Chemistry 111, 112, 221, and 222; mathematics (one course); and electives for a total of 108 
credits. Desirable electives outside the area of chemistry and biology include physics, data 
processing, and personnel and management courses. (Interested students should consult 
a biology department faculty member during the freshman year for further information.) 

Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 



Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in the physician assistant program 
by completion of three years (108 credits) in the College with a minimum average grade 
of C, and by satisfactory completion of the full twenty-four-month course in the physician 
assistant program offered by the Division of Allied Health Programs of the Bowman Gray 
School of Medicine. At least one year (thirty-six credits) of the required academic work 
must be completed in the College. Candidates for the degree must complete the basic 
course requirements, the divisional course requirements, the health and sport science 
requirement, and at least four courses in biology (including one course in microbiology). 
At least four courses in the social sciences (including sociology, psychology, and econom- 
ics), a course in statistics, and three or four courses in chemistry are recommended. 



56 



Applicants to the program must have a minimum of six months of clinical experience in 
patient care services. (Interested students should consult a biology department faculty 
member during the freshman year for further information.) 



Degrees in Microbiology 



Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in microbiology by completion of 
three years (112 credits) in the College with a minimum average grade of C, and by 
satisfactory completion of a thirty-two hour major in microbiology in the Bowman Gray 
School of Medicine. At least one year (thirty-six credits) of the required academic work 
must be completed in the College. Candidates for the degree must complete the basic 
course requirements, the divisional course requirements, and the health and sport science 
requirement; Microbiology 302, 304 (or Biology 462), and Biology 371 . Additional courses 
to complete the major will be selected from Microbiology 402, 403, 404, 405, 408, 410, 411, 
41 3, 414, 432, 433, 434, Biology 321, 360, 372, 373, 380, and 391, 392. Required related courses 
are two courses in physics and at least two courses in organic chemistry. Additional 
chemistry and mathematics courses may be suggested by the major adviser for students 
progressing toward advanced work in microbiology. The student should consult the 
microbiology adviser during the sophomore year to establish a program of study. Work 
on the major must begin no later than the fall semester of the junior year. 

Degrees in Dentistry 

A student may fulfill the requirements for the bachelor of science degree with a major in 
dentistry by completing three years of work in the College with a minimum average grade 
of C, and by satisfactorily completing the first two years of work in one of certain approved 
dental schools designated by the University, with a record entitling advancement to the 
third-year class. 

For this degree, the requirements in the College are the same as those for the degree with 
a major in medical sciences. 

Degrees in Engineering 



The College cooperates with North Carolina State University and other engineering 
schools in offering a broad course of study in the arts and sciences combined with 
specialized training in engineering. A program for outstanding students covers five years 
of study, including three years in the College and approximately two years in one of the 
schools of engineering. (Depending upon the field chosen, it may be advisable for a 
student to attend the summer session in the engineering school after transfer.) Admission 
to Wake Forest does not guarantee admission to the engineering school. Those decisions 
are based on the student's transcript, performance, and status at the time of application. 
Upon successful completion of the five years of study, the student receives the bachelor 
of science degree in engineering from the University and the bachelor of science degree 
in one of the specialized engineering fields from the engineering school. 



57 



The curriculum for the first three years must include the basic and divisional require- 
ments. Suggested courses for the freshman year are English 110 and 160 (or a foreign 
literature); appropriate foreign language courses; Mathematics 111, 112; Physics 113, 114; 
and Health and Sport Science 100, 101. Suggested courses for the sophomore year are 
English 170 (or a foreign literature); Philosophy 111; Mathematics 251, 301; Physics 141, 
162, 165, 166; and Chemistry 111, 116. Suggested courses for the junior year are a history 
course, a religion course, Mathematics 302, 304, and Economics 150. 

This rigorous curriculum demands special aptitude in science and mathematics. 
Electives are chosen in consultation with the chair of the Department of Physics. 



Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 



The College cooperates with the Duke University School of Forestry and Environmental 
Studies to offer students interested in these areas the possibility of earning both bachelor's 
and master's degrees within five years. For details about the program, students should 
consult a faculty member in the biology department. 




Courses of Instruction 







Plans of study, course descriptions, and the identification of instructors apply to the academic year 
1992-93 unless otherwise noted, and reflect official faculty action through March 16, 1993. 

The University reserves the right to change programs of study, academic requirements, 
assignment of lecturers, or the announced calendar. 

Odd-numbered courses are normally taught in the fall, even-numbered in the 
spring. Exceptions are noted after course descriptions. Number of credits is 
shown by numerals immediately after the course title — for example, (3) or (3,3). The 
symbols P — and C — followed by course numbers or titles are used to show prerequisites 
and corequisites for a course. 

Courses 101-199 are primarily for freshmen and sophomores; courses 200-299 are 
primarily for juniors and seniors; courses 301-399 are for advanced undergraduates and 
graduate students. (Other graduate courses are described in the bulletin of the Graduate 
School; a complete listing of summer courses is in the bulletin of the Summer Session.) 



Anthropology 



David S. Weaver, Chair 

Professors E. Pendleton Banks, David K. Evans, 

Stanton K. Tef ft, David S. Weaver, J. Ned Woodall 

Director/Curator, Museum of Anthropology/ 

Assistant Professor Mary Jane Berman 

Adjunct Professor Jay R. Kaplan 

Visiting Assistant Professor Dorothy J. Cattle 

A major in anthropology requires a minimum of thirty-six credits and must include 
Anthropology 151, 152, 390, and either 370 or 374. 

Students are encouraged but not required to enroll in a course offering intensive field 
research training. However, only four credits from Anthropology 381, 382 and four credits 
from Anthropology 383, 384 may be used to meet major requirements. Additional courses 
are counted within the limits specified for a single field of study. 

A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in anthropology courses is required at the time 
the major is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all anthropology courses 
is required for graduation. 

A minor in anthropology requires twenty-four credits and must include Anthropology 
151 and 152. Minors will not receive credit for Anthropology 390, 398, or 399. Only four 
credits from Anthropology 381 , 382, 383, and 384 may be used to meet minor requirements 
and departmental permission must be obtained for minor credit in these courses. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Anthropology," highly qualified 
majors should apply to the department for admission to the honors program. They must 
complete a senior research project, document their research, and satisfactorily defend 
their work in an oral examination. For additional information, members of the departmen- 
tal faculty should be consulted. 



59 



151. General Anthropology I: Archeology and Human Evolution. (4) Origin and 
evolution of man with a focus on human biological and sociocultural change during the 
Plio-Pleistocene. 

152. General Anthropology II: Cultural Anthropology. (4) A cross-cultural analysis of 
human institutions with a survey of major theories explaining cultural variety and human 
nature. 

300. Museum Practicum. (4) Designed to give the student practical experience while 
working at the Museum of Anthropology in six basic areas of museum operation: 
administration, research, curatorial duties, conservation, exhibition design, and educa- 
tion. P — Permission of instructor. 

310. Museum Design and Operation. (4) The principles of museum design and operation 
through lectures, readings, workshops with visiting experts in the field, and field trips to 
neighboring museums (possibly to Washington, DC). Students have an opportunity to 
put some of the principles in practice by planning and designing exhibits in the Museum 
of Anthropology. P — Permission of instructor. 

315. Material Culture Studies. (4) Explores the social and cultural roles of objects through 
the study of materials, technology, economy, context, and meaning. P — Anthropology 
151 or 152 or permission of instructor. 

320. The Anthropology of Art. (4) The arts (primarily visual) in folk and tribal cultures 
from comparative, structural, and functional points of view. P — Permission of instructor. 

330. The Ethnographic Documentary. (4) Through the use of ethnographic documentary 
films and videos from different historical periods and by filmmakers from different 
cultural backgrounds, this course will present a historical and cross-cultural perspective 
on cultural systems. The course will analyze the technological and aesthetic aspects of film 
and video production and assess the effectiveness of visual communication in conveying 
idea s about culture and society. P — Anthropology 1 51 or Anthropology 1 52 or permission 
of instructor. 

335. Mountain Folklore in North Carolina. (4) The role folklore plays in all human 
cultures in general and in the culture of the mountain people of Western North Carolina 
in particular. Field trips to mountain counties conducted. P — Permission of instructor. 

340. Anthropological Theory. (4) A study and evaluation of the major anthropological 
theories of humans and society, including cultural evolutionism, historical particularism, 
functionalism, structuralism, cultural ecology, and cultural materialism. The relevance 
and significance of these theories to modern anthropology are discussed. P — Anthropol- 
ogy 151 and 152 and junior standing, or permission of instructor. 

345. Primitive Religion. (4) The world-view and values of non-literate cultures as 
expressed in myths, rituals, and symbols. P — Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

350. European Peasant Communities. (4) Lectures, reading, and discussion on selected 
communities and their sociocultural contexts, including folklore, folk art, and processes 
of culture change. P — Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 1 52 or permission of instructor . 



60 



352. Peoples and Cultures of Africa. (4) The ethnology and prehistory of Africa south of 
the Sahara. P — Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

354. Peoples and Cultures of China. (4) A survey of the Han and non-Han (Mongolian, 
Tibetan, Shan, Miao, etc.) peoples of China and their traditional cultures drawing on 
ethnographic and village studies. P — Permission of instructor. 

358. The American Indian. (4) Ethnology and prehistory of the American Indian. P — 
Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

360. Human Ecology. (4) The relations between the human being and the inorganic and 
organic environments as mediated by culture; laboratory experience with aerial photog- 
raphy and other remote sensing techniques. P — Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152 
or permission of instructor. 

362. Medical Anthropology. (4) The impact of Western medical practices and theory on 
non-Western cultures and anthropological contributions to the solving of world health 
problems. P — Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 

364. Physical Anthropology. (4) Introduction tobiological anthropology, human biology, 
evolution, and variability. P — Anthropology 151. 

366. Human and Non-Human Evolution. (4) Investigation of primate and human 
evolution, both in anatomy and in behavior. P — Anthropology 151 and permission of 
instructor. 

368. Human Osteology. (4) A survey of human skeletal anatomy and analysis, emphasiz- 
ing archeological and anthropological applications. P — Anthropology 151 and permis- 
sion of instructor. 

370. Old World Prehistory. (4) Survey of Old World prehistory, with particular attention 
to geological and climatological events affecting culture change. P — Anthropology 151 or 
permission of instructor. 

372. Archeology of Early Complex Societies. (4) Comparison of the archeology of early 
complex societies, with special attention to the Maya, Aztec, and Teotihuacan cultures in 
Mesoamerica; the Huari and Inca in South America; the Anasazi of North America; and 
Egyptian and Mesopotamian groups of the Old World. An emphasis will be given to 
theories of origins and change in complex societies. P — Anthropology 151 or permission 
of instructor. 

374. Prehistory of North America. (4) The development of culture in North America as 
outlined by archeological research, with an emphasis on paleoecology and sociocultural 
processes. P — Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 

376. Archeology of the Southeastern United States. (4) A study of human adaptation in 
the Southeast from Pleistocene to the present, emphasizing the role of ecological factors 
in determining the formal aspects of culture. P — Anthropology 151 . 



61 



378. Conservation Archeology. (4) A study of the laws, regulations, policies, programs, 
and political processes used to conserve prehistoric and historic cultural resources. P — 
Anthropology 151 and Anthropology 359 or permission of instructor. 

380. Anthropological Statistics. (4) Basic statistics, emphasizing application in anthropo- 
logical research. (A student who receives credit for this course may not also receive credit 
for Biology 380, Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Sociology 380.) 

381, 382. Archeological Research. (4,4) The recovery of anthropological data through the 
use of archeology, taught in the excavation and interpretation of a prehistoric site. P — 
Anthropology 151 . 

383, 384. Field Research in Cultural Anthropology. (4,4) Training in techniques for the 
study of foreign cultures, carried out in the field. P — Anthropology 1 51 or Anthropology 
152. 

385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline. The course concentrates on problems of contemporary 
interest. P — Permission of instructor. 

390. Student-Faculty Seminar. (4) A review of contemporary problems in the fields of 
archeology and physical and cultural anthropology. P — Junior standing or permission of 
instructor. 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1 ,2,3, or 4) A reading, research, or internship course designed 
to meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be ca rried out under the supervision 
of a departmental faculty member. 



Art 

Harry B. Titus Jr., Chair 

Reynolds Professor Terisio Pignatti (Venice) 

Professors Robert Knott, Margaret S. Smith 

Associate Professors David L. Faber, Harry B. Titus Jr. 

Assistant Professors Bernadine Barnes, Page H. Laughlin 

Visiting Assistant Professor David Helm 

Visiting Instructors Margaret C. Gregory, Alix Hitchcock 

Lecturer Brian Allen (London) 

Assistant Lecturer Katie Scott (London) 

Gallery Director Victor Faccinto 

The department offers courses in the history of art and in the practice of drawing, 
painting, printmaking, and sculpture. A visiting artist program and varied exhibi- 
tions in the gallery of the Scales Fine Arts Center as well as internships in local cultural 
organizations supplement the regular academic program of the department. 
The major in art requires forty credits. For an art history major, eight courses are to be 



62 



in art history and two in studio art. For a studio art major, eight courses are to be in studio 
art and two in art history. 

A minor in art requires five courses, including at least one course in art history and one 
course in studio art. 

Any student interested in majoring or minoring in art should consult the chair of the art 
department. 

Qualified students in both the art history and studio areas may ask to participate in the 
department's honors program. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Art," 
students must execute a written project or create a body of work; the results of their efforts 
must be presented and defended before a committee of the departmental faculty. 
Interested students should consult any member of the department for additional informa- 
tion concerning the requirements for this program. 

Art History 

103. Introduction to the Visual Arts. (4) A historical introduction to the arts of various 
cultures and times with discussions of technique, style, methodology, and terms. Satisfies 
the Division I requirement. 

231. American Art. (4) A survey of American painting and sculpture from the Colonial 
period through the Armory Show held in 1913 in New York. 

233. American Architecture. (4) A survey of American architecture from 1650 to the 
present. 

235. Art and Architecture of the South. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and 
sculpture in the South from 1600 to the present. 

241 . Ancient Art. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the prehistoric 
through the late Roman periods. 

244. Greek Art. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the prehistoric 
through the Hellenistic periods. 

245. Roman Art. (4) A survey of Etruscan and Roman architecture, painting, and 
sculpture. 

251. Women and Art. (4) A historical examination of the changing image of women in art 
and the role of women artists. 

252. Roman esqu e Art. (4) Art and architecture from the Carolingian Renaissance through 
the twelfth century. 

253. The Gothic Cathedral. (4) The character and evolution of Gothic cathedrals and the 
sculpture, stained glass, metalworks, and paintings designed for them. 

254. Luxury Arts in the Middle Ages. (4) Medieval illuminated manuscripts and precious 
objects made of gold, silver, ivory, enamel, and other luxury materials are the subjects of 
this course. 

258. The History of Prints. (4) A survey of the technical and stylistic developments in 
printmaking from the fifteenth century to the present. Special a ttention will be given to the 



63 



function of prints in society. Student research will focus on prints in the University Print 
Collection. 

267. Early Italian Renaissance Art. (4) An introduction to the painting, sculpture, and 
architecture of Italy from 1 250 to 1500, with a concentration on the arts in fifteenth century 
Florence. 

268. Italian High Renaissance and Mannerist Art. (4) A study of the arts in sixteenth 
century Italy, with emphasis on the achievement of Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, 
Michelangelo, Giorgione, and Titian, and the dissolution of Renaissance idealism in the 
art of the early Mannerists. 

270. Northern Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of painting, sculpture, graphic art, and 
patronage in Northern European art from 1300 to the death of Durer in 1528. 

271. Studies in French Art (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, sculpture, and 
architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Offered in Dijon. 

272. Baroque Art. (4) A survey of European painting and sculpture from 1600 to 1700. 

275. History of Landscape Architecture. (4) Study of garden design, beginning with 
Roman gardens and continuing through the creation of public parks in the nineteenth 
century. 

281. Modern Art to 1900. (4) A survey of European painting and sculpture from 1700 to 
1900, emphasizing the nineteenth century. 

282. Modern Art after 1900. (4) A survey of European and American painting and 
sculpture from 1900 to the present. 

283. Impressionism. (4) A detailed study of the French Impressionist painters, with some 
consideration of Impressionism in other forms. 

284. Contemporary American Art. (4) An intensive study of American painting and 
sculpture from 1950 to the present. 

288. Modern Architecture. (4) A survey of European and American architecture from 
1900 to the present. 

291. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 

292. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 

293. Practicum. (4) Internships in local cultural organizations, to be arranged by the art 
department. Pass/ fail. 

296. Art History Seminar. (2,4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty on 
topics of their choice. A paper is required. P — Permission of instructor. 

a. Ancient Art f. Contemporary Art 

b. Medieval Art g. American Art 

c. Renaissance Art h. Modern Architecture 

d. Baroque Art i. American Architecture 

e. Modern Art j. Special Topics 



64 



2320. English Art, Hogarth to the Present. (4) A survey of English painting, sculpture, and 
architecture in the Georgian, Victorian, and modern periods. Slide lectures, student 
reports, museum visits, and lectures. Taught by special lecturer. Offered in London. 

2693. Venetian Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of the art of the Venetian Renaissance, with 
slide lectures and museum visits. Offered in Venice. 

Anthropology 320. The Anthropology of Art. (4) The arts (primarily visual) in folk and 
tribal cultures from comparative, structural, and functional points of view. P — Permission 
of instructor. 

Studio Art* 

111. Introduction to Drawing and Design. (4) An introduction to the basic elements of 
two-dimensional and three-dimensional design, to include drawing, painting, and sculp- 
ture. Six class hours per week. Satisfies the Division I requirement. 

112. Introduction to Painting. (4) An introduction to painting fundamentals in a variety 
of contemporary styles in the oil or acrylic medium. P — Art 111. 

115. Introduction to Sculpture. (4) An introduction to basic sculptural styles and multi- 
media, with emphasis on contemporary concepts. P — Art 111. 

117. Introduction to Printmaking. (4) An introduction to one or more of the following 
areas of printmaking: lithography, intaglio, and silkscreen. P — Art 111. 

211. Intermediate Drawing. (4) Continuation of Art 111, with concentrated emphasis on 
drawingfundamentalsand idea developmentinrealisticandabstractstyles,emphasizing 
composition, value, line, and form. Six class hours per week. P — Art 111. 

212. Intermediate Painting. (4) Continuation of Art 112, with concentrated emphasis on 
idea development. P — Art 112. May be repeated. 

215. Intermediate Sculpture. (4) Continuation of Art 115, with emphasis on idea devel- 
opment. P — Art 115. May be repeated. 

217. Intermediate Printmaking. (4) Continuation of Art 117, with emphasis on idea 
development. P — Art 117. May be repeated. 

218. Figure Drawing. (4) An introduction to figure drawing. P — Art 111. 

221. Advanced Drawing. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. Maybe 
repeated. P— Art 211. 

222. Advanced Painting. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May be 
repeated. P— Art 212. 

225. Advanced Sculpture. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May be 
repeated. P — Art 215. 



* Prerequisites may be waived with permission of instructor . 



65 



227. Advanced Prin tmaking. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May 
be repeated. P — Art 217. 

295. Studio Seminar. (2,4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty on topics 
of their choice and related studio activities. P — Permission of instructor. 



Asian Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Win-Chiat Lee (Philosophy), Coordinator 

The minor in Asian Studies consists of a total of twenty-four credits which students 
must select from an approved list of courses on file with the coordinator and listed 
below. Candidates for the minor are required to take these courses from at least three 
different departments. While some study of an Asian language is strongly recommended, 
it is not required. Although students may repeat Asian Studies 381, Independent Research 
in Asian Studies (2-4) for credit, only four of these credits can apply toward completion of 
the Asian Studies minor. 

Appropriate credit in various fields of Asian Studies also may be obtained by study in 
China through the SASASAAS/Wake Forest Program or in Japan through the Wake 
Forest/Tokai University Program, or through other Wake Forest approved courses of 
study in Asia. Students intending to minor in Asian Studies should consult the coordina- 
tor, preferably in their sophomore year. Courses maybe chosen from among the following 
list. (See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

381. Independent Research in Asian Studies. (2-4) Supervised independent research 
project on a topic related to Asia. Requires the approval of both the instructor and the 
coordinator of Asian Studies. May be repeated for credit. 

Anthropology 

354. People and Cultures of China. (4) 
Chinese Language and Literature 

111, 112. Elementary Chinese. (5,5) 

151, 152. Intermediate Chinese (5,5) 

199. Individual Study. (1-4) 

211. Wen-xue: Introduction to Literature Written in Chinese. (4) 
History 

341. History of Women in Modern Asia. (4) 

343. Imperial China. (4) 

344. Modern China. (4) 

347. Japan Since World War II. (4) 

348. Modern Japan. (4) 
Humanities 

219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) 
221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) 



66 



347. Women Writers in Japanese Society. (4) 

348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) 

349. Chinese Liberation Literature since 1948. (2) 

350. Modern Chinese Literature. (4) 
Japanese Language and Literature 

111, 112. Elementary Japanese. (5,5) 

151, 152. Intermediate Japanese (5,5) 

199. Individual Study. (1-4) 

211. Bungaku: Introduction to Literature Written in Modern Japanese. (4) 
Philosophy 

253. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) (Also listed as 
Religion 380.) 
Politics 

246. Politics and Policies in South Asia. (4) 

247. Islam and Politics. (4) 

248. Government and Politics of China. (4) 

249. Government and Politics of Japan. (4) 

259. The Arab-Israeli Confrontation. (4) 

260. East Asian International Relations. (4) 
Religion 

161. World Religions. (2,2) 

(a) Buddhism 

(b) Primal Religion (Taoism and Native American) 

(c) Hinduism 

(d) Islam 

380. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) (Also listed as 
Philosophy 253.) 
Speech Communication 

371 . Comparative Communication. (2,4) 
(a) Japan 




67 



Biology 



William E. Conner, Chair 

Babcock Professor of Botany Mordecai J. Jaff e 

Wake Forest Professors Gerald W. Esch, Raymond E. Kuhn 

Professors Ralph D. Amen, Ronald V. Dimock Jr., 

Herman E. Eure, Peter D. Weigl 

Associate Professors Nina Stromgren Allen, Carole L. Browne, 

Robert A. Browne, William E. Conner, Hugo C. Lane, Wayne L. Silver 

Assistant Professors David J. Anderson, James F. Curran, 

Kathleen A. Kron, Gloria K. Muday 

Adjunct Professors J. Whitfield Gibbons, Harold O. Goodman, 

Terry C. Hazen, Stephen H. Richardson 

Adjunct Associate Professor Margaret Mulvey 

Adjunct Assistant Professor John M. Aho 

At the end of the sophomore year a student electing to major in biology meets with a major 
adviser to plan the course of study for the junior and senior years. The requirements for 
completion of the major are those in effect at the time of the conference, since the 
curriculum and departmental requirements may change slightly during the student's 
period of residence . All majors are required to take Biology 11 2, 1 1 3, 1 1 4, in any order, and 
at least three 300-level 5-credit biology courses. Co-major requirements are Chemistry 111 
and 116 and two additional courses in the physical sciences. 

For students declaring majors in the spring, the requirements for a ma jor are a minimum 
of forty-one credits in biology. A minimum grade average of C on all courses attempted 
in biology at Wake Forest University is required for graduation with a major in biology. 
(Students declaring a major later than the spring should consult with a biology major 
adviser for the specific major requirement at that time.) 

A minor in biology requires twenty credits. Courses taken pass/fail cannot count 
toward a minor. A minimum overall grade average of C must be earned on all Wake Forest 
University biology courses taken to complete a minor. 

Prospective majors are strongly urged to select their first course in biology from among 
Biology 1 1 2, 113 and 114 (any order) . Most prospective majors also should take Chemistry 
111-116 as freshmen; the majority continue with Chemistry 221 and 222 (organic chemis- 
try) as sophomores. 

Advanced work in many areas of biology may require additional courses in mathemat- 
ics, the physical sciences, and other areas of biology . The adviser calls these to the attention 
of the student, depending on individual needs. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in biology. To be graduated with the distinction "Honors in Biology," a 
graduating student must have a minimum GPA of 3.0 in all courses and a 3.3 in his/her 
biology courses. In addition, the student must submit an honors paper (written in the form 
of a scientific paper) describing the research which must be defended before his/her 
advisory committee. Specific details regarding the honors program, including selecting 



68 



an adviser and an advisory committee, deadlines, and writing of the honors thesis, may 
be obtained from the chair of the departmental undergraduate studies committee. 

All 300-level courses have the 112-114 series as prerequisites. Any exceptions to this 
arrangement must be approved by the chair of the department. 

111. Biological Principles. (5) A study of the general principles of living systems with 
focus on the cellular, organismal, and populational levels of biological organization, 
emphasizing the role of heredity and evolution in these systems. Course may count for 
major credit in biology, but is intended for students with little or no previous experience 
in biology. Lab — three hours. 

112. Comparative Physiology. (5) An introduction to the form and function of organisms, 
with emphasis on physical principles, structural organization, and critical function of 
plants and animals. Intended as a beginning course in biology for prospective majors and 
for any students with adequate high school preparation in biology. Lab — three hours. No 
prerequisites. 

113. Evolutionary and Ecological Biology. (5) An introduction to the principles of 
genetics, ecology, and evolution as they apply to organisms, populations and communi- 
ties, with emphasis on evolutionary processes within an ecological context. Intended as 
a beginning course in biology for prospective majors and for any students with adequate 
high school preparation in biology. Lab — three hours. No prerequisites. 

114. Cellular and Molecular Biology. (5) An introduction to the principles and processes 
of cellular and molecular biology including molecular organization of cellular structures, 
energetics, metabolism, and regulation of cellular functions. Intended as a beginning 
course in biology for prospective majors and for any students with adequate high school 
preparation in biology. Lab — three hours. No prerequisites. 

301-305. Topics in Biology. (1-5) Seminar and/or lecture courses in selected topics, some 
involving laboratory instruction. 

312. Genetics. (5) A study of the use of genetic analytical methods to establish the 
principles of inheritance and the mechanisms of gene function. Covered special topics 
include mechanisms of genetic change, the genetics of development, and population 
genetics. The lab stresses analytical methods through problem solving and by demonstra- 
tions of modern genetic techniques. P — Biology 112-114. 

314. Evolution. (4) Analysis of the theories, evidences, and mechanisms of evolution. P — 
Biology 112-114. 

315. Biology of Stress. (4) A lecture course involving a study of the ways in which plants 
and animals react to and cope with abiotic stresses. Foci include mechanisms at the 
ecological, organismic, cellular and molecular levels. A term paper is required, reviewing 
the literature in some area covered by the course. Credit not allowed for both Biology 315 
and 316. P— Biology 112-114. 

316. Biology of Stress. (5) A lecture and laboratory course involving a study of the ways 
in which plants and animals react to and cope with abiotic and biotic stresses. Foci include 
mechanisms at the ecological, organismic, cellular and molecular levels. A laboratory 



69 



project implementing the scientific method and designed to produce new knowledge is 
required. Credit not allowed for both Biology 315 and 316. P — Biology 112-114. 

318. Gender and Science. (3) Lectures and seminars examining the historical and 
contemporary interactions of women and science. Topics include contributions of women 
scientists, a feminist analysis of scientific methodology, and gender issues in science. This 
course may not be taken for major or minor credit in biology, but may be taken towards 
the minor in Women's Studies. 

320. Comparative Anatomy. (5) A study of chorda te animals, with emphasis on compara- 
tive anatomy and phylogeny. Dissection of representative forms in the laboratory. Lab — 
four hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

321. Parasitology. (5) A survey of protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites from the 
standpoint of morphology, taxonomy, life histories, and host/parasite relationships. 
Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal behavior. 
(May count as biology or psychology but not bom; choice to be made at registration.) P — 
Permission of instructor. 

326. Microbiology. (5) The structure, function, and taxonomy of microorganisms with 
emphasis on bacteria. Covered special topics include microbial ecology, industrial 
microbiology, and medical microbiology. The lab emphasizes microbial diversity through 
characterizations of isolates from nature. P — Biology 112-114. 

328. Vascular Plants. (5) A comparative survey of the vascular plants, with emphasis on 
structure, reproduction, classification, and phylogeny. Lab — four hours. P — Biology 112- 
114. 

331. Invertebrates. (5) Systematic study of invertebrates, with emphasis on functional 
morphology, behavior, ecology, and phylogeny. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

333. Vertebrates. (5) Systematic study of vertebrates, with emphasis on evolution, 
physiology, behavior, and ecology. Laboratory devoted to systematic, field, and experi- 
mental studies. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

335. Insect Biology. (5) A study of the diversity, structure, development, physiology, 
behavior, and ecology of insects. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

338. Plant Systematics. (5) A study of the diversity and evolution of flowering plants. 
Lectures emphasize the comparative study of selected plant families, their relationships 
and the use of new information and techniques to enhance our understanding of plant 
evolution. Labs emphasize more practical aspects of plant systematics such as the use of 
identification keys, recognition of common local plants, molecular techniques, and basic 
phylogenetic analysis. P — Biology 112-114. 

339. Principles of Biosystematics. (5) An exploration of the current theoretical and 
practical approaches to the study of macroevolution in plants and animals. Topics include 
theory and methods of constructing evolutionary trees, sources of data and cladistic 
biogeography. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 



70 



340. Ecology. (5) Interrelationships among living systems and their environments; 
structure and dynamics of major ecosystem types; contemporary problems in ecology. 
Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

341. Marine Biology. (5) An introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological 
parameters affecting the distribution of marine organisms. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 
112-114. 

342. Aquatic Ecology. (5) A course designed to cover the general principles and concepts 
of limnology and aquatic biology as they apply to lentic and lotic habita ts. A major portion 
of the field study is centered at the Charles M. Allen Biological Station. Lab — three hours. 
P— Biology 112-114. 

344. Ecological and Evolutionary Genetics. (4) Principles of genetics in the context of 
ecological and evolutionary studies, including micro- and macro-evolutionary processes. 
P — Biology 112-114. Permission of instructor. 

345. Neurobiology. (4) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous system 
including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical 
approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and central nervous systems. 
P— Biology 112-114. 

346. Neurobiology. (5) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous system 
including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical 
approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and central nervous systems. 
The laboratory will emphasize electrophysiological techniques with experiments from 
the cellular to the behavioral level. Lab — three hours. P — Permission of instructor. 

350. Biological Resources and the Environment. (4) Lectures, readings, and discussions 
examining biological resources, their limitations and methods for sustainability . Genetic, 
aquatic, terrestrial, and ecosystem resources will be examined. P — Biology 112-114 or 
permission of instructor. 

351. Animal Physiology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course examining regulatory 
principles, integration in the nervous system and the physiology of the cardiovascular, 
respiratory, and renal systems of vertebrates. P — Biology 112-114. 

352. Plant Physiology. (5) A study of the mechanisms by which various plant systems 
function, thematically structured around the plant life cycle. Lab — three hours. P — 
Biology 112-114. 

354. Endocrinology. (4) A lecture course which considers the evolution of the endocrine 
glands and hormones and the physiology of the main hormonal pathways of vertebrates. 
P— Biology 112-114. 

355. Avian Biology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course emphasizing ecological and 
evolutionary influences on the physiology, behavior, and population biology of birds. 
Includes taxonomy of the world's major bird groups. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112- 
114. 



71 



360. Development. (5) A description of the major events and processes of animal 
development, with an analysis of the causal factors underlying them. Special attention is 
given to the embryonic development of vertebrates, but consideration is also given to 
other types of development and other organisms. Topics include fertilization, early 
development, growth and cell division, cell differentiation, the role of genes in develop- 
ment, cell interaction, morphogenesis, regeneration, birth defects, and cancer. Lab — three 
hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

362. Immunology. (4) A study of the components and protective mechanisms of the 
immune system. P — Biology 112-114. 

363. Sensory Biology. (4) A lecture course involving a study of the nature of energy in the 
environment and how it is absorbed and transduced in sensory systems. Anatomical, 
physiological, biochemical and biophysical approaches will be integrated in the study of 
sensory mechanisms in plants and animals. A term paper is required reviewing the 
literature in some area covered by the course. Credit not allowed for both Biology 363 and 

364. P— Biology 112-114. 

364. Sensory Biology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course involving a study of energy in 
the environment and how it is absorbed and transduced in sensory systems. Anatomical, 
physiological, biochemical and biophysical approaches will be integrated in the study of 
sensory mechanisms in plants and animals. A laboratory project implementing the 
scientific method and designed to produce new knowledge is required. Credit not 
allowed for both Biology 363 and 364. P— Biology 112-114. 

365. Cell Motility. (5) A lecture and laboratory course exploring the movements in and of 
cells (for example: mitosis, cytoplasmic streaming, muscle contraction, nerve transport). 
Light and electron microscopic methods as well as biochemical and biophysical ap- 
proaches to the study of cell motility will be discussed. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112- 
114. 

366. Human and Non-Human Evolution. (4) Investigation of primate and human 
evolution, both in ana tomy and in behavior. (May count as either biology or anthropology 
but not both; choice to be made at registration.) P — Permission of instructor. 

370. Biochemistry I. Enzymes and Metabolism. (4) A lecture course introducing the 
principles of biochemistry, with an emphasis on the experimental approaches that 
elucidated these principles. Major topics will include structure, function, and biosynthesis 
of biological molecules, analysis of enzyme function and activity, and regulation of 
metabolic pathways. P — Biology 112-114. 

371. Biochemistry I. Enzymes and Metabolism Laboratory. (1) The laboratory will 
emphasize approaches to isolation and analysis of both proteins and nucleic acids. Lab — 
three hours. P — Biology 112-11 4, P — or C — Biology 370. This course, paired with Biology 
370, may be used as one of the three 300-level 5-credit courses required for the major. 

372. Biochemistry II. Molecular Biology. (5) An analysis of the molecular mechanisms by 
which stored genetic information directs cellular development. Emphasis will be placed 
on storage and transmission of genetic information, regulation of gene expression, and the 



72 



role of these processes in development. The laboratory will focus on modem techniques 
of recombinant DNA analysis. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114 and 370. 

373. Techniques in Electron Microscopy. (5) An introduction to the electron microscope 
as an experimental tool in biology. Includes instruction in common techniques used in the 
field and lecture on recognition and interpretation of cellular ultrastructure. Lab — three 
hours. P— Biology 112-114. 

375. Optical Methods in Biological Sciences. (5) Methods in light and electron micros- 
copy including specimen preparation, image generation and recording. Students will 
learn the basic techniques of photography (developing and printing), fixation and 
sectioning of specimens, and video-enhanced, computer-generated imaging as well as 
image and motion analysis. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

376. Ichthyology. (5) A comparative study of structure /function, classification, and 
phylogeny of fish. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

380. B ios tatistics. (4) An introduction to statistical methods used by biologists, including 
descriptive statistics, hypothesis-testing, analysis of variance, and regression and corre- 
lation. May count as biology or anthropology but not both; choice to be made at 
registration. A student who receives credit for this course may not also receive credit for 
Anthropology 380, Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Sociology 380. 

381. Biostatistks Laboratory. (1) Application of computer-based statistical software. P — 
Biology 112-11 4, P — or C — Biology 380 . This course, pa ired with Biology 380, may not be 
used to satisfy one of the three 300-level 5-credit courses required for the major. 

382. Behavioral Ecology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course analyzing behavioral 
solutions to challenges faced by animals in nature, emphasizing the role of natural 
selection in shaping behavior. Topics include mating systems, optimal foraging, sociobi- 
ology, parental care, and evolution of sexual reproduction. P — Biology 112-114 or 
permission of instructor. 

385. Cellular Physiology. (5) In-depth examination of current topics in cell biology such 
as cellular signalling, the extracellular matrix, biogenesis of mitochondria and chloro- 
plasts, control of cell division, protein sorting in the Golgi, protein translocation across 
membranes, and molecular motors. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112-114. 

391, 392. Research in Biology. (2,2) Independent library and laboratory investigation 
carried out under the supervision of a member of the staff. Pass/fail or for grade at 
discretion of the instructor. P — Permission of instructor. 

393, 394. Research in Biology. (2,2) Courses designed for students who wish to continue 
research projects beyond Biology 391 and 392. Pass/fail optional. Not to be counted 
toward major. P — Permission of instructor. 

396. Biomedical Ethics. (4) Lectures and seminars examining contemporary issues in 
biomedical ethics including the proper role of biomedical research, and current controver- 
sies in health care and medical practice. P — Biology 112-114. 



73 



397. Seminar in Biology. (2-4) Consideration of major biological topics through intensive 
reading and discussions. P — Biology 112-114. 



Chemistry 



Willie L. Hinze, Chair 

Wake Forest Professors Roger A. Hegstrom, Willie L. Hinze 

Professors Phillip J. Ham rick Jr., Charles F. Jackets, 

Susan C. Jackels, Gordon A. Melson, Ronald E. Noftle 

Associate Professors Huw M. L. Davies, Dilip K. Kondepudi, Mark E. Welker 

Assistant Professors James C. Fishbein, N. Ganapathisubramanian, 

Bradley T. Jones, Abdessadek Lachgar 

Visiting Assistant Professor Philip S. Hammond 

The department offers programs leading to the BA and BS degrees in chemistry and is on 
the list of departments certified by the American Chemical Society. 

The bachelor of arts degree in chemistry includes Chemistry 1 1 1, 1 1 6, 221, 222, 341, 342 
or 344 and 361; Mathematics 111, 112; and Physics 113, 114. 

The bachelor of science degree in chemistry includes Chemistry 111,116, 221, 222, 334, 
341,344, either 351 or 356/357,361,381,382, 383,391 or 392; Mathematics 111 andll2and 
either 113 or 301; and Physics 113 and 114. 

Additional mathematics and science courses are strongly recommended for BS degree 
candidates. The number and selection of these courses depends on the professional goals 
of the individual student. Examples of these courses are Mathematics 302 and 304; Physics 
161 and 164; and Biology 370 and 371 . 

The department also offers a five-year BA/MS degree program. Students qualifying for 
the program may receive a tuition scholarship in the senior year. For information consult 
the department chair. 

A minor in chemistry requires twenty-three credits in chemistry and must include at 
least one of the following courses: 334, 341, 342 or 344, 351, 356/357, 361, 362. The 
department will not accept courses taken pass/ fail to count toward the minor. 

Unless otherwise stated, all chemistry courses are open to chemistry majors on a letter- 
grade basis only. Majors are also required to complete on a letter-grade basis the required 
physics and mathematics courses. 

A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in the first two years of chemistry is required of 
students who elect to major in the department. Admission to any class is contingent upon 
satisfactory grades in prerequisite courses, and registration for advanced courses must be 
approved by the department. Candidates for either the BA or BS degree with a major in 
chemistry must have a minimum GPA of 2.0 in their chemistry courses numbered 200 or 
above. 

Qualified majors are considered for honors in chemistry. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Chemistry," a student must have a minimum GPA in chemistry 
courses of 3.3 and a minimum overall GPA of 3.0. In addition, the honors candidate must 



74 



satisfactorily complete an approved research project, prepare a paper describing the 
project, and present results at a seminar for departmental approval. For additional 
information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 
For the BS major, the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is typical: 

Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 

Chemistry 111, 116 Chemistry 221, 222 Chemistry 341, 342 Chemistry 334 

Mathematics 111, 112 Physics 113, 114 Chemistry 383 Chemistry 361 

Chemistry 391 or 392 Chemistry 

Mathematics or 300-Level 

Science Elective 

For the BA major the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is typical: 

Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 

Chemistry 111, 116 Chemistry 221, 222 Chemistry 341, 342 Chemistry 361 

Mathematics 111, 112 Physics 113, 114 

For variations in either of the schedules above, the student should consult a member of 
the faculty in chemistry. 

Students electing laboratory courses in chemistry are required to pay for breakage and 
for certain consumable materials as determined by the department. 

111. College Chemistry. (5) Fundamental chemical principles. Laboratory covers experi- 
mental aspects of basic concepts. Lab — three hours. 

116. Equilibrium and Analysis. (5) Fundamental principles of equilibrium as applied to 
inorganic and generalized acid-base systems. Laboratory covers aspects of quantitative 
and inorganic qualitative analysis. Lab — three hours. P — Chemistry 111. 

221, 222. Organic Chemistry. (5, 5) Principles and reactions of organic chemistry. Lai) — 
four hours. P — Chemistry 116. 

301, 302. Elective Research. (0,0) P — Permission of instructor. Summers only. 

334. Chemical Analysis. (5) Theoretical and practical applications of modern methods of 
chemical analysis. Lab — four hours. C — Chemistry 341 . 

341. Physical Chemistry 1.(5) Fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics and electro- 
chemistry, phenomenological kinetics, and introductory computational methods. Lab — 
four hours. P— Chemistry 116, Math 111, Physics 113-114. C— Math 112. 

342. Physical Chemistry HA. (5) Fundamentals of quantum mechanics, statistical thermo- 
dynamics, and introductory computational methods. Lab — four hours. P — Chemistry 
341, Math 111-112, Physics 113-114. 

344. Physical Chemistry HB. (5) Fundamentals of quantum mechanics, statistical thermo- 
dynamics, and introductory computational methods. Lab — four hours. P — Chemistry 
341, Math 111-112 and 301 (or 113), Physics 113-114. 



75 



351. Special Topics in Biochemistry. (4) Fundamentals of biochemistry, with particular 
emphasis on mechanistic analysis of metabolic pathways, enzymatic activity, and drug 
action. P — Chemistry 222. 

356, 357. Chemical Spectroscopy . (2,2) Fundamental aspects of the theory and application 
of chemical spectroscopy, as found in the areas of analytical, inorganic, organic, and 
physical chemistry. Emphasis will vary. Seven-week courses. P — Chemistry 342 or 344, 
361, or permission of instructor. 

361. Inorganic Chemistry. (5) Principles and reactions of inorganic chemistry. Lab — four 
hours. P — Chemistry 342 or 344. 

381, 382. Chemistry Seminar. (0,0) Discussions of contemporary research. Attendance 
required of BS chemistry majors in the junior and senior years. 

383. Chemical Literature. (1) Introduction to the chemical literature and searching 
techniques for the acquisition of chemical information. P — Chemistry 222. 

391, 392. Undergraduate Research. (2,2) Undergraduate research. Lab — eight hours. 




76 



Classical Languages 

John L. Andronica, Chair 

Professors John L. Andronica, Robert W. Ulery Jr. 

Assistant Professors Mary L. B. Pendergraft, James T. Powell 

The Department of Classical Languages offers three majors: Greek, Latin, and classical 
studies. Minors are offered in Greek, Latin, and classical studies. 

A major in Greek requires forty credits in the department. Thirty-two of these credits 
must be in the Greek language. Classics 270 is also a requirement. 

A minor in Greek requires twenty-five credits: Greek 111-112, 153, 211, and either 212 
or 231; and Classics 270. 

A major in Latin requires thirty-two credits in the department beyond Latin 153. 
Twenty-four of these credits must be in Latin courses. Classics 271 also is a requirement, 
and Classics 270 is recommended. 

A minor in Latin requires three 200-level courses in Latin; Classics 271; and one 
additional course (three or four credits) in Greek or Latin or classics. 

A major in classical studies requires fifty-six credits. A minimum of thirty-six credits of 
course work must be taken in the department. A maximum of forty-eight credits in the 
department may be exceeded only if a student undertakes course work in both Latin and 
Greek. The student must take a minimum of two courses at the 200-level in either Greek 
or Latin and the following: Art 241 (Ancien tArt), Classics 265 (GreekLiterature), Classics 272 
(Latin Literature), Classics 270 (Greek Civilization), and Classics 271 (Roman Civilization). 

A maximum of sixteen credits may be taken in the following: Art 244 (Greek Art), 245 
(Roman Art),246(GreekandRomanArchitecture),252(RomanescjueArt);History215,2\6(The 
AncimtWorld);Fhi\osophy201(AncwntandMedievalPhilosophy),230(Plato),231(ArisM^ 
Politics 271 (Pla to, Aristotle, and Classical Political Philosophy), 274 (Noble Greeks and Romans); 
Religion 31 1 (Poetic Literature of the Hebrew Bible), 314 (Ancient Israel and HerNeighbors), 363 
(Hellenistic Religions); Hebrew 111, 112, 153, 211. Other courses maybe allowed with the 
permission of the department. 

A minor in classical studies requires five courses in addition to Latin or Greek 153: 
Classics 265, 272, and either 270 or 271; and two additional courses (8 credits) in Greek, 
Latin, classics, or other courses allowed by the department. 

The requirements for certification to teach Latin in high school are the same as the 
requirements for a major in Latin. A major in classical studies serves as an appropriate part 
of the program of studies required for certification to teach Latin in high school. A student 
wishing to secure this certification should confer with the chair of the department. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in Latin, Greek, or classical studies. To be graduated with the designation 
"Honors in Latin," "Honors in Greek," or "Honors in Classical Studies," a student must 
complete an honors research project and pass a comprehensive oral examination. For 
honors in Latin or Greek, at least two of the courses counted toward the major must be 
seminar courses; for honors in classical studies, at least one seminar course in Latin or 
Greek is required. For additional information, members of the departmental faculty 
should be consulted. 



77 



Greek 

111, 112. Elementary Greek. (5,5) Greek grammar; selections from Greek prose writers 
and poets. 

153. Intermediate Greek. (4) Grammar and selected readings. 

211. Plato. (4) Selections from the dialogues of Plato. 

212. Homer. (4) Selections from the Iliad and the Odyssey. 

221. Greek Readings. (2,3, or 4) A course designed to meet individual needs and interests. 
231. The Greek New Testament. (4) Selections from the Greek New Testament. 

241. Greek Tragedy. (3) Euripides' Medea. This course includes a study of the origin and 
history of Greek tragedy, with collateral reading of selected tragedies in translation. 
Seminar. 

242. Greek Comedy. (3) Aristophanes' Clouds. This course includes a study of the origin 
and history of Greek comedy, with collateral reading of selected comedies in translation. 
Seminar. 

291, 292. Honors in Greek. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Latin 

111, 112. Elementary Latin. (4,4) Introduction to Latin grammar. 

113. Intensive Elementary Latin. (5) Introduction to Latin grammar. Covers material of 
Latin 111 and 112 in one semester. Not open to students who have had Latin 111 or 112. 

153. Intermediate Latin. (5) Grammar review and selected readings. 

211. Introduction to Latin Poetry. (4) Readings primarily from Virgil's Aeneid, with an 
introduction to literary criticism. 

212. Introduction to Latin Prose. (4) Readings primarily from the orations of Cicero, with 
attention to the elements of rhetoric in Roman public discourse. 

216. Roman Lyric Poetry. (4) An interpretation and evaluation of lyric poetry through 
readings from the poems of Catullus and Horace. 

221. Roman Historians. (4) Readings in the works of Sallust, Livy, or Tacitus, with 
attention to the historical background and the norms of ancient historiography. 

225. Roman Epistolography. (4) Selected readings from the correspondence of Cicero and 
Pliny the Younger and the verse epistles of Horace and Ovid. 

226. Roman Comedy. (4) Readings of selected comedies of Plautus and Terence, with a 
study of the traditions of comedy and dramatic techniques. 

231. Roman Elegy. (4) Readings from the poems of TibuUus, Propertius, and Ovid, with 
study of the elegiac tradition. 



78 



241. Roman Satire. (4) Selected readings from Horace and Juvenal, with attention to the 
origin and development of hexameter satire. 

243. Latin Readings. (2,3, or 4) A course designed to meet individual needs and interests. 

250. Prose Composition. (2) Exercises in writing of Latin prose, with an introduction to 
prose sty lis tics. 

398, 399. The Teaching of Latin. (4,4) A reading course and workshop in problems of Latin 
pedagogy and the secondary Latin curriculum, designed to meet the needs and interests 
of selected students. 

Seminars 

The following seminars are offered by members of the faculty on topics and authors of 
their choice. A paper is required. 

261. Seminar in Poetry of the Republican Period. (3) 

262. Seminar in Prose of the Republican Period. (3) 

281. Seminar in Augustan and Later Poetry. (3) 

282. Seminar in Augustan and Later Prose. (3) 

291, 292. Honors in Latin. (2, 2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Classics 

151. Ethics in Greece and Rome. (2) Reading and discussion of Aristotle's Ethics and 
Cicero's On Moral Du ties, with attention to our own ethical dilemmas. A knowledge of the 
Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

220. Greek and Latin in Current Use. (3) A systematic study of Greek and Latin loan 
words, roots, prefixes, and suffixes as elements of English and specialized vocabularies 
(e.g., scientific and legal). A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

251. Classical Mythology. (4) A study of the most important myths of the Greeks and 
Romans. Many of the myths are studied in their literary context. A knowledgeof the Greek 
and Latin languages is not required. 

252. Women in Antiquity. (3,4) The course explores the place of women in Greek and 
Roman society, men's views of them, their views of themselves, and their contribution to 
society, through primary source readings from the ancient authors. A knowledge of the 
Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

253. Greek Epic Poetry. (4) Oral epic poetry, with primary emphasis on the Iliad and the 
Odyssey of Homer and the later development of the genre. A knowledge of the Greek 
language is not required. 



79 



254. Roman Epic Poetry. (4) A study of the Latin treatment and development of the literary 
form, with emphasis on Lucretius, Virgil, Ovid, and Lucan. A knowledge of the Latin 
language is not required. 

263. Tragic Drama. (4) A study of the origins and development of Greek tragedy and its 
influence on Roman writers, with readings from Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. A 
knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

264. Greek and Roman Comedy. (4) Representative works of Aristophanes, Menander, 
Plautus, and Terence, with attention to the origins and development of comedy. A 
knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

265. A Survey of Greek Literature. (4) A study of selections from Greek literature in 
English translation. A knowledge of the Greek language is not required. 

270. Greek Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on those phases of Greek 
civilization which have particular significance for the modern world. A knowledge of the 
Greek language is not required. 

271. Roman Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on the general subject of 
Rome's contribution to the modern world. A knowledge of the Latin language is 
not required. 

272. A Survey of Latin Literature. (4) A study of selections from Latin literature in English 
translation. A knowledge of the Latin language is not required. 

279. Studies in Roman Biography. (2,3, or 4) A study in depth of a key figure of Roman 
history using the evidence of history, literature, numismatics, and epigraphy as well as art 
and archeology when appropriate. A knowledge of the Latin language is not required. 

280. Topics in Greek History. (4) The course will examine three central events in Greek 
history: the Persian War (490-479 B.C.), the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.), and the 
career of Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.), through close study of the works of 
Herodotus and Thucydides and of the Alexander tradition. Particular attention will be 
devoted to literary form and historiographical method. A knowledge of the Greek 
language is not required. 

285. Interdisciplinary Seminar in the Greco-Roman World. (4) This seminar is designed 
specially to meet the needs of students earning the interdisciplinary minor in early 
Christian studies, but is not limited to them. It will explore from various points of view the 
culture of the Mediterranean world from which Christianity was born and grew : literature 
and art, history and economics, religions and philosophies. Also offered by the Depart- 
ment of Religion as Religion 285. Course may be repeated for credit. 

288. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) 

291, 292. Honors in Classical Studies. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 



80 



Cultural Resource Preservation 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Ned Woodall (Anthropology), Coordinator 

The Departments of Anthropology, Art, History, and Sociology offer an interdisciplinary 
minor in Cultural Resource Preservation (CRP) which will give students preliminary 
training in the field of historic preservation and cultural resource management aimed at 
the protection and enhancement of archeological, historical, and architectural resources. 
The minor requires History 366, Studies in Historic Preservation (4) and four other courses 
for a total of twenty credits, distributed among at least three departments. The following 
courses may be included in the minor. (See course descriptions under appropriate 
listings.) 

Anthropology 

152. General Anthropology II: Cultural Anthropology. (4) (May count as a Division 

IV requirement.) 

300. Museum Practicum. (4) 

310. Museum Design and Operation. (4) 

370. Old World Prehistory. (4) 

374. Prehistory of North America. (4) 

378. Conservation Archeology. (4) 

381, 382. Archeological Research. (4,4) 
Art 

233. American Architecture. (4) 

275. History of Landscape Architecture. (4) 

288. Modern Architecture. (4) 

293. Practicum. (4) 
History 

381, 382. Preservation Practicum I, II. (4,4) 

398. Individual Study. (1-4) 
Sociology 

151 . Principles of Sociology. (4) (May Count as a Division IV requirement.) 

205. Photography in the Social Sciences. (4) 

Students intending to minor in Cultural Resource Preservation should consult the 
adviser appointed from one of the participating departments and listed with the registrar. 
Students are strongly urged to consult the adviser during the first semester of their junior 
year. Equivalent courses must be approved by the adviser. 



81 



Early Christian Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 

Mary Pendergraft (Classics) and 

Kenneth G. Hoglund (Religion), Coordinators 

The interdisciplinary minor in Early Christian Studies requires twenty-two to twenty- 
three credits. The student must take Greek 231, The Greek New Testament (4); Religion 112, 
Introduction to Vie New Testament (4), or 164, TJie Formation oftlie Christian Tradition (4); 
Classics 270, Greek Civilization (3), or 271 , Roman Civilization (3); and Classics/Religion 285, 
Interdisciplinary Seminar in tlve Greco-Roman World (4). The student must take two addi- 
tional courses, with no more than one from any one department, from the following list. 
(See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

Art 

2M. Ancient Art. (4) 

244. Greek Art. (4) 

245. Roman Art. (4) 

296. Art History Seminar. (2,4) 

a. Ancient Art 

b. Medieval Art 
Classics 

270. Greek Civilization. (3) 

271. Roman Civilization. (3) 

(whichever is not used to satisfy the requirement for the Early Christian 

Studies minor) 
History 

215, 216. Vie Ancient World. (4,4) 
Philosophy 

232. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. (4) 
Religion 

319. Visions of tlve End: Jewish and Christian Apocalyptic. (4) 

320. Jesus and tlve Synoptic Gospels. (4) 
322. Tlie General Epistles. (4) 

326. Early Christian Theologians: Paul. (4) 

327. Early Christian Theologiatis: the Fourth Evangelist. (4) 

328. The New Testament and Ethics. (4) 
363. Hellenistic Religions. (4) 



82 



East Asian Languages and Literatures 

Janice Bardsley, Coordinator 
Assistant Professors Janice Bardsley and Patrick Moran 

Courses are offered in the Chinese and Japanese languages to meet the basic requirements 
in language. In addition, students may study abroad with Wake Forest programs in China 
and Japan. 

Chinese 

Chinese 111, 112. Elementary Chinese. (5,5) Emphasis on the development of listening 
and speaking skills in Mandarin. Introduction to the writing system and to basic sentence 
patterns. Lab required. 

Chinese 151, 152. Intermediate Chinese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, 
conversation, and composition. Lab required. P — Chinese 112 or equivalent. 

Chinese 199. Individual Study. (1-4) P — Permission of instructor. 

Chinese 211. Wen-xue: Introduction to Literature Written in Chinese. (4) Readings in 
Chinese in prose and poetry. P — Chinese 152 or permission of instructor. Satisfies a 
Division I requirement. 

*Humanities 221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) 

"Humanities 348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) 

'Humanities 349. Chinese Liberation Literature since 1948. (2) 

"Humanities 350. Modern Chinese Literature. (2) 

*Philosophy 253. Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) 

Japanese 

Japanese 111, 112. Elementary Japanese. (5,5) Emphasis on the development of listening 
and speaking skills. Introduction to the writing systems. Basic sentence patterns covered. 
Lab required. 

Japanese 151, 152. Intermediate Japanese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, 
conversation, and composition. Lab required. P — Japanese 112 or equivalent. 

Japanese 199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of instructor. 

Japanese 211. Bungaku: Introduction to Literature Written in Modern Japanese. (4) 

Readings in Japanese in prose and poetry. P — Japanese 152 or permission of instructor. 
Satisfies a Division I requirement. 



83 



'Humanities 219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) 
"Humanities 347. Women Writers in Japanese Society. (4) 

*See the appropriate listings for descriptions and prerequisites of courses given in English. 

East Asian Studies 

(Foreign Area Study) 
Win-Chiat Lee (Philosophy), Coordinator 

East Asian Studies requires twenty-four credits, which must be taken from at least three 
different departments. One of these must be either Chinese 211 or Japanese 21 1 . Although 
Asian Studies 381, Independent Research in Asian Studies, may be repeated for credit, only 
four of these credits can apply toward East Asian Studies . Appropriate credit in Ea st Asian 
Studies may also may be obtained by study in China through the SASASAAS/Wake 
Forest program or in Japan through the Wake Forest/Tokai University program, or 
through other Wake Forest approved courses of study in Asia. Study abroad is strongly 
encouraged but not required. Courses may be chosen from among the following list. (See 
course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

Anthropology 

354. Peoples and Cultures of China. (4) 
Asian Studies 

381. Independent Research in Asian Studies. (2-4) 
Chinese Language and Literature 

111,112. Elementary Chinese. (5,5) 

151, 152. Intermediate Chinese. (5,5) 

199. Individual Study. (1-4) 

211. Wen-xue: Introduction to Literature Written in Chinese. (4) 
History 

310. Seminar. (4) 

341. History of Women in Modern Ask. (4) 

343. Imperial China. (4) 

344. Modern China. (4) 

347. Japan Since World War II. (4) 

348. Modern Japan. (4) 
Humanities 

219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) 
221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) 

347. Women Writers in Japanese Society. (4) 

348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) 

349. Chinese Liberation Literature since 1948. (2) 

350. Modern Chinese Literature. (4) 



84 



Japanese Language and Literature 

111, 112. Elementary Japanese. (5,5) 

151, 152. Intermediate Japanese. (5,5) 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) 

211. Bungaku: Introduction to Literature Written in Modern Japanese. (4) 
Philosophy 

253. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) (Also listed as 
Religion 380.) 
Politics 

248. Government and Politics of China. (4) 

249. Government and Politics of Japan. (4) 
260. East Asian International Relations. (4) 
292. Seminar in Comparative Politics. (4) 

Religion 

161. World Religions. (2,2) 

a. Buddhism 

b. Primal Religion (Taoism and Native American) 

380. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) (Also listed as 
Philosophy 253.) 
Speech Communication 

371. Comparative Communication. (2,4) 
a. Japan 



East European Studies 

(Foreign Area Study) 
Perry Patterson (Economics), Coordinator 

Russian 215 or 216 is required, plus twenty-four credits from the following list. (See course 
descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

Anthropology 

350. European Peasant Communities. (4) 
Economics 

253. Economics of Communism. (4) 
History 

331. Russia: Origins to 1917. (4) 

332. History of the Soviet Union. (4) 
Humanities 

215. Germanic and Slavic Literature. (4) (Satisfies a Division I requirement.) 
218. Eastern European Literature. (4) (Satisfies a Division I requirement.) 



85 



Politics 

232. Government and Politics in the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and the 
Transitional Period. (4) 
Russian 

Four additional credits at the 200-level. 

With the approval of the coordinator, students also may take relevant seminars, 
colloquia, or independent studies in any of the above departments. 



Economics 

J. Daniel Hammond, Chair 

Reynolds Prof essor John H. Wood 

Professors David G. Brown, Donald E. Frey, J. Daniel Hammond, 

John C. Moorhouse 

Associate Professors Claire Holton Hammond, Michael S. Lawlor, 

Perry L. Patterson 

Adjunct Associate Professor Gary R. Albrecht 

Assistant Professors Allin Cottrell, Paul F. Huck, Robert M. Whaples 

Visiting Assistant Professor J. Farley Ordovensky 

The objectives of the economics program are to help prepare students for effective 
participation in the decision-making processes of society, to develop analytical skills in 
solving economic problems, to promote a better understanding of alternative economic 
systems, and to provide a balanced curriculum to prepare students for graduate study or 
positions in industry and government. 

The major in economics consists of thirty-six credits in economics, including Economics 
150, 205, 206, 207, and 208. The remaining economics courses are selected by the student 
and his or her adviser. A minimum grade of C is required in Economics 150, 205, and 207, 
and an overall C average in economics courses. The student also must take and pass 
Mathematics 109 and either Mathematics 108 or 111. 

The minor in economics consists of twenty-four credits, including Economics 150, 205, 
and 207. The mathematics and minimum grade requirements for the minor are the same 
as for the major. 

Economics majors are encouraged to take complementary courses in mathematics, the 
humanities, or other social sciences to sharpen their analytical skills and to acquire a 
broader understanding of important issues. The faculty adviser will assist each student in 
determining the particular combination of courses that satisfies his or her needs. 

Economics majors with a grade average of at least 3.0 and 3.3 in economics may 
graduate with "Honors in Economics" by satisfying the research requirement of Econom- 
ics 298. It is recommended but not required that Economics 297 be taken first. 

The Department of Economics and the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six credits, 



86 



affords the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the development 
of economic theory, models, and quantitative analysis. The major consists of the following 
course requirements: Economics 150, 205, 207, 208, 215, 218; Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 
121, 251; and three additional courses chosen with the approval of the program advisers. 
Recommended courses are Economics 206, 212, 223, 231, 232, 235, 251, 252, and Mathemat- 
ics 253, 31 1,312, 348, 352, 353, 357, and 358. Students electing the joint major must receive 
permission from both the Department of Economics and the Department of Mathematics 
and Computer Science. A minimum grade average of C in all courses attempted for the 
mathematical economics joint major is required for graduation. 

Highly qualified majors are encouraged to apply for admission to the honors program 
in the joint major. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Mathematical 
Economics," a student must satisfy the requirements of Economics 298 or Mathematics 
381 by successfully completing a senior research project. Consult the program advisers for 
additional information. 

For the BA in economics the following schedule is typical: 



Freshman 

Lower Division 
requirements 



Sophomore 

Economics 150 
Mathematics 108 

or 111 
Mathematics 109 



Junior* 

Economics 205, 206 
Economics 207, 208 



Senior 

Four electives 
in economics 



*It is expected that economics majors will complete the intermediate theory sequences in their junior year. 

For the BS in mathematical economics the following schedule is typical: 
Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 



Mathematics 111,112 Economics 150 
Lower Division Mathematics 113, 

requirements 121 



Economics 205, 207 
Economics 208, 215 
Mathematics 251 



Economics 218 
Three electives in 

economics and/or 

mathematics 



150. Introduction to Economics. (4) A survey of micro and macroeconomic principles. 
Introduction to basic concepts, characteristic data and trends, and some analytic tech- 
niques. Preference in enrollment will be given to students with sophomore or upperclass 
standing. 

205. Intermediate Microeconomics I. (4) Development of demand and supply analysis, 
neoclassical theory of household and firm behavior, and alternative market structures. 
P — Economics 150. 

206. Intermediate Microeconomics II. (4) More advanced theory of maximizing 
behavior of economic agents with discussion of risk, uncertainty, and economic 
dynamics. Theory employed in assessment of policy issues. P — Economics 205. 

207. Intermediate Macroeconomics I. (4) Development of macroeconomic concepts of 
national income, circular flow, income determination, IS-LM analysis, and Phillips 



87 



curves. Emphasizes contributions of Keynes and the Keynesian tradition, including some 
attention to primary literature. P — Economics 150. 

208. Intermediate Macroeconomics II. (4) Considers extensions of Keynesian theory, 
such as the post-Keynesians, and alternatives to Keynesian theory, such as monetarism, 
traditional classical, and new classical theories. More advanced tools of macroeconomic 
analysis may be introduced, for instance large forecasting models or dynamics. P — 
Economics 207. 

212. Economic Forecasting. (4) A computer-oriented application of modern econometric 
and time series methods for forecasting economic variables. P — Economics 150. C — 
Economics 207. 

215. Introduction to Econometrics. (4) Economic analysis through quantitative methods, 
with emphasis on model construction and empirical research. P — Economics 205, 207 and 
Mathematics 109 or 121. 

218. Seminar in Mathematical Economics. (4) Calculus and matrix methods used to 
develop basic tools of economic analysis. P — Economics 205, 207 and Mathematics 111, 
112. 

221. Public Finance. (4) An examination of the economic behavior of government. 
Includes principles of taxation, spending, borrowing, and debt-management. P — Eco- 
nomics 150. C — Economics 205. 

222. Monetary Theory and Policy. (4) An investigation of the nature of money, the 
macroeconomic significance of money, financial markets, and monetary policy. P — 
Economics 207. 

223. Financial Markets. (4) A study of the functions, structure, and performance of 
financial markets. P — Economics 205, 207. 

224. Law and Economics. (4) An economic analysis of property, contracts, torts, criminal 
behavior, due process, and law enforcement. P — Economics 205. 

225. Public Choice. (4) Traditional tools of economic analysis are employed to explore 
such topics in political science as political organization, elections, coalition formation, the 
optimal provision of public goods, and the scope of government. P — Economics 205. 

231. Economics of Industry. (4) Analysis of the link between market structure and market 
performance in U.S. industries from theoretical and empirical viewpoints. Examines the 
efficiency of different firm practices including mergers and cartels. Case studies include 
automobiles, steel, agriculture, computers, sports, and telecommunications. P — Econom- 
ics 150. C — Economics 205. 

232. Business and Government. (2,4) Analysis of the logic and effectiveness of various 
regulatory instruments used by government to affect the structure and performance of 
industry. Principal topics include economic regulation of natural monopoly, antitrust 
policy, and deregulation in transportation and other industries. P — Economics 150. C — 
Economics 205. 



88 



235. Labor Theory. (4) A survey of neoclassical labor economics. Includes recent 
developments in the macroeconomics of the labor market, including expectations and 
wage inflation and the wage-productivity-price relationship. P — Economics 205, 207. 

246. Urban Economics. (4) Application of economic theory to suburbanization, land 
values, urban decay and redevelopment, zoning, location decisions of firms and house- 
holds, and metropolitan fiscal problems. P — Economics 205. 

248. Resource Economics. (4) The economic theory of natural resource allocation and 
environmental quality. P — Economics 205. 

251. International Trade. (4) Development of the theory of international trade patterns 
and prices and the effects of trade restrictions such as tariffs and quotas. P — Economics 205. 

252. International Finance. (4) A study of foreign exchange and Eurocurrency markets, 
balance of payments, and macroeconomic policy in open economies. P — Economics 205, 207. 

253. Economics of Communism. (4) A theoretical and institutional examination of several 
non-capi ta list economies, with special reference to the Soviet Union, the People's Republic 
of China, and Eastern Europe. P — Economics 150. 

258. Economic Growth and Development. (4) A study of the problems of economic 
growth, with particular attention to the less developed countries of the world. P — 
Economics 205, 207. 

261. American Economic Development. (4) The application of economic theory to 
historical problems and issues in the American economy. P — Economics 150. 

262. History of Economic Thought. (4) A historical survey of the main developments in 
economic thought from the Biblical period to the twentieth century. P — Economics 205, 207. 

265. Economic Philosophers. (2,4) An in-depth study of the doctrines and influence of up 
to three major figures in economics, such as Smith, Marx, and Keynes. P — Economics 205, 207. 

270. Current Economic Issues. (2,4) Examines current economic issues using economic 
theory and empirical evidence. Topics may include recent macroeconomics events, 
government budget deficits, banking insurance, corporate takeovers, international eco- 
nomic rivalries, economic differences by race and gender, health care, welfare, labor 
unions, legal reform, global warming and others. P — Economics 150. 

271, 272. Selected Areas in Economics. (1,2,4; 1,2,4) A survey of an important area in 
economics not included in the regular course offerings. The economics of housing, 
education, technology, and health services are examples. Students should consult the 
instructor to ascertain topic before enrolling. P — Economics 205, 207. 

290. Individual Study. (2,4) Directed readings in a specialized area of economics. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

297. Preparing for Economic Research. (2) Designed to assist students in selecting a 
research topic and beginning the study of the selected topic. P — Permission of instructor. 

298. Economic Research. (4) Development and presentation of a senior research project. 
Required of candidates for departmental honors. P — Permission of department. 



89 



Education 

Joseph O. Milner, Chair 

Professors John P. Anderson, Patricia M. Cunningham, 

Thomas M. Elmore, Samuel T. Gladding, John H. Litcher, 

Joseph O. Milner, Linda N. Nielsen, J. Don Reeves 

Associate Professors Robert H. Evans, Leonard P. Roberge 

Assistant Professors Leah P. McCoy, Mary Lynn B. Redmond, 

Loraine M. Stewart 

Lecturers G. Dianne Mitchell, Marianne A. Schubert 

Research Associate Shelley L. Olson 

Visiting Instructor Marjorie Johnson 

Wake Forest University believes that the teaching profession is important to society and 
that its welfare is significantly affected by the quality of educational leadership. One of the 
important objectives of the University has been and continues to be the preparation of 
teachers and other professional school personnel. The University's commitment to quality 
in teacher education is demonstrated by selective admission to the program, a wide range 
of professional courses, and closely supervised internships appropriate to the profes- 
sional development of students. 

Prospective elementary, science, and social studies teachers earn certification in those 
broad areas and major in education. Prospective secondary teachers earn a professional 
minor in education and major in other departments. In addition to the professional 
program, the department provides elective courses open to all students. 

Teacher Certification . The North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction issues 
the Professional Class A Teacher's Certificate to graduates who have completed an 
approved program, including the specified courses in their teaching fields and the 
prescribed courses in education, who have demonstrated specific competencies, and who 
receive recommendations from the designated officials in their teaching areas and from 
the chair of the department or deputy. 

Students who have graduated from an institution of higher education but have not 
completed an approved certification program may seek admission to the department in 
order to complete the Class A Certificate. 

Admission Requirements. Application for admission to the teacher education program 
normally occurs during the sophomore year. Admission involves filing an official 
application with the department's certification officer, being interviewed, and being 
officially approved by the department. In addition, the North Carolina State Department 
of Public Instruction requires teacher education program applicants to successfully 
complete the General Knowledge and Communication Skills Sections of the National 
Teachers' Examination before being formally admitted. All candidates for admission 
must have a 2.5 GPA at the time of formal admission. 

Program Area Goals. The goals and objectives for each certification area are available in 
the department's certification office. 

Course Requirements. The approved program of teacher education requires candidates 
to complete successfully a series of professional education courses. The exact sequence of 



90 



professional and academic courses varies with a student's particular program and is 
determined by the adviser in conference with the candidate. For those seeking secondary 
certification, the majority of the professional work is taken during one semester of the 
senior year. Candidates for the elementary certificate may begin course work required for 
certification as early as the sophomore year. 

Student Teaching. Prerequisites for registering for student teaching include (1) senior, 
graduate, or special student classification; (2) completion of two field experience courses 
and the foundations of education course; (3) formal admission to the teacher education 
program. 

Students are assigned to student teaching opportunities by public school officials on the 
basis of available positions and the professional needs of the student and the public school 
system . One semester of the senior year is reserved for the student teaching experience and 
the block of courses preparatory to that experience in the schools. Students may not take 
other courses during this semester without the approval of the department chair. 

Exit Requirements. Students must maintain a 2.5 GPA while enrolled in the teacher 
education program, and complete the program with a minimum GPA of 2.5. The North 
Carolina State Department of Public Instruction requires candidates for professional 
certification to successfully complete the Professional Knowledge Section and the area 
exam of the NTE. 

Teaching Area Requirements 

Secondary Certificate 

English — Thirty-six credits, including 287, 323, and 390 or its equivalent. 

French — Certification in K-12 in French: Thirty-six credits above French 213, including 
French 216, 21 7, 219, 220, 222, 224, or their equivalents; two of the following courses: 221, 
223, 229. 

Spanish — Certification in K-12 in Spanish: Thirty-six credits above Spanish 213, including 
Spanish 21 7, 218, 219, 220, 222, 223, 224, or their equivalents; plus one additional advanced 
course in Spanish literature and one in Spanish-American literature. 

German — Certification in K-12 in German: Thirty-seven credits beyond German 112 or 
113, including German 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221. 

Latin — The requirements are the same as those for the major in Latin. 

Mathematics — Forty credits, including Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 221,331;four credits 
from 31 1, 31 7, or 357; at least two additional 300-level courses. If the student does not elect 
357, it is recommended that he/she take 109. 

Music— Forty-eight credits, including Music 171, 172, 173, 174, 181, 182, 186, 187, 188; 
Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 354. 

Science — Certification in the individual fields of science: biology (forty-one credits), 
chemistry (thirty-five credits), or physics (thirty-seven credits). All credits must be from 
the same courses required for majors in those fields. 



91 



Social Studies — Forty credits, including twenty-four credits in history, with course work 
in United States, European, and Third World history; sixteen credits with one course in 
economics, geography, politics, and anthropology or sociology. 

Education courses required for a secondary certificate include Education 201, 202, 203, 
311, 314, 354, 364, and 383. (Education 201, 202, 203 are replaced by 361, 362, 363 
respectively for students with graduate or unclassified standing.) In addition to these 
requirements, students seeking K-12 certification in foreign languages must take Educa- 
tion 313 and 390. In addition, they will take either Education 250 or 364. 

Elementary Certificate 

A major in elementary education requires 48 credits in education including Education 201, 
202, 203, 221, 222, 250, 271, 293, 294, 295, 296, 298, 311, 313, and 383 and an academic 
concentration in English, mathematics, science, or social studies. Additional requirements 
for an Elementary Education Teaching Certificate include eight credits in language arts; 
eight credits in social studies; four credits in biology; four credits in physical science; four 
credits in mathematics; four credits in music or art; and six credits in health and sport 
science (including HSS 223). 

Education Minor 

A minor in professional education requires Education 201, 202, 203, 311,314, 354, 364, 383, 
and is awarded only to students in the teacher education program. 

201. Foundations of Education. (4) Philosophical, historical, and sociological foundations 
of education, including analysis of contemporary issues and problems. 

202. Field Experience One. (2) Practical experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass/ fail only. 

203. Field Experience Two. (2) Further experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass/fail only. P — Education 
202. 

221. Children's Literatu re and Reading. (4) A survey of the types of literature appropriate 
for the elementary grades and an investigation of the basic problems in reading. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

222. The Arts in the Elementary Grades. (2) The development of skills in music, 
movement, and fine arts, appropriate to the elementary grades. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

223. Health and Physical Education for the Elementary Grades. (4) The development of 
physical education skills appropriate for the elementary grade teacher and an under- 
standing of the personal and community health needs appropriate for the grade level. P — 
Education 201 or permission of instructor. 



92 



231. Adolescent Literature. (4) A study of recent fiction centering on the lives of 
adolescents. Attention is given to interpretation of literature ranging from the reader 
response approach to critical pluralism. 

250. Student Teaching: Elementary. (6) Supervised teaching experience in grades K-6. 
Pass/ fail. P — Permission of instructor. 

271. Geography: The Human Environment. (4) A survey of the geography of human 
activity as it occurs throughout the world. Emphasis is placed on current problems related 
to population, resources, regional development, and urbanization. 

272. Geography Study Tour. (4) A guided tour of selected areas to study physical, 
economic, and cultural environments and their influence on man. Background references 
for reading are suggested prior to the tour. Offered in the summer. 

273. Geography: The Natural Environment. (4) A systematic study of the major compo- 
nents of physical geography with special emphasis on climate and topography. 

274. Environmental Studies. (4) A systematic study of major environmental issues on a 
global scale with an exploration of implications and possible solutions. 

280. Orchestration. (4) A study of the orchestra and wind band instruments, how 
composers have used mem throughout history, and the development of practical scoring 
and manuscript skills . Offered in alternate years, spring semester of even years. P — Music 1 74, 
182. 

281. Public Life and the Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of abiding 
significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with each topic will be 
examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal arts tradition. The 
visiting scholars of the Tocqueville Forum will supplement the class discussion. Politics 
and the Arts and Theory and Practice in Public Life are representative topics. 

282. Conducting. (4) A study of choral and instrumental conducting techniques, includ- 
ing practical experience with ensembles. Offered spring semester of odd years. P — Music 174 
or permission of instructor. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3 or 4) A survey of repertoire, including an examination 
of teaching materials in the student's special area of interest. Course may be repeated. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

a. Instrumental Literature d. Guitar Literature 

b. Choral Literature e. Vocal Literature 

c. Piano Literature 

289. Ensemble Methods. (2) A practical study of choral and instrumental techniques. 
Discussion of tonal development, administration, bibliography, choral and instrumental 
repertoire, marching band, and instrumental problems. Spring. P — Music 101 or 102 or 
permission of instructor. 



93 



293. Elementary School Curriculum: Theory and Practice. (3) General principles of 
curriculum construction and teaching methods. Introduction to the use of audiovisual 
materials and equipment. P — Permission of instructor. 

294. Methods and Materials for Teaching Language Arts. (3) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching language arts in the elementary grades. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

295. Methods and Materials for Teaching Social Studies. (3) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching social studies in the elementary grades. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

296. Methods and Materials for Teaching Mathematics. (2) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching mathematics in the elementary grades. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

297. Trends and Issues in American Schools. (2) An exploration of contemporary trends 
and issues as they affect course content and teaching methods in the schools. The course 
is intended to help those not entering professional education evaluate their schools as 
informed citizens and decision-makers. 

298. Methods and Materials for Teaching Science. (2) A survey of the basic materials, 
methods, and techniques of teaching science in the elementary grades. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

301. Microcomputer and Audiovisual Literacy. (4) An introduction to microcomputers 
for educators and other users, emphasizing familiarity with computers, use and evalua- 
tion of software, and elementary programming skills. Experience with audiovisual 
materials and techniques is included. 

302. Production of Instructional Methods. (4) Methods of producing instructional 
materials and other technological techniques. P — Education 301. 

303. History of Western Education. (4) Educational theory and practice from ancient 
times through the modern period, including American education. 

304. Theories of Education. (4) Contemporary proposals for educational theory and 
practice studied in the context of social issues. 

305. Sociology of Education. (4) A study of contemporary society and education, 
including goals and values, institutional culture, and the teaching /learning process. 

306. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Education. (4) A study of selected historical 
eras, influential thinkers, or crucial problems in education. Topics announced annually. 

311. Educational Psychology. (4) The theories, processes, and conditions of effective 
teaching/learning. P — Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

313. Human Growth and Development. (4) A study of the intellectual, emotional, and 
physical components of growth from birth to adolescence, with special concern for the 
educational implications of this process. 



94 



314. The School and Teaching. (4) Organization of the school system; bases of education; 
the curriculum; major problems of education and teaching; the role of the teacher; 
psychological aspects of teaching. P — Education 201 and permission of instructor. 

341. Principles of Counseling and Guidance. (4) Counseling history, philosophy, theory, 
procedure, and process. Therapeutic and developmental counseling approaches in 
guidance and personnel work in education, business, and community service agencies. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

351 . Adolescent Psychology. (4) An introduction to theories of adolescent psychology as 
related to teaching and counseling in various settings. The readings emphasize research- 
ers' suggestions for parenting, teaching, and counseling adolescents between the ages of 
thirteen and nineteen. 

354. Methods and Materials. (4) Methods, materials, and techniques used in teaching the 
various subjects. P — Education 201 and permission of instructor. 

361. Foundations of Education. (4) Philosophical, historical, and sociological foundations 
of education, including analysis of contemporary issues and problems. 

362. Field Experience One. (2) Practical experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass/fail only. 

363. Field Experience Two. (2) Further experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass/fail only. P — Education 
362. 

364. Field Experience Three: Secondary/Student Teaching. (6) Supervised teaching 
experience in grades 6-12. Pass/fail. P — Permission of instructor. 

383. Reading, Writing, and Computers in the Content Areas. (3) An introduction to using 
reading, writing, and computers to help students learn content-area information at all 
grade levels. Strategies for adjusting instruction and developing literacy for all students 
will be emphasized. 

387. Tutoring Writing. (2) Introduction to composition theory and rhetoric with a special 
emphasis on one-to-one tutoring techniques. Students will analyze their own writing 
process and experiences, study modem composition theory, and practice tutoring tech- 
niques in keeping with these theories. (Strongly recommended for those interested in 
working in the Writing Center as peer tutors.) A student may not receive credit for both 
Education 387 and English 287. 

390. Methods and Materials for Teaching Foreign Languages (K-6). (4) A survey of the 
basic materials, methods, and techniques of teaching foreign languages in the elementary 
and middle grades. Emphasis is placed on issues and problems involved in planning and 
implementing effective second language programs in grades K-6. 

391. Teaching the Gifted . (4) An investigation of theory and practice pertinent to teachers 
of the gifted. 



95 



392. The Psychology of the Gifted Child. (4) A discussion of giftedness and creativity in 
children and the relationship of those characteristics to adult superior performance. 
Topics to be covered include a history of the study of precocity, methods and problems 
of identification, the relationship of giftedness and creativity, personality characteristics 
and social-emotional problems of gifted children, and the social implications of studying 
giftedness. 

393. Individual Study. (2,4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available in the 
Department of Education. Permitted upon departmental approval of petition presented 
by a qualified student. 

394. Internship in Education of the Gifted. (4) An intensive period of observation and 
instruction of gifted students. Readings and directed reflection upon the classroom 
experience will be used to develop a richer understanding of such a special school setting. 

396. Education in Business and Industry. (4) Educational concepts applied to programs 
in education and training in business /industrial settings. 



English 



Barry G. Maine, Chair 

Professors John A. Carter Jr., Nancy J. Cotton, Andrew V. Ettin, 

Doyle R. Fosso, James S. Hans, W. Dillon Johnston, 

Robert W. Lovett, Dolly A McPherson, William M. Moss, 

Robert N. Shorter, Edwin Graves Wilson 

Associate Professors Mary K. DeShazer, Philip Kuberski, Barry G. Maine, 

Gillian R. Overing, Gale Sigal, Claudia N. Thomas 

Assistant Professors Anne Boyle, Bashir El-Beshti, Scott Klein, 

Elizabeth Petrino 

Visiting Assistant Professors David Adams, Helen Emmitt, Lee Anna Lawrence, 

Christopher Metress, Mary Anne Nunn, Thomas Peyser, Mark Sexton 

Professor of Journalism Bynum G. Shaw 

Lecturer Patricia A. Johansson 

Poet-in-Residence Kate Daniels 

Instructor Thomas McGohey 

Visiting Instructor Marianne Eismann 

The nu«or in English requires a minimum of forty credits, atleastthirty-twoof which must 
be in advanced language and literature courses numbered 300 to 399. These courses must 
include Shakespeare, two additional courses in British literature before 1800, one course 
in American literature, and a major seminar, which must be taken no later than the spring 
semester of the junior year. Majors and their advisers plan individual programs to meet 
these requirements and to include work in the major literary genres. 



96 



A minor in English requires English 160 or 165 and English 170 or 175, plus twenty 
credits in advanced language and literature courses. Each minor will be assigned an 
adviser in the English department who will plan a program of study with the student. 

The prerequisite for all 300-level courses in English is any one of the courses in British 
and American literature numbered 160, 165, 170, and 175, all of which are offered each 
semester. Additional courses in journalism and writing are offered by the department as 
related subjects but do not count toward an English major; they may be taken as electives 
regardless of the field of study in which a student majors. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply in the second semester 
of their junior year for admission to the honors program in English. To graduate with 
"Honors in English," students must have a minimum grade-point average of 3.5 in the 
major and 3.0 in all course work and must satisfy the requirements for English 388 during 
their senior year. Interested students may consult departmental faculty members for 
further information. 

Lower Division Courses 

11. Composition Review. (0) A tutorial in the essentials of standard usage and the basic 
principles of composition. 

105. Introduction to Critical Reading and Writing. (4) Training in the fundamentals of 
written English and introduction to the activities basic to undergraduate study: critical 
reading and writing, interpretation, report, and discussion. Admission by placement 
only; does not satisfy the basic composition requirement. 

*110. English Composition. (4) Training in expository writing; frequent essays based 
upon readings. 

*112. English Composition and Literature. (4) Training in expository writing; frequent 
essays based on the reading of literature. P — Permission of department. 

160. Introduction to British Literature. (4) Eight to ten writers representing different 
periods and genres. 

165. Studies in British Literature. (4) Three to five writers representing different periods; 
primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enrollment. P — Permission of 
department. 

170. Introduction to American Literature. (4) Emphasis on a minimum of seven writers 
of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including both prose and poetry. 

175. Studies in American Literature. (4) Three to five writers representing different 
periods; primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enrollment. P — 
Permission of department. 

* Either 110 or 112 is a prerequisite for all other courses in English unless the basic requirement is 
waived. Either course fulfills the basic requirement. 



97 



210. Advanced Composition. (4) Study of prose models of exposition; frequent papers 
and individual conferences. Enrollment limited. P — Satisfaction of basic composition 
requirement. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. By 
prearrangement. 

Journalism Courses 

270. Introduction to Journalism. (4) Survey of the fundamental principles of news- 
gathering and newswriting; study of news and news values, with some attention to 
representative newspapers. 

272. Editing. (4) A laboratory course in copy-editing, headline-writing, typography, and 
make-up; practice on video display terminal. P — English 270. 

276. Advanced Journalism. (4) Intensive practice in writing various types of newspaper 
stories, including the feature article. Limited to students planning careers in journalism. 
P— English 270. 

278. History of Journalism. (4) A study of the development of American journalism and 
its English origins; detailed investigations of representative world newspapers. 

284. The Essay. (2) Primarily for those interested in writing for publication, with 
concentration on writing various types of essays. 

298. Internship. (2) A course designed to assist students in gaining practical experience 
in news-related enterprises, under faculty supervision. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. By 
prearrangement. 

Writing Courses 

285. Poetry Workshop. (2) A laboratory course in the writing of verse. Study of poetic 
techniques and forms as well as works of contemporary poets. Frequent individual 
conferences. 

286. Short Story Workshop. (4) A study of the fundamental principles of short fiction 
writing; practice in writing; extensive study of short story form. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

287. Tutoring Writing. (2) Introduction to composition theory and rhetoric, with a special 
emphasis on one-to-one tutoring techniques. Students will analyze their own writing 
process and experiences, study modern composition theory, and practice tutoring tech- 
niques in keeping with these theories. Strongly recommended for those interested in 
working in the Writing Center as peer tutors. A student may not receive credit for both 
Education 387 and English 287. 



98 



383, 384. Theory and Practice of Verse Writing. (4,4) Emphasis on reading and discussing 
student poems in terms of craftsmanship and general principles. 

Advanced Language and Literature Courses 

300. Seminar in the Maj or. (4) Selected topics in British and American literature. Intensive 
practice in critical discourse, including discussion, oral reports, and short essays. Intro- 
duction to li tera ry schola rship and research methodology leading to a documented paper. 
Required for all majors. 

301. Individual Authors. (2) Study of selected work from an important American or 
British author. May be repeated. 

302. Ideas in Literature. (2) Study of a significant literary theme in selected works. May 
be repeated. 

304. History of the English Language. (4) A survey of the development of English syntax, 
morphology, and phonology from Old English to the present, with attention to vocabu- 
lary growth. 

305. Old English Language and Literature. (4) An introduction to the Old English 
language and a study of the historical and cultural background of Old English literature, 
including Anglo-Saxon and Viking art, runes, and Scandinavian mythology. Readings 
from Beowulf and selected poems and prose. 

310. The Medieval World. (4) Through the reading of primary texts, this course will 
examine theological, philosophical, and cultural assumptions of the Middle Ages. Topics 
may include Christian providential history, drama, devotional literature, the Franciscan 
controversy, domestic life, and Arthurian romance. 

311. The Legend of Arthur. (4) The origin and development of the Arthurian legend in 
France and England, with emphasis on the works of Chretien de Troyes and Sir Thomas 
Malory. 

312. Medieval Poetry. (4) The origin and development of poetic genres and lyric forms of 
Middle English. 

315. Chaucer. (4) Emphasis on The Canterbury Tales and TroUus and Criseyde, with some 
attention to minor poems. Consideration of literary, social, religious, and philosophical 
background. 

320. British Drama to 1642. (4) British drama from its beginning to 1642, exclusive of 
Shakespeare. Representative cycle plays, moralities, Elizabethan and Jacobean tragedies, 
comedies, and tragicomedies. 

323. Shakespeare. (4) Thirteen representative plays illustrating Shakespeare's develop- 
ment as a poet and dramatist. 

325. Sixteenth-Century British Literature. (4) Concentration on the poetry of Spenser, 
Sidney, Shakespeare, Wyatt, and Drayton, with particular attention to sonnets and The 
Faerie Queene. 



99 



327. Milton. (4) The poetry and selected prose of John Milton, with emphasis on Paradise 
Lost. 

328. Seventeenth-Century British Literature. (4) Poetry of Donne, Herbert, Vaughan, 
Marvel, Crashaw; prose of Bacon, Burton, Browne, Walton. Consideration of religious, 
political, and scientific backgrounds. 

330. British Literature of the Eighteenth Century. (4) Representative poetry and prose, 
exclusive of the novel, 1700-1800, drawn from Addison, Steele, Defoe, Swift, Pope, 
Johnson, and Boswell. Consideration of cultural backgrounds and significant literary 
trends. 

335. Eighteenth-Century British Fiction. (4) Primarily the fiction of Defoe, Richardson, 
Fielding, Smollett, Sterne, and Austen. 

336. Restoration and Eighteenth-Century British Drama. (4) British drama from 1660 to 
1780, including representative plays by Dryden, Etherege, Wycherley, Congreve, Gold- 
smith, and Sheridan. 

337. Studies in Eighteenth-Century British Literature. (4) Selected topics in eighteenth 
century literature. Consideration of texts and their cultural background. 

340. Studies in Women and Literature. (4) A. The woman writer in society. B. Feminist 
critical approaches to literature. 

350. British Romantic Poets. (4) A review of the beginnings of Romanticism in British 
literature, followed by study of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Keats, and Shelley; 
collateral reading in the prose of the period. 

353. Nineteenth-Century British Fiction. (4) Representative major works by Dickens, 
Eliot, Thackeray, Hardy, the Brontes, and others. 

354. Victorian Poetry. (4) A study of Tennyson, Browning, Hopkins, and Arnold or 
another Victorian poet. 

360. Studies in Victorian Literature. (4) Selected topics, such as development of genres, 
major authors and texts, and cultural influences. Readings in poetry, fiction, autobiogra- 
phy, and other prose. 

362. Blake, Yeats, and Thomas. (4) Reading and critical analysis of the poetry of Blake, 
Yeats, and Dylan Thomas; study of the plays of Yeats and his contemporaries in the Irish 
Renaissance, especially Synge and Lady Gregory. 

364. Studies in Literary Criticism. (4) Consideration of certain figures and schools of 
thought significant in the history of literary criticism. 

365. Twentieth-Century British Fiction. (4) A study of Conrad, Lawrence, Joyce, Forster, 
Woolf, and later British writers, with attention to their social and intellectual backgrounds . 

366. James Joyce. (4) The major works by James Joyce, with an emphasis on Ulysses. 

367. Twentieth-Century English Poetry. (4) A study of twentieth-century poets of the 
English language, exclusive of the U.S. Poets, will be read in relation to the literary and 
social history of the period. 



100 



368. Studies in Irish Literature. (4) Critical readings of the works of major Irish writers 
within the context of the political, social, and literary history of Ireland. 

369. Mod ern Drama. (4) Main currents in modern drama from nineteenth-century realism 
and naturalism through symbolism and expressionism. After an introduction to Euro- 
pean precursors, the course focuses on representative plays by Wilde, Shaw, Synge, Yeats, 
O'Neill, Eliot, Hellman, Wilder, Williams, Hansberry, and Miller. 

370. American Literature to 1820. (4) Origins and development of American literature and 
thought in representative writings of the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal periods. 

372. American Romanticism. (4) Writers of the mid-nineteenth century, including 
Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, and Melville. 

375. American Drama. (4) A historical overview of drama in America, covering such 
playwrights as Boucicault, ONeill, Hellman, Wilder, Williams, Inge, Miller, Hansberry, 
Albee, Shepard, Norman, Mamet, and Wilson. 

376. American Poetry before 1900. (4) Readings and critical analysis of American poetry 
from its beginnings to the end of the nineteenth century, including Bradstreet, Emerson, 
Longfellow, Melville, and Poe, with particular emphasis on Whitman and Dickinson. 

377. American Jewish Literature. (4) A survey of writings on Jewish topics or experiences 
by American Jewish writers. The course explores cultural and generational conflicts, 
responses to social change, the impact of the Shoah (Holocaust) on American Jews, and 
the challenges of language and form posed by Jewish and non-Jewish artistic traditions. 

378. Literature of the American South. (4) A study of Southern literature from its 
beginnings to the present, with emphasis upon such major writers as Tate, Warren, 
Faulkner, O'Connor, Welty, and Styron. 

379. Literary Forms of the American Personal Narrative. (4) Reading and critical analysis 
of autobiographical texts in which the ideas, style, and point of view of the writer are 
examined to demonstrate how these works contribute to an understanding of pluralism 
in American culture. Representative authors may include Hurston, Wright, Kingston, 
Angelou, Wideman, Sarton, Chuang Hua, Crews, and Dillard. 

380. American Fiction from 1865 to 1915. (4) Such writers as Twain, James, Howells, 
Crane, Dreiser, Wharton, and Cather. 

381. Studies in Black American Literature. (4) Reading and critical analysis of selected 
fiction, poetry, drama, and other writing by representative black Americans. 

382. Modern American Fiction, 1915 to 1965. (4) To include such writers as Stein, Lewis, 
Anderson, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Faulkner, Dos Passos, Wolfe, Wright, Ellison, Agee, 
Flannery O'Connor, and Pynchon. 

385. Twentieth-Century American Poetry. (4) Readings of modern American poetry in 
relation to the literary and social history of the period. 



101 



386. Directed Reading. (2-4) A tutorial in an area of study not otherwise provided by the 
department; granted upon departmental approval of petition presented by a qualified 
student. 

388. Honors in English. (4) A conference course centering upon a special reading 
requirement and a thesis requirement. For senior students wishing to graduate with 
"Honors in English." 

390. The Structure of English. (4) An introduction to the principles and techniques of 
modern linguistics applied to contemporary American English. 

394. Contemporary Drama. (4) The course will consider experiments in form and 
substance in plays from Godot to the present. Readings will cover such playwrights as 
Beckett, Osborne, Pinter, Stoppard, Churchill, Wertenbaker, Albee, Shepard, Mamet, 
Wilson, Soyinka, and Fugard. 

395. Contemporary American Literature. (4) A study of post-World War II American 
poetry and fiction by such writers as Bellow, Gass, Barth, Pynchon, Lowell, Ashbery, 
Ammons, Bishop, and Rich. 




The Scales Fine Arts Center contains classrooms, music practice rooms, art studios, and theaters. 



102 



German and Russian 

Timothy F. Sellner, Chair 

Professors Timothy F. Sellner, Larry E. West 

Associate Professor William S. Hamilton 

Assistant Professors Rebecca Duplantier, Kurt C. Shaw 

Lecturers Chris ta G. Carollo, Perry L. Patterson 

A major in German requires thirty-seven credits beyond German 112 or 113. These must 
include German 217 and should include 281 and 285. A minor in German requires five 
courses beyond German 153, one of which must be German 217. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in German. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in German," 
they must complete a senior research project and pass a comprehensive examination. For 
additional information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

Students of German are invited to apply for the exchange scholarship at the Free 
University of Berlin, the W. D. Sanders Scholarship and programs of study at Freiburg, 
Berlin, and Vienna, administered by the Institute of European Studies. Majors and minors 
are strongly encouraged to live at least one semester in the German House. 

Ill, 112. Elementary German. (4, 4) This course covers the principles of grammar and 
pronunciation and includes the reading of simple texts. Lab — one hour. 

113. Intensive Elementary German. (5) A one-semester course covering the material of 
German 111 and 112. For students whose preparation for German 153 is inadequate or 
who have demonstra ted proficiency in another language. Not open to students who have 
had German 111 or 112. 

153. Intermediate German. (5) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetry. Lab — one hour. P — German 112 or 113. 

153x. Intermediate German. (4) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetry. Lab — one hour. P — Three years of high school German. 

160. German Language and Customs. (4) Students spend one month in four different 
regions of Germany and Austria in a program designed to provide constant exposure to 
the language, customs, geography, and art of these countries. Students attend daily 
language classes as well as lectures and cultural events. They are required to keep a journal 
in German. Pass/fail. Offered in summer. P — German 112 or 113. 

215, 216. Introduction to German Literature. (4,4) The object of this course is to acquaint 
students with masterpieces of German literature. Parallel reading and reports. P — 
German 153 or equivalent. 

217. Composition and Grammar Review. (4) A review of the fundamentals of German 
grammar with intensive practice in translation and composition. Required for majors. P — 
German 153 or equivalent. 



103 



218. Basic Conversation. (4) Practice in speaking German, stressing correctness of 
structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and vocabulary for everyday situations. P — 
German 153 or equivalent. 

219. Advanced Conversation. (4) Practice in speaking German at a more advanced level, 
stressing discussion of various topics of current importance in the German-speaking 
countries. Considerable attention is devoted to achieving fluency. P — German 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

220. German Civilization I. (4) Survey of German culture and civilization from prehis- 
toric times to 1918. Conducted in German. P — 153 or equivalent. 

221. German Civilization II. (4) Survey of German culture and civilization from the 
Weimar Republic to the present, with particular emphasis on contemporary Germany. 
Conducted in German. P — 153 or equivalent. 

231. Weimar Germany. (4) Art, literature, music, and film of Weimar Germany, 1919-33, 
in historical context. (Also listed as History 318.) 

240. Masterworks in Translation. (2) Examination and interpretation of selected texts in 
English translation. Literary periods, genres, and authors will vary according to instruc- 
tor. Does not count toward a major or minor in German. 

249. Old High German and Middle High German Literature. (4) The study of major 
writers and works from these two areas; emphasizes major writings of the chivalric 
period. P — German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

250. Renaissance, Reformation, and Baroque German Literature. (4) A study of major 
writers and works from the post-chivalric period to approximately 1 700. P — German 215, 
216, or equivalent. 

263. German Literature of the Nineteenth Century I. (4) Poetry, prose, drama, and critical 
works from approximately 1795 to 1848. P — German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

264. German Literature of the Nineteenth Century II. (4) Readings from the beginnings 
of Poetic Realism to the advent of Naturalism. P— German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

270. Individual Study. (1 -4) Readings on selected topics in literature or current events not 
ordinarily covered in other courses. P — German 215, 216, and permission of instructor. 

281. Seminar: Twentieth Century German Literature. (4) Intensive study of representa- 
tive works of major German writers, including literature of the post-war era. P — German 
215, 216, or equivalent. 

285. Seminar in Goethe and Schiller. (4) Faust, Part I and other major dramas by Goethe 
and Schiller. Parallel readings in other works by these authors. P— German 215, 216, or 
equivalent. 

287, 288. Honors in German. (3,3) A conference course in German literature. A major 
research paper is required. Designed for candidates for departmental honors. 



104 



Russian 

A major requires thirty-two credits beyond 153 and must include Russian 215, 216, 221, 
and either 217 or 218. A minor in Russian requires twenty credits beyond 153, four of 
which must be earned in Russian 221. Students of Russian are invited to apply for study 
at Moscow State University and for programs of study in Moscow and Kiev, administered 
by the Institute of European Studies. Majors and minors are strongly encouraged to live 
at least one semester in the Russian House. 

111,112. Elementary Russian. (4,4) The essentials of Russian grammar, conversation drill, 
and reading of elementary texts. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate Russian. (5) Principles of Russian grammar are reviewed and ex- 
panded upon; reading of short prose pieces and materials from the Soviet press. Lab 
required. P — Russian 112 or equivalent. 

215. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the nineteenth 
century. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

216. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the twentieth 
century. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

217. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Russian Literature. (4) A study of the foremost 
writers, with reading of representative works. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

218. Seminar in Twentieth Century Russian Literature. (4) A study of the foremost 
writers, with reading of representative works. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

221. Advanced Conversation and Composition. (4) Study of grammar at the advanced 
level. Intensive practice in composition and conversation based on contemporary Soviet 
materials. 

230. The Structure of Russian. (4) The linguistic tools of phonetics, phonemics, and 
morphophonemics are explained and applied to modern Russian. Emphasis is given to 
the study of roots and word formation. P — Permission of instructor required. 

232. The History of the Russian Language. (4) The evolution of Russian from Common 
Slavic to the modern language; theory of linguistic reconstruction and the Indo-European 
family; readings from selected Old East Slavic texts. P — Russian 221 and permission of 
instructor. 

240. Seminar in Translation. (4) Advanced work in English-to-Russian and Russian-to- 
English translation. P — Russian 221 and permission of instructor. 

242. Research on Language and Culture in Russia. (2) An investigation designed by the 
student is carried out in Russia during spring break. An evaluative paper follows the class 
trip. Credit given for the minor when the project is done in Russian. P — Russian 111 and 
permission of instructor. Limited enrollment. 

250. Russian Culture and Civilization. (4) Survey of Russian contributions to art, 
architecture, music, and religious thought from Russia's beginnings to the present. 
Taught in Russian. P — Russian 215 or 216. 



105 



270. Individual Study. (2-4) Study in language or literature beyond the 215-216 level. P — 
Russian 215 or higher. 



German Studies 

(Foreign Area Study) 
Timothy F. Sellner (German/Russian), Coordinator 

Twelve or thirteen credits from German 153, 215, 216, 217, 220, or 221 are required. In 
addition, the student should take four courses from the following three groups, at least one 
from each group. (See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

Group 1 

History 318/German 231. Weimar Germany. (4) 

History 320. Germany: Unification to Unification, 1871-1990. (4) 
Group 2 

Politics 233. The Politics of Modern Germany. (4) 

Politics 273. Radical Critiques of Political Society. (4) 
Group 3 

Philosophy 341. Kant. (4) 

Philosophy 352. Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche. (4) 

Appropriate credit in the above areas may be obtained by study in Germany. 



Health and Sport Science 

Paul M. Ribisl, Chair 

Professors William L. Hottinger, Stephen P. Messier, 

W. Jack Rejeski, Paul M. Ribisl 

Associate Professors Michael J. Berry, Leo Ellison 

Assistant Professor Barbee Myers Oakes 

Instructors Donald Bergey, Bobbi Goodnough, David Stroupe 

The purpose of the Department of Health and Sport Science is to organize, administer, and 
supervise (1) a health and sport science curriculum; (2) a requ ired/elective health and sport science 
program consisting of conditioning activities and lifetime sport activ-ities; and (3) an 
intramural sports program. 

Health and Sport Science Requirement 

All students must complete Health and Sport Science 100 and 101 . This requirement must 
be met before enrollment in additional health and sport science elective courses, and in 
any case by the end of the second year. 



106 

Courses in Basic Instruction and Elective Health and Sport Science 

All the courses listed below are offered for one credit each. 

100. Lifestyle and Health. A lecture course that deals with the effect of lifestyle behaviors 
on various health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and sexually- 
transmitted diseases. 

101 . Exercise for Health . A laboratory course on physical fitness that covers weight control, 
cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility. 

112. Sports Proficiency (May be taken only one time.) 

113. Adaptive Physical Activity (May be repeated one time for credit.) 

114. Weight Control 

115. Physical Conditioning 

116. Weight Training 
119. Aerobic Dancing 

140. Beginning Swimming 

141. Intermediate/Advanced Swimming 

146. Water Safety Instructor's Course (P — Current emergency water safety or lifeguard 
training certification) 

150. Beginning Tennis 

151. Intermediate Tennis 

152. Advanced Tennis (P — Health and Sport Science 151 or equivalent) 
156. Racquetball 

160. Beginning Golf 

161 Intermediate Golf 

163. Bowling 

170. Volleyball 

179. Beginning Horseback Riding (P/F grade only) 

180. Intermediate/Advanced Horseback Riding (P/F grade only. May be repeated once for 
credit.) 

181 . Snow Skiing (P/F grade only) 

182. Beginning Ice Figure Skating 

183 Intermediate/Advanced Ice Figure Skating 
190. Karate 

Courses for the Major 

The department offers a program leading to the BS degree in health and sport science. A 
major requires forty credits and must include Health and Sport Science 209, 230, 262, 312, 
350, 351, 352, 353, 355, and 370. Majors are not allowed to apply any Health and Sport 
Science 100-level courses toward the forty hours required for graduation. A minimum 
grade-point average of 2.0 is required for graduation in courses that comprise a major in 
the department. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in health and sport science by the second semester of the junior year. To 
be graduated with the designation "Honors in Health and Sport Science," a student must 



107 



have a minimum grade-point average of 3.3 in the major and 3.0 in all course work and 
complete an honors research project which includes a written and an oral report. For 
additional information, students should consult the departmental chair. 

Any student interested in majoring in health and sport science should consult the chair 
of the department as soon as possible after entering the University. 

205. Basic Skin and Scuba Diving and Open Water Certification. (2) A course in skin and 
SCUBA diving that offers international certification by the Professional Association of 
Diving Instructors (PADI). 

206. Lifeguard Training. (2) This course is designed to provide students with skills in first 
aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and lifeguard training that will qualify them to serve 
as nonsurf lifeguards. 

209. Introduction to Health and Sport Science. (2) A survey course which reviews the 
development of health and sport science and the subdisciplines of biomechanics, exercise 
physiology, health psychology, and nutrition. Specialized computer and library research 
skills for use in departmental courses are emphasized. 

223. Health and Physical Education for the Elementary Grades. (4) The development of 
physical education skills appropriate for the elementary grade teacher and an under- 
standing of the personal and community health needs appropriate for the grade level. P — 
Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

230. Advanced First Aid. (2) A course in advanced first aid and cardiopulmonary 
resuscitation. Red Cross Advanced First Aid and Community CPR certification offered. 

241. Growth, Development, and Physical Activity. (2) An examination of the effect of 
physical activity on physical, intellectual, and social/psychological development. 

262. Statistics in the Health Sciences. (4) Basic statistics with an emphasis on application 
to research in the health sciences. Students are introduced to graphics and statistical 
software for the Macintosh computer. (A student receiving credit for this course may not 
also receive credit for Anthropology 380, Biology 380, Business 201, or Sociology 380.) 

310. Applied Field Study. (2) A course involving application of theory and methods of 
solving problems in a specialized area according to the student's immediate career goals. 
(P/F grade only, open only to majors.) P — Permission of instructor. 

312. Exercise and Health Psychology. (4) A survey of the psychological antecedents of 
exercise and selected topics in health psychology with particular attention to wellness, 
stress, the biobehavioral basis of coronary heart disease, and the psychodynamics of 
rehabilitative medicine. P — Health and Sport Science 209 and 262 or permission of 
instructor. 

350. Human Physiology. (4) A lecture course which presents the basic principles and 
concepts of the function of selected systems of the human body, with emphasis on the 
muscular, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and nervous systems. P — Biology 1 1 1, 1 1 2, 1 1 4, or 
permission of instructor. 



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351. Nutrition and Weight Control. (4) A lecture/laboratory course which presents the 
principles of proper nutrition including an understanding of the basic foodstuffs and 
nutrients as well as the influence of genetics, eating behavior, and activity patterns on 
energy balance and weight control. Laboratory experiences examine intervention in 
obesity and coronary heart disease through diet analysis, methods of diet prescription, 
and behavior modification. P — Health and Sport Science 353 or permission of instructor. 

352. Human Gross Anatomy. (4) A lecture/ laboratory course in which the structure and 
function of the human body are studied. Laboratories are devoted to the dissection and 
study of the human musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, and vascular systems. P — Health 
and Sport Science 209 or permission of instructor. 

353. Physiology of Exercise. (4) A lecture course which presents the concepts and 
applications of the physiological response of the human body to physical activity. The 
acute and chronic responses of the muscula r and cardiorespiratory systems to exercise are 
examined. Other topics include exercise and coronary disease, nutrition and perfor- 
mance, strength and endurance training, somatotype and body composition, sex-related 
differences, and environmental influences. P — Health and Sport Science 209, 350, or 
permission of instructor. 

355. Clinical Exercise Programming. (4) A lecture /laboratory course which presents the 
scientific principles of safe and effective assessment and prescription of fitness programs. 
This course will prepare the student for the ACSM Health Fitness Instructor Certification. 
P — Health and Sport Science 353 or permission of instructor. 

365. Development and Management of Health Promotion and Fitness Programs. (4) 

This course surveys the principles involved in the development and management of 
various health promotion and fitness programs. Special attention is given to facility 
planning, staffing, marketing, budgeting, and client motivation. 

370. Biomechanics of Human Movement. (4) Study of the mechanical principles which 
influence human movement, sport technique, and equipment design. P — Health and 
Sport Science 352 or permission of instructor. 

375. Advanced Physiology of Exercise. (4) A lecture course which provides an in-depth 
examination of the physiological mechanisms responsible for both the acute and chronic 
changes which occur with exercise. Included are cellular changes in response to exercise, 
the ventilatory response to exercise and metabolic consequences of exercise. P — Health 
and Sport Science 353 or permission of instructor. 

382. Individual Study. (1-4) Independent study directed by a faculty adviser. The student 
must consul t the adviser before registering for this course. P — Majors only and permission 
of instructor. 

386. Honors Research. (4) Directed study and research in preparation for a major paper 
on a subject of mutual interest to the student and faculty honors adviser. Taken only by 
candidates for departmental honors. P — Permission of instructor and approval of depart- 
mental honors committee. 



109 



Sports Medicine 

201. Basic Athletic Training. (3) A study of the basic knowledge and skills in the 
prevention, treatment, and care of common athletic injuries. 

302. Advanced Athletic Training. (4) An in-depth analysis of preventive measures, 
therapeutic modalities, and rehabilitative procedures employed in sports medicine. P — 
Health and Sport Science 352. 




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History 



J. Howell Smith, Chair 

Reynolds Professor Paul D. Escott 

Professors James P. Baref ield, Richard C. Barnett, David W. Hadley, 

J. Edwin Hendricks, Thomas E. Mullen, Michael L. Sinclair,, 

J. Howell Smith, Alan J. Williams, Richard L. Zuber 

Associate Professors Michael L. Hughes, Sarah L. Watts 

Assistant Professors Simone M. Caron, Kevin M. Doak, 

William K. Meyers, Anthony S. Parent Jr. 

Visiting Assistant Professor Christopher Melchert 

Lecturer Negley Boyd Harte (London) 

Adjunct Professor William T. Alderson 

Instructor James J. Kennelly 

The major in history consists of a minimum of thirty-six credits and must include History 
288 or 310; seven to eight credits in European history; seven to eight credits chosen from 
among courses in Latin-American, Asian, or African history; and seven to eight credits in 
United States history. 

Majors may includewithin therequired thirty-six credits up to eight credits of advanced 
placement or comparable work and up to four credits of any combination of independent 
study and directed reading other than the credits earned in History 397. 

A minor in history requires twenty-four credits. Courses that the student elects to take 
pass/fail do not meet the requirements for the major or minor. 

Highly qualified majors should apply for admission to the honors program in history. 
To be graduated with the designation "Honors in History," the student must complete 
History 287, present an honors-quality research paper, successfully defend the paper in 
an oral examination, and earn an overall grade-point average of 3.0 with an averageof 3.3 
on work in history. For additional information, students should consult members of the 
department. 

Students contemplating graduate study should acquire a reading knowledge of one 
modern foreign language for the MA degree and two for the PhD degree. 

101. Western Civilization to 1700. (4) A survey of ancient, medieval, and early modern 
history to 1700. (Credit cannot be received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 

102. Europe and the World in the Modern Era. (4) A survey of modern Europe from 1 700 
to the present. (Credit cannot be received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 

103. World Civilizations to 1500. (4) A survey of the ancient, classical and medieval 
civilizations of Eurasia with a brief look at American and sub-Saharan societies. (Credit 
cannot be received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 



Ill 



104. World Civilizations Since 1500. (4) A survey of the major civilizations of the world 
in the modem and contemporary periods. (Creditcannotbe received for both 101 and 103, 
or 102 and 104.) 

131. European Historical Biography. (2) Study of biographies of men and women who 
have influenced the history and civilization of Europe. 

151, 152. The United States. (4,4) Political, social, economic, and intellectual aspects. 151 : 
Before 1865; 152: After 1865. Students who take History 153 may not take either of these 
courses for credit. 

153. The United States. (4) A topical survey combining 151 and 152. Not open to students 
who take either 151 or 152. 

160. Freud. (4) An investigation of Freud's basic ideas in the context of his time. 

162. History of Wake Forest University (2) A survey of the history of Wake Forest from 
its beginning, including its written and oral traditions. The course may include a visit to 
the town of Wake Forest. 

211. Colloquium. (1-4) 

215, 216. The Ancient World. (4,4) Critical focus on the Greeks in the fall and Romans in 
the spring. 

2260. History of London. (2,4) Topographical, social, economic, and political history of 
London from the earliest times. Lectures, student papers and reports, museum visits and 
lectures, and on-site inspections. Offered in London. 

2262. The Golden Age of Burgundy. (2) Burgundian society, culture, and government in 
the reignsof Philip the Bold, John the Fearless, Phitip the Good, and Charles the Rash, 1 384- 
1477. Offered in Dijon. 

2263. Venetian Society and Culture. (4) An examination of Venetian society, including 
the role within Venetian life of music, theater, the church, and civic ritual . Offered in Venice . 

2280. Georgian and Victorian Society and Culture. (4) Social and economic transforma- 
tion of England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with particular attention to the 
rise of professionalism and developments in the arts. Offered in London. 

232. European Historical Novels. (2) The role of the historical past in selected works of 
fiction. 

237, 2370. Churchill. (2,4) The life and times of Britain's World War H leader (1874-1965). 
HST2370 offered in London. 

287, 288. Honors in History. (4,4) 287: Seminar on problems of historical synthesis and 
interpretation; 288: Writing of a major paper and examination on a special field. 



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301. The Beginnings of the Modern World-View. (4) A study of the transition from 
ancient views of the world to the perspective of modern science, with focus on the works 
of the Presocratic philosophers, Plato, and Aristotle. (Also listed as Natural Sciences 301 
and Philosophy 231 .) 

302. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) An examination of the philosophical and 
scientific roots, in Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz, of the belief that the universe and 
human beings are "machines" subject to deterministic natural laws, and the relevance to 
this issue of modern scientific ideas. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 252, Natural 
Sciences 302, and Philosophy 242.) 

303. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically new 
ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time in relativity 
theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, and continental 
drift. P — At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science or permission of 
instructor. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 253 and Natural Sciences 303.) 

305. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human values: 
biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search for extraterres- 
trial life. (Also listed as Natural Sciences 352.) 

306. The Early Middle Ages. (4) European history from the end of the Ancient World to 
the mid-twelfth century, stressing social and cultural developments. 

307. The High Middle Ages Through the Renaissance. (4) European history from the 
mid-twelfth through the early sixteenth centuries, stressing social and cultural develop- 
ments. 

310. Seminar. (4) Offered by members of the faculty on topics of their choice. A paper is 
required. 

313, 314. European Economic and Social History, 1300-1990. (4,4) Changes in Europe's 
economic structures and how they affected Europeans' lives. Emphasizes how economic 
forces interacted with social and institutional factors. 313: 1300-1750; 314: 1750-1990. 

317. The French Revolution and Napoleonic Empire. (4) The revolution and wars that 
constitute one of the pivotal points in modern history. 

318. Weimar Germany . (4) Art, literature, music, and film of Weimar Germany, 1919-1933, 
in historical context. German or history credit determined at registration. 

319. Germany to 1871. (4) Social, economic, and political forces leading to the creation of 
a single German nation-state out of over 1,700 sovereign and semi-sovereign German 
states. 

320. Germany: Unification to Unification, 1871-1990. (4) The Germans' search for 
stability and unity in a society riven by conflict and on a continent riven by nationalism. 

321. France. (4) A history of France to the Revolution of 1789. 



113 



322. France. (4) A history of France from 1789 to present. 

323, 324. England. (4,4) A political and social survey, with some attention to Continental 
movements. 323: To 1603; 324: 1603 to present. 

325. Tudor and Early Stuart England. (4) A constitutional and social study of England 
from 1485 to 1641. 

3260. The Industrial Revolution in England. (4) A study of the social, economic, and 
political causes and effects of the Industrial Revolution in England. Offered in London. 

328. History of the English Common Law. (4) A study of the origins and development of 
the English common law and its legacy to modern legal processes and principles. 

331. Russia: Origins to 1917. (4) A political, social, economic, and cultural history of 
Russia. 

332. History of the Soviet Union. (4) A political, social, economic, and cultural history of 
the Soviet Union since 1917. 

333. European Diplomacy, 1848-1914. (4) The diplomacy of the great powers, with some 
attention given to the role of publicity in international affairs. Topics include the unifica- 
tion of Italy and of Germany, the Bismarckian system, and the coming of World War I. 

334. Russia/USSR as Colonial Empire. (4) A history of the incorporation of various non- 
Russian peoples into the multinational entity that became the Soviet Union; an analysis 
of Russian and Soviet ethnic and colonial policies; and an examination of the collapse of 
the USSR in the 1990s. 

335. 336. Italy. (4,4) Cultural, social and political history of Italy. 335: Medieval and 
Renaissance Italy; 336: Nineteenth and twentieth-century Italy. 

339. India in the English Mind. (4) An exploration of the changing images of India, its 
people, and culture as reflected in English literature, especially Kipling, Forster, Kaye, and 
Paul Scott. The three major themes will be confrontation, accommodation, and nostalgia. 

340. African American History. (4) The role of African Americans in the development of 
the United States, with particular attention to African heritage, forced migration, Ameri- 
canization, and influence. 

341. History of Women in Modern Asia. (4) A survey of the political, economic, and 
cultural experiences of women in China, Taiwan, Japan, Vietnam, India, Pakistan, and 
Bangladesh from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. 

342. The Middle East from Suleiman the Magnificent to the Present. (4) Major subjects 
covered are the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire, the Arabs and Persians under 
Ottoman hegemony, the rise of Arab nationalism, and the emergence of the modern Arab 
states and their roles in the post- World War II era. 

343. Imperial China. (4) A study of traditional China to 1850, with emphasis on social, 
cultural, and political institutions. 



114 



344. Modern China. (4) A study of China from 1644 to the present. 

345, 346. History and Civilization of South Asia. (4,4) An introduction to the history and 
civilization of South Asia. Emphasis on historical developments in the social, economic, 
and cultural life of the area. 

3461. Foreign Encounters with Japan. (4) A colloquium on intercultural relations between 
Japan and the West. Focuses on the writings of Westerners residing in Japan in the late 
nineteenth century. Offered in Hiratsuka, Japan (Tokai University). 

347. Japan Since World War II. (4) A survey of Japanese history since the American 
occupation, with emphasis on social and cultural developments. Topics include occupa- 
tion reforms, re-industrialization, the rise of the LDP, "high growth economics," and 
citizen protest movements. 

348. Modern Japan. (4) Tokugawa era; Meiji Restoration; industrialization and urbaniza- 
tion; relations with the West; World War II; occupation; Japan in the contemporary world. 

350. Global Economic History. (4) An overview of the growth and development of the 
world economy from precapitalist organizations to the present system of developed and 
underdeveloped states. 

351. American Society and Thought to 1830. (4) A non -political survey of American 
culture and lifestyles. Topics include religion, science, education, architecture, and 
immigration. 

352. American Social History since 1830. (4) A topical survey of American social history 
from 1830 to 1990. Topics include immigration, ethnicity, gender, race, sexuality, labor, 
reform, poverty, and urban growth. 

353. Colonial English America, 1582-1774. (4) Determinative episodes, figures, alle- 
giances, apperceptions, and results of the period, organically considered. 

354. Revolutionary and Early National America, 1763-1815. (4) The American Revolu- 
tion, its causes and effects, the Confederation, the Constitution, and the new nation. 

355. The Westward Movement. (4) The role of the frontier in United States history, 1 763- 
1890. 

356. Jacksonian America, 1815-1850. (4) The United States in the age of Jackson, Clay, 
Calhoun, and Webster. A biographical approach. 

357. The Civil War and Reconstruction. (4) The political and military events of the war 
and the economic, social, and political readjustments which followed. 

358. The United States from Reconstruction to World War I. (2,4) National progress and 
problems during an era of rapid industrialization. The course may be divided into halves 
for two credits each: (a) the Gilded Age; (b) the Progressive Era. 

359. The United States from Versailles through World War II. (4) The transition of 
America from World War I to 1945, with special emphasis on the significance of the New 
Deal and World War II. 



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360. The United States since World War II. (4) Trends and changes in the nation from 
World War II to the present. 

361. Economic History of the United States. (4) The economic development of the United 
States from colonial beginnings to the present. 

362. American Constitutional History. (4) Origins of the Constitution, the controversies 
involving the nature of the Union, and constitutional readjustments to meet the new 
American industrialism. 

363. 364. The South. (4,4) Geography, population elements, basic institutions, and 
selected events. 

365. Women in American History. (4) A survey of the role of women in America from the 
colonial period to the present. Possible topics include moral reform, the frontier, political 
and social activism, the labor movement, health reform, and peace movements. 

366. Studies in Historic Preservation. (4) An analysis of history museums and agencies 
and of the techniques of preserving and interpreting history through artifacts, restora- 
tions, and reconstructions. P — Permission of instructor. 

367, 368. North Carolina. (4,4) Selected phases of the development of North Carolina from 
the colonial period to the present. 367: To 1850; 368: Since 1850. 

369. The American Military Experience. (4) A survey of the military ideas and activities 
of the American people and their armed forces, with emphasis on the relationship 
between war and society. 

372. Introduction to African History. (4) An introduction to African history from the 
perspective of the continent as a whole. The historical unity of the African continent and 
its relation to other continents will be stressed. 

373. History of Mexico. (4) An examination of the history of Mexico from the colonial 
period to the present. 

374. Protest and Rebellion in Latin America. (4) A study of the history of protest 
movements and rebellions in Latin America from primitive and agrarian revolts to mass 
working class and socialist organizations. 

375. Modern Latin America. (4) A survey of Latin American history since Independence, 
with emphasis on the twentieth century. The course will concentrate chiefly on economics, 
politics, and race. 

376. Civil Rights and Black Consciousness Movements . (4) A social and religious history 
of the African-American struggle for citizenship rights and freedom from World War II 
to the present. (Also listed as Religion 341 .) 

3760. Anglo-American Relations since 1940. (4) A study of the relations between the 
United States and Britain from 1940 to the present. Offered in London. 

377. American Diplomatic History. (4) An introduction to the history of American 
diplomacy since 1776, emphasizing the effects of public opinion on fundamental policies. 



116 



378. Struggles for Freedom in Southern Africa and the United States. (4) Comparison of 
the liberatory movements in Southern Africa and the United States during the twentieth 
century. (Also listed as Religion 348.) 

379. Origins of The Americas. (4) A unified, comparative history of North, Central, and 
South America from ancient times to the present. 

381, 382. Preservation Practicum I, II. (4,4) Training in the techniques and skills of 
historical preservation. Emphasis will vary according to the specific site(s) involved. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

397. Historical Writing Tutorial. (2) Individual supervision of historical writing to 
improve a project initiated in History 288 or History 310. P — Permission of instructor. 
(Does not count toward major or minor requirements.) 

398. Individual Study. (1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available in the 
department; permitted upon departmental approval of petition presented by a qualified 
student. 

399. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not otherwise 
available. P — Permission of instructor. 



Humanities 

Robert N. Shorter, Coordinator 

Reynolds Professor of American Studies Maya Angelou 

Kenan Professor of Humanities Allen Mandelbaum 

Associate Professor Robert L. Utley Jr. 

Humanities courses 213-222 are designed to introduce students to works of literature 
which would not be included in their normal course of study. Each course includes a 
reading in translation of ten to twelve representative authors. 

213. Studies in European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Dante, 
Montaigne, Cervantes, Goethe, Dostoevsky, and Camus. Satisfies a Division I require- 
ment. 

214. Contemporary Fiction. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Mann, Sartre, 
Unamuno, Fuentes, Moravia, and Voinovich. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

215. Germanic and Slavic Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Hoffmann, 
Kafka, Dostoevsky, Dinesen, Ibsen, Pushkin, and Chekhov. Satisfies a Division I require- 
ment. 

216. Romance Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Boccaccio, Calderon, 
Flaubert, Machado de Assis, Gide, and Lampedusa. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 



117 



217. European Drama. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Moliere, Garcia Lorca, 
Pirandello, Schiller, Brecht, Ibsen, and Beckett. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

218. Eastern European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Tolstoy, 
Solzhenitsyn, Gogol, Andric, Milosz, and Szabo. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) Major works of poetry, drama and fiction 
from the classical and modern periods. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) Readings and discussions in fiction, drama 
and poetry from the traditional and modern periods. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

222. African and Caribbean Literature. (4) An examination of the negritude movement 
and the negro-African novel. Texts studied are by such authors as Aime Cesaire, Leopold 
Senghor, Ousmane Sembene, and Mariama Ba. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

230. Women Writers in Contemporary Italy. (4) Readings and discussions of texts by 
women writers in post-fascist Italy that reflect the feminine perspective on issues in 
contemporary Italian society and society at large. Authors include Naraini, Morante, 
Fallaci, Ginzburg, deCespedes, and Ortese. (Qualifies, with modifications, for the minor 
in Italian.) 

242. Research on Culture in Russia. (2) An investigation designed by the student is 
carried out in Russia during spring break. An evaluative term paper follows the class trip. 
Students who have studied any Russian should enroll under Russian 242. Limited 
enrollment. P — Permission of instructor. 

245. Interdisciplinary Seminar in Critical Thinking. (2) Investigation of cross-disciplin- 
ary issues. Designed to encourage experimental, interdisciplinary thinking and writing. 

260. Problems of Structure. (2-4) An investigation into structures arising in the natural 
world and into structures created by human effort. 

274. Environmental Studies. (4) A systematic study of major environmental issues on a 
global scale with an exploration of implications and possible solutions. P — Permission of 
instructor. (Also listed as Education 274.) 

280. Reason and Revelation. (4) An investigation of the intellectual roots of Western 
civilization as they are found in the emergence of philosophical universalism and Biblical 
monotheism. These distinctive approaches will be considered through a reading of such 
authors as Plato, Hesiod, Aristophanes, and St. Thomas Aquinas, and of selections from 
the Bible. 

282. Public Life and the Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of abiding 
public significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with each topic 
will be examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal arts tradition. 
The visiting scholars of the Tocqueville Forum will supplement the class discussion. 
"Politics and the Arts" and "Theory and Practice in Public Life" are representative topics. 



118 



283. Nature and History in Modern Moral and Social Life. (4) The subject as viewed 
through such representative writers as Spinoza, Flaubert, Pascal, Eckermann, Nietzsche, 
and Conrad, each of whom in a different way participated in the rejection of the teachings 
of both the Socratic tradition and the Christian church. 

320. Women in the Middle Ages. (4) A team-taught interdisciplinary course using a 
variety of literary, historical, and theoretical materials. The course aims to develop a new 
framework in which to evaluate and understand the lives of medieval women. 

339. King. (4) An in-depth investigation into the power of charismatic leadership as it 
affected the Civil Rights Movement, as well as a dramatic evaluation of the impact of 
music on the spirit of the Civil Rights Movement. 

340. Race in the Southern Experience before Emancipation: Four Voices. (1,2) Selected 
writings of David Walker, William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and Harriet 
Beecher Stowe. Pass/ fail only. (Credit not given for Humanities 340 if the student has 
completed Humanities 341 .) 

341. Race, Politics, and Literature: Aspects of American Life from 1830 to 1930. (4) An 

examination of the evolution of significant ideas in American civilization. A careful 
reading of Frederick Douglass, Harriet Beecher Stowe, W. E. DuBois, Mark Twain, and 
others. 

343. The Philosophy of Liberation in Literature. (4) The concept of freedom as found in 
the works of such writers as Frederick Douglass, Kobo Abe, Wole Soyinka, Germaine 
Greer, Paule Marshall, Franz Fanon, Garcia Lorca, and James Baldwin. 

344. African Culture and Its Impact on the US. (1-2) A condensed version of Humanities 

345. offered as a minicourse in the spring. Pass/ fail only. (Credit not given for Humanities 
344 if the student has completed Humanities 345.) 

345. African Culture and Its Impact on the US. (4) The influence of African culture on 
American life will be studied in such areas as dance, music, political approaches, 
grammatical patterns, literature, and culinary preferences. The course will include an 
evaluation of American mores. 

347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) Critical analysis of classical, modern, and 
contemporary writings by Japanese women, with an exploration of the cultural setting in 
which they occurred. 

348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) The dark side of traditional society that 
sparked revolution and civil war; forces that led to dissent and student movements. 

349. Chinese Liberation Literature since 1948. (2) The literary background of the 
democracy movement and the Tiananmen Square incident. 

350. Modern Chinese Literature. (4) A study of representative prose and poetry of 
mainland China from the May 4, 1 91 9 movement to the present, in their cultural, historical, 
and political context. The course will concentrate upon major writers (e.g., Lu Xun, Shen 



119 



Congwen, Ding Ling, Mao Dun, Ba Jin, Ai Qing, Wang Meng, Wang Anyi, Bei Dao, Shu 
Ting) with some attention to significant lesser writers. 

353. African and Caribbean Women Writers. (4) Critical analysis of fiction by female 
authors whose works concern women in Africa and its Caribbean diaspora. 

355. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals of love 
in selected works of art. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 249.) 

356. Humanism, "Secular" and Religious. (4) Exploration of the nature of humanism 
through examination of similarities and differences among various forms. Types to be 
considered are: Classical (Platonic, Aristotelian, Stoic, and Epicurean); Christian; modem 
naturalistic; and Confucian. 

357. Images of Aging in the Humanities. (4,3) A multi-disciplinary presentation and 
discussion of portrayals of aging in selected materials from several of the liberal arts: 
philosophical and religious perspectives; selections from literature and the visual arts; 
historical development of perceptions of aging; imaging of aging in contemporary 
culture. (Also listed as Honors 257.) 

360. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear weaponry. 
(Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 254.) 

361. Dante I. (2) A study of the Vita Nuova as apprenticeship to the Divina Commedia, and 
of the first half of the Divina Commedia as epic, prophecy, autobiography, and poetry, 
relating it to antiquity, Christianity, Dante's European present (the birth of modern 
languages and new intellectual and poetic forms), and Dante's own afterlife in the West. 

362. Dante II. (2) A study of the second half of the Divina Commedia as epic, prophecy, 
autobiography, and poetry, relating it to antiquity, Christianity, Dante's European 
present (the birth of modern languages and new intellectual and poetic forms), and 
Dante's own afterlife in the West. P — Humanities 361 or permission of instructor. 

365. Humanity and Nature. (4,3) A multi-disciplinary exploration of relations of human 
beings to nature, and of scientific, economic, and political factors in current environmental 
concerns. Selected religious, classical, and philosophical tests; works of visual art; selected 
discussions of ecology and human responsibility. (Also listed as Honors 265.) 

380. Literature, Film, and Society. (4) A study of major selected works of literature, mainly 
American; of the films which have been based upon them; and of the social and political 
context in which they were read and seen. Texts will include novels, stories, and plays by 
such writers as Dreiser, Lewis, Warren, Steinbeck, Hellman, Harper Lee, Wright, and 
Walker. P — Junior standing. 

381. Independent Research in Asian Studies. (2-4) Supervised independent research 
project on a topic related to Asia. Requires the approval of both the instructor and the 
coordinator of Asian Studies. May be repeated for credit, but no more than four credits 
may count toward East Asian Studies or a minor in Asian Studies. 



120 



382. Italian Cinema and Society. (4) A survey of some of Italy's greatest postwar films 
with special attention to issues and problems in Italian society as treated by major directors 
such as Fellini, De Sica, Rossellini, Antonioni, and Olmi. 

383. Italian Fascism in Novels and Films. (4) An exploration of theories of fascism, with 
an emphasis on Italy between 1919 and 1944 as understood through novels and films. 

384. Latin American Cinema. (4) Examination of major Latin American films as cinemato- 
graphic art and as expressions of social and political issues. Directors include Luis Buftuel, 
Tomas Gutierrez Alea, and Ruy Guerra. 

38*5. Legends of Troy. (4) An interdisciplinary investigation of translations and transfor- 
mations of the Trojan legend from the Greeks through the Middle Ages and the 
Renaissance to the present. Texts, studied in English translation, are by such authors as 
Homer, Virgil, Ovid, Chaucer, Racine, and Giraudoux. 

390. Interdisciplinary Seminar on Aging. (4) A study of aging in an interdisciplinary 
context, including the biological, psychological, neurobiological, cognitive, health status, 
and social structural and demographic aspects of aging. P — Permission of instructor. 

396. Individual Study. (2-4) Individual projects in the humanities which continue study 
begun in regular courses. By prearrangement. 

Linguistics 

Courses in linguistics are attached to the program in humanities for administrative 
purposes. 

150. Introduction to Linguistics. (4) The social phenomenon of language: how it origi- 
nated and developed, how it is learned and used, its relationship to other kinds of 
behavior; types of language (oral, written, signed) and language families; analysis of 
linguistic data; social issues of language use. 



Interdisciplinary Honors 

James P. Barefield, Coordinator 

A series of seminar courses of an interdisciplinary nature is open to qualified undergradu- 
ates. Students interested in admission to any one of these seminars, supervised by the 
Committee on Honors, should consult the coordinator or a member of the committee. 

Students who choose to participate in as many as four interdisciplinary seminars and 
who have a superior record may elect Honors 281, directed study culminating in an 
honors paper and an oral examina tion. Those whose work has been superior in this course 
and who have achieved an overall grade-point average of at least 3.0 in all college work 
may be graduated with the distinction "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." Students who 
choose to be candidates for departmental honors may not also be candidates for "Honors 
in the Arts and Sciences." 



121 



Able students are normally encouraged to choose a departmental honors program 
rather than "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." As a result, most students elect to 
participate in only one or two interdisciplinary seminars in which they are particularly 
interested. The faculty participants for these seminars represent diverse academic disci- 
plines. 

131, 132. Approaches to Human Experience I. (4,4) An inquiry into the nature and 
interrelationships of several approaches to man's experience, represented by the work of 
three such minds as Leonardo da Vinci, Dante, Klee, Lorenz, Confucius, Dostoevsky, 
Descartes, Goya, Mozart, Jefferson, and Bohr. Seminar discussion based on primary and 
secondary sources, including musical works and paintings. Written reports and a term 
paper required. Offered in alternate years. 

133, 134. Approaches to Human Experience II. (4,4) A parallel course to Honors 131, 132, 
concentrating on the work of a different set of figures such as Einstein, Galileo, Keynes, 
Pascal, Camus, Picasso, Ibsen, Stravinsky, Sophocles, and Bach. Offered in alternate years. 

*233. Darwinism and the Modern World. (4) A study of the Darwinian theory of 
evolution and the impact of evolution and evolutionary thought on fields such as 
economics, politics, psychology, literature and the other arts, and philosophy. 

*235.The Ideal Society. (4) Man's effort to establish or imagine the ideal community, state, 
or society; principles of political and social organization; changing goals and values. 

*236. The Force of Impressionism. (4) Impressionism and its impact on modern painting 
and literature, with attention to origins and theories of style. Painters to include Manet, 
Monet, Renoir, Degas, and Cezanne. Writers to include Baudelaire, Flaubert, Mallarme, 
James, Pound, Joyce, and Woolf . 

*237. The Scientific Outlook. (4) An exploration of the origins and development of the 
scientific method and some of its contemporary applications in the natural and social 
sciences and the humanities. (Also listed as Natural Sciences 351.) 

*238. Romanticism. (4) Romanticism as a recurrent characteristic of mind and art and as 
a specific historical movement in Europe and America in the late eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. Emphasis on primarymaterials in philosophy, literature, music,and 
painting. 

*239. Man and the Irrational. (4) The phenomenon of the irrational, with emphasis on its 
twentieth century manifestations but with attention also to its presence in other centuries 
and cultures. Philosophy, religion, literature, psychology, politics, and the arts are 
explored. 

*240. Adventures in Self-Understanding. (4) Examination and discussion of significant 
accounts of the quest for understanding of the self, in differing historical periods, cultural 



* One or more offered each year at the discretion of the Committee on Honors 



122 



contexts, and genres. Among figures who may be discussed are Augustine, Dante, 
Gandhi, Montaigne, Descartes, Pascal, and selected modern writers. 

*241. The Tragic View. (4) The theory of tragedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the tragic in literature, art, music, theater, and film. 

*242. The Comic View. (4) The theory of comedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the comic in literature, art, music, theater, and film. 

*244. Man and the Structure of the Universe. (4) An investigation of various conceptions 
of the universe and their implications for man. Study not necessarily limited to the 
cosmologies of Ptolemy, Copernicus, and their modern successors, but may also include 
theories such as the Babylonian, Mayan, and Taoist. 

*246. Man and the Environment. (4) An interdisciplinary examination of man and society 
in relation to the environment. 

*247. The Mythic View. (4) The nature of myth through creation and hero myths; the uses 
to which myths have been put in different historical periods; various modern explanations 
of myth (literary, religious, anthropological, psychoanalytic, social, and historical). 

*248. The Ironic View. (4) An investigation of the ironic view of life in literature, art, 
history, theater, and film. 

*249. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals of love 
in selected works of art. (Also listed as Humanities 355.) 

*250. Ethical Dilemmas in the Arts and Sciences. (4) An exploration of contemporary 
issues and controversies in the sciences and art, particularly those involved with ethical 
questions resulting from new concepts and discoveries. 

*252. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) An examination of the philosophical and 
scientific roots, in Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz, of the belief that the universe and 
human beings are "machines" subject to deterministic natural laws, and the relevance to 
this issue of modern scientific ideas. (Also listed as History 302, Natural Sciences 302, and 
Philosophy 242.) 

*253. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically new 
ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time in relativity 
theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, and continental 
drift. P — At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science or permission of 
instructor. (Also listed as History 303 and Natural Sciences 303.) 

*254. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear weaponry. 
(Also listed as Humanities 360.) 



* One or more offered each year at the discretion of the Committee on Honors 



123 



*256. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human values: 
biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search for extraterres- 
trial life. (Also listed as Natural Sciences 352.) 

257. Images of Aging in the Humanities. (4) A multi-disciplinary presentation and 
discussion of portrayals of aging in selected materials from several of the liberal arts: 
philosophical and religious perspectives; selections from literature and the visual arts; 
historical development of perceptions of aging; imaging of aging in contemporary 
culture. (Also listed as Humanities 357.) 

265. Humanity and Nature. (4) A multi-disciplinary exploration of relations of human 
beings to nature, and of scientific, economic, and political factors in current environmental 
concerns. Selected religious, classical, and philosophical texts; works of visual art; selected 
discussions of ecology and human responsibility. (Also listed as Humanities 365.) 

281. Directed Study. (4) Readings on an interdisciplinary topic approved by the Commit- 
tee on Honors; presentation of a major research or interpretive paper based on these 
readings, under the direction of a faculty member; an oral examination on the topic, 
administered by the faculty supervisor and the Committee on Honors. Eligible students 
who wish to take this course must submit a written request to the Committee on Honors 
by the end of the junior year. Not open to candidates for departmental honors. 



International Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Richard Sears (International Studies), Coordinator 

The minor in International Studies consists of a total of twenty credits. Candidates for the 
minor are required to take Politics 116, International Politics (4), and one of the following 
courses. (See course description under appropriate listings.) 

Economics 

251. International Trade. (4) 

252. International Finance. (4) 

253. Economics of Communism. (4) 
Politics 

253. The Politics of International Economic Relations. (4) 

In addition, students must take twelve other credits in International Studies from an 
approved list on file in the Office of International Studies. No more than eight of the twenty 
credits for the minor may be taken in a single department. Study of a foreign language 
beyond the basic requirement is strongly recommended . Formal advising of minors is not 

* One or more offered each year at the discretion of the Committee on Honors 



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required, but the director of International Studies is responsible for certifying the 
successful completion of requirements for the minor. For more information, contact the 
Office of International Studies. 



Italian Studies 

(Foreign Area Study) 
Antonio Vitti (Romance Languages), Coordinator 

A semester in Venice or another approved course of study in Italy is required. Students 
must take Italian through the 215 (Introduction to Italian Literature I) level, plus three 
courses from the following groups, at least one each from Groups 2 and 3. (See course 
descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

Group 1 : Literature 

Classics 251. Classical Mythology. (4) 

Classics 272. A Survey of Latin Literature. (4) 

Italian 216. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) (or any Italian course above 215) 

Religion 277. Christian Literary Classics. (4) 
Group 2: Fine Arts 

Art 245. Roman Art. (4) 

Art 267. Early Italian Renaissance Art. (4) 

Art 268. Italian High Renaissance and Mannerist Art. (4) 

Art 296. Art History Seminar. (2,4) 
c. Renaissance Art 

Art 2693. Venetian Renaissance Art. (4) (taught in Venice) 

Humanities 361. Dante I. (2) 

Humanities 362. Dante II. (2) 

Humanities 382. Italian Cinema and Society. (4) 

Humanities 383. Italian Fascism in Novels and Films. (4) 

Music 181 . Music History I. (3) 

Music 206. Survey of Opera. (4) 

Music 220. Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Music. (3,4) 

Music 221 . Seminar in Baroque Music. (3,4) 
Group 3: History and the Social Sciences 

Classics 271. Roman Civilization. (3) 

History 335. Italy: Medieval and Renaissance. (4) 

History 336. Italy: Nineteenth and Tzventieth-Century. (4) 

History 398. Individual Study. (1-4) 

Students also may take appropriate courses in anthropology, economics, politics, 
psychology, religion, and sociology taught in the Venice program, and individual study 
courses taught in these departments, with appropriate topics. 



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Latin American Studies 

(Foreign Area Studies) 
Mary Friedman and Linda Maier (Romance Languages), Coordinators 

It is recommended that students take Spanish 263, 264, 265, or 266 to fulfill the foreign 
literature requirement in Division I. Students are required to take History 375, Modern 
Latin America (4); Politics 236, Government and Politics in Latin America (4); Spanish 218, 
Masterpieces of Spanish American Literature (4); and Spanish 233, Eighteenth and Nineteenth 
Century Spanish Literature (4), plus twelve credits from the following list. (See course 
descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

Economics 

251. International Finance. (4) 
History 

373. History of Mexico. (4) 

374. Protest and Rebellion in Latin America. (4) 
Humanities 

384. Latin American Cinema. (4) 




Associate Professor of History Sarah Watts with an undergraduate student 



126 



Politics 

242. Problems in Comparative Politics. (4) 

292. Seminar in Comparative Politics. (4) (if the topic pertains to Latin America) 
Spanish 

219. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) 

262. Spanish-American Poetry. (4) 

263. Contemporary Spanish-American Theater. (4) 

264. Spanish-American Short Story. (4) 

265. Spanish-American Novel. (4) 

266. Seminar in Spanish-American Novel. (2-4) 




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Mathematics and Computer Science 

Richard D. CarmichaeL Chair 

Reynolds Professor Robert J. Plemmons 

Professors John V. Baxley, Richard D. CarmichaeL Elmer K. Hayashi, 

Frederic T. Howard, Ellen E. Kirkman, James Kuzmanovich, J. Gaylord May, 

W. Graham May, Wesley E. Snyder, Marcellus E. Waddill 

Associate Professors Daniel Cartas, David J. John, Stan J. Thomas 

Assistant Professors Edward E. Allen, James L. Norris III, 

Stephen B. Robinson, Todd C. Torgersen 

Lecturer Gene T. Lucas 

Instructors Eva M. Allen, Jule M. Connolly, David C. Wilson 

A major in mathematics requires a minimum of forty credits. A student must include 
courses 111, 112, 113, 121, 221, one of the courses 311, 317, 352, 357, and at least two 
additional 300-level courses of at least four credits each . Lower division students are urged 
to consult a member of the departmental faculty before enrolling in courses other than 
those satisfying Division II requirements. 

A major in computer science requires forty credits in computer science and four courses 
in mathematics. The courses in computer science must include 112, 211, 212, 235, 236, and 
277. The required courses in mathematics are 111,11 2, 11 7, and 121 . Students considering 
graduate work in computer science should consult a major adviser in the department for 
assistance in planning an appropriate course of study. 

A minor in computer science requires four courses, at least sixteen credits, in computer 
science numbered higher than 111, Mathematics 117, and an additional four credits in 
mathematics other than Mathematics 105. 

A minor in mathematics requires Mathematics 111, 112, either 113 or 121, and three 
other courses of at least four credits each numbered higher than Mathematics 108, two of 
which must be numbered above 200. Neither Mathematics 301, 302, 303, or 304 can count 
as a course for this minor, but any pair may be so counted. Credit is not allowed for both 
Mathematics 121 and Mathematics 302 or for both Mathematics 303 and Mathematics 317. 

A minimum GPA of 2.0 in courses which comprise a major or minor in the department 
is required for graduation with any major or minor which the department offers. 

A regularly scheduled activity in mathematics is an informal seminar of students and 
faculty on topics not discussed in regular courses (for example, finite differences, game 
theory, Monte Carlo method, divergent series). 

The Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and the Department of 
Economics offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six credits, 
offers the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the development of 
economic theory, models, and quantitative analysis. The major has the following course 
requirements: Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 251; Economics 150, 205, 207, 208, 215, 218; 
and three additional courses chosen with the approval of the program advisers. Recom- 
mended courses are Mathematics 253, 311, 312, 348, 353, 357, 358 and Economics 206, 212, 



128 



223, 231, 232, 235, 251, 252. Students selecting the joint major must receive permission from 
both the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and the Department of 
Economics. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in mathematics, computer science, or the joint major. To be graduated 
with the designation "Honors in Mathematics," "Honors in Computer Science," or 
"Honors in Mathematical Economics," they must complete satisfactorily a senior research 
paper. To graduate with "Honors in Mathematics" or "Honors in Computer Science," 
majors must have a minimum grade-point average of 3.5 in the major and 3.0 in all college 
course work. For additional information, members of the departmental faculty should be 
consulted. 

Students who are enrolled at Wake Forest may not take courses in mathematics and/ 
or computer science at other institutions to satisfy divisional requirements. 

Computer Science 

111. Introduction to Computer Science. (4) A rigorous introduction to the process of 
algorithmic problem-solving; an introduction to the organization of computers on which 
resulting programs run; and an overview of the societal and ethical context in which 
computer science exists. A scheduled laboratory experience is used for both the computer 
programming and computer organization aspects of the course. Lab — two hours. 

112. Fundamentals of Computer Science. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Problem-solving 
and program construction are emphasized using reusable modules, data abstraction and 
parallel computation. Linear data structures, fundamental software engineering tools, 
and problem-solving paradigms are introduced for the beginning computer science 
student. Lab — two hours. P — Computer Science 111 or permission of instructor. 

211. Computer Software Organization and Architecture. (4) Lecture and laboratory. 
Hierarchical software organization, representation and manipulation of data, instruction 
sets, addressing and structure of memory. The laboratory focuses on the understanding 
of an assembly language. P — Computer Science 112 and Mathematics 117. 

212. Computer Hardware Organization. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Basic von Neumann 
computer architectures. Study and design of combinational logic circuits, arithmetic 
units, and memory devices. P — Computer Science 211 . 

235. Data Structures and Algorithms I. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Study, analysis and 
implementation of abstract data structures such as list, stack, queue and tree. Complexity 
analysis of algorithms which operate upon these data structures. P — Computer Science 
112 and Mathematics 117. 

236. Data Structures and Algorithms II. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A continuation of the 
study, analysis and implementation of abstract data structures. The complexity of 
algorithms is studied more rigorously than in Computer Science 235 and complexity 
classes are introduced. P — Computer Science 235 and Mathematics 111. 



129 



277. Programming Languages. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of the properties of 
programming languages including syntax, semantics, control structures, and run-time 
representations. P — Computer Science 112 and Mathematics 117. 

301. Software Engineering. (4) The principles and methods for the specification, design, 
and validation of large software systems. Topics may include formal specification 
techniques, design techniques, programming methodology, program testing, proofs of 
program correctness, software reliability, and software management. P — Computer 
Science 235. 

302. Operating Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. The study of algorithms for sequenc- 
ing, controlling, scheduling, and allocating computer resources. P — Computer Science 
211 and Computer Science 235. 

310. Design of Central Processing Units. (4) Use of register-transfer notation, hardware 
programming languages, control sequencing, and microprogramming. P — Computer 
Science 212. 

319. Digital Systems Architecture. (4) The unification of hardware, firmware, and 
software. Architectural descriptions, storage systems, paging and associative memories, 
I/O systems, stack machines, and parallelism. P — Computer Science 211. 

323. Computer Graphics. (4) A study of software and hardware techniques in computer 
graphics. Topics include line and polygon drawing, hidden line and surface techniques, 
transformations, and ray tracing. P — Computer Science 235 and Mathematics 121. 

330. Computer Communications. (4) A study of the operation, design, and analytic 
modeling of computer communication and networking systems. P — Computer Science 
211. 

355. Introduction to Numerical Methods. (4) Numerical computations on modern 
computer architectures; floating point arithmetic and round-off error. Programming in a 
scientific /engineering language (C or FORTRAN). Algorithms and computer techniques 
for the solution of problems such as roots of functions, approximation, integration, 
systems of linear equations and least squares methods. Credit not allowed for both 
Mathematics 355 and Computer Science 355. P — Mathematics 112, Mathematics 121, and 
Computer Science 111. 

361. Selected Topics. (2,3, or 4) Topics in computer science which are not studied in 
regular courses or which further examine topics begun in regular courses. P — Permission 
of instructor. 

372. Compilers. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of techniques for compiling computer 
languages including scanning, parsing, translating, and generating code. P — Computer 
Science 211 and Computer Science 235. 

374. Database Management Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. An introduction to 
large-scale database management systems. Topics include data independence, data base 
models, query languages, security, integrity, and concurrency. P — Computer Science 235 . 



130 



379. Artificial Intelligence. (4) An introduction to problems in artificial intelligence. 
Techniques of representation and heuristic search in areas such as problem solving, 
pattern recognition, theorem proving, and information processing . P — Computer Science 
236. 

381. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) A course of independent study directed by a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. Not to be counted toward the minor in computer science. 

Mathematics 

105. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry. (2,3, or 4) A review of the essentials of 
algebra and trigonometry. Admission by permission only (generally, a student must have 
taken fewer than three years of high school mathematics to be eligible for admission). Not 
to be counted toward the major or minor in mathematics. 

108. Essential Calculus. (5 or 4) A one-semester course in differential and integral calculus 
with application to business and the social sciences. No studentallowed creditfor both 108 
and 111. A student who might take additional calculus should not take Mathematics 108. 
Lab — two hours. 

109. Elementary Probability and Statistics. (5 or 4) Probability and distribution functions, 
means and variances, and sampling distributions. Lab — two hours. 

Ill, 112. Calculus with Analytic Geometry I, II. (5 or 4; 5 or 4) Calculus of functions of 
one variable; infinite series. Computer lab using BASIC. No student allowed credit for 
both 108 and 111. 

113. Multivariable Calculus. (4) Vector and space curves. Differentiable functions; 
surfaces and max-min problems. Multiple integrals and Green's theorem. P — Mathemat- 
ics 112. 

117. Discrete Mathematics. (4) An introduction to various topics in discrete mathematics 
applicable to computer science including sets, relations, Boolean algebra, propositional 
logic, functions, computability, proof techniques, graph theory, and elementary combina- 
torics. 

121. Linear Algebra I. (4) Vectors and vector spaces, linear transformations and matrices, 
determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors. Credit not allowed for both 121 and 302. 

165. Problem Solving Seminar. (1 or 2) A weekly seminar designed for students who wish 
to participate in mathematical competition such as the annual Putnam examination. Not 
to be counted toward any major or minor offered by the department. Maybe repeated for 
credit. 

221. Modern Algebra I. (4) An introduction to modern abstract algebra through the study 
of groups, rings, integral domains, and fields. P — Mathematics 121. 

251. Ordinary Differential Equations. (4) Linear equations with constant coefficients, 
linear equations with variable coefficients, and existence and uniqueness theorems for 
first order equations. P — Mathematics 112. 



131 



253. Operations Research. (4) Mathematical models and optimization techniques. Stud- 
ies in allocation, simulation, queuing, scheduling, and network analysis. P — Mathematics 
111. 

256. Statistical Methods. (4) A study of statistical methods that have proved useful in 
many different disciplines. These methods include tests of model assumptions, regres- 
sion, general linear models, nonparametric alternatives, and analysis of data collected 
over time. Knowledge of matrix algebra is desirable but not necessary. 

301. Vector Analysis. (2) Vector functions, partial derivatives, line and multiple integrals, 
Green's theorem, Stokes' theorem, divergence theorem. Not to be counted toward any 
major offered by the department. P — Mathematics 112. 

302. Matrix Algebra. (2) Matrices, determinants, solutions of linear equations, special 
matrices, eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices. Not to be counted toward any major 
offered by the department. Credit not allowed for both 121 and 302. 

303. Complex Variables. (2) Topics in analytic function theory, Cauchy's theorem, Taylor 
and Laurent series, residues. Not to be counted toward any major offered by the 
department. Credit not allowed for both 303 and 317. P — Mathematics 112. 

304. Applied Partial Differential Equations. (2) The separation of variables technique for 
the solution of the wave, heat, Laplace, and other partial differential equations with the 
related study of special functions and Fourier series. Not to be counted toward any major 
offered by the department. P — Mathematics 251 . 

311, 312. Advanced Calculus I, II. (4,4) Limits and continuity in metric spaces, differen- 
tiation and Riemann-Stieltjes integration, sequences and series, uniform convergence, 
power series and Fourier series, partial differentiation and functions of n real variables, 
implicit and inverse function theorems. P — Mathematics 113. 

317. Complex Analysis I. (4) Analytic functions, Cauchy's theorem and its consequences, 
power series, and residue calculus. Credit not allowed for both 303 and 317. P — 
Mathematics 113. 

322. Modern Algebra II. (4) A continuation of modern abstract algebra through the study 
of additional properties of groups, rings, and fields. P — Mathematics 221 . 

324. Linear Algebra II. (4) A thorough treatment of vector spaces and linear transforma- 
tions over an arbitra ry field, canonical forms, inner product spaces, and linear groups. P — 
Mathematics 121 and Mathematics 221. 

326. Numerical Linear Algebra. (4) Numerical methods for solving matrix and related 
problems in science and engineering. Topics will include systems of linear equations, least 
squares methods, and eigenvalue computations. Special emphasis given to parallel 
matrix computations. Beginning knowledge of a programming language, such as Pascal, 
FORTRAN, or C, is required. P — Mathematics 112 and Mathematics 121. 

331. Geometry. (4) An introduction to axiomatic geometry including a comparison of 
Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. 



132 



334. Differential Geometry. (4) Introduction to the theory of curves and surfaces in two 
and three dimensional space, including such topics as curvature, geodesies, and minimal 
surfaces. P — Mathematics 113. 

345, 346. Elementary Theory of Numbers I, II. (4,4) Properties of integers, congruences, 
arithmetic functions, primitive roots, sums of squares, magic squares, applications to 
elementary mathematics, quadratic residues, arithmetic theory of continued fractions. 

348, 349. Combinatorial Analysis I, II. (4,4) Enumeration techniques, generating func- 
tions, recurrence formulas, the principle of inclusion and exclusion, Polya theory, graph 
theory, combinatorial algorithms, partially ordered sets, designs, Ramsey theory, sym- 
metric functions, and Schur functions. 

352. Partial Differential Equations. (4) A detailed study of partial differential equations, 
including the heat, wave, and Laplace equations, using methods such as separation of 
variables, characteristics, Green's functions, and the maximum principle. P — Mathemat- 
ics 113 and Mathematics 251. 

353. Mathematical Models. (4) Development and application of probabilistic and deter- 
ministic models. Emphasis given to constructing models which represent systems in the 
social, behavioral, and management sciences. 

355. Introduction to Numerical Methods. (4) Numerical computations on modern 
computer architectures; floating point arithmetic and round-off error. Programming in a 
scientific /engineering language (C or FORTRAN) . Algorithms and computer techniques 
for the solution of problems such as roots of functions, approximation, integration, 
systems of linear equations and least squares methods. Credit not allowed for both 
Mathematics 355 and Computer Science 355. P — Mathematics 112, Mathematics 121, and 
Computer Science 111. 

357, 358. Mathematical Statistics I, II. (4,4) Probability distributions, mathematical 
expectation, sampling distributions, estimation and testing of hypotheses, regression, 
correlation, and analysis of variance. C — Mathematics 113, or P — Permission of instruc- 
tor. 

361. Selected Topics. (2,3, or 4) Topics in mathematics which are not considered in regular 
courses or which continue study begun in regular courses. Content varies. 

381. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) A course of independent study directed by a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. 



133 



Military Science 



Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth M. Walker, Professor 

Assistant Professors: Captain David P. Bumgarner, Captain Rufus S. 

Gatlin Jr., Captain William M. Pedersen, Captain Frank M. Williamson 

Instructors: Major Stephen J. Huebner, Sergeant Major Lewis L. Green, 

Master Sergeant Clifton Lowery 

Completion of Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) requirements and 
recommendation for appointment by the professor of military science may result in 
commissioning as a second lieutenant in the active or reserve forces components of the 
Army of the United States, as determined by the Secretary of the Army. The AROTC 
program is composed of the Basic Course and the Advanced Course. The Basic Course is 
composed of four core courses (121, 122, 123, and 124), sometimes with either 117 or 118 
taken each semester as a co-requisite. No military obligation is incurred by enrollment in 
the Basic Course, except by Army ROTC Scholarship cadets, and then only when 
beginning their sophomore year. The Basic Course may be completed, partially or fully, 
by various alternative methods (i.e., through credit for specific types of Junior ROTC or 
other military training, as determined by the professor of military science, or through 
completion of a six-week summer Basic Camp). The Advanced Course is composed of 
four core courses (225, 226, 227, and 228), with either 117 or 118 taken each semester as a 
co-requisite, and a six-week Advanced Camp, usually attended during the summer 
between the junior and senior years. Army ROTC scholarships are available to qualified 
applicants (both those already enrolled in the AROTC program and those not yet enrolled) 
through annual competition. 

112. Operations in Special Environments. (2) Planning and preparation for military 
operations in mountain, desert, jungle, and arctic environments; fundamentals of sur- 
vival; mountaineering techniques. 

114. Leadership. (2) An examination of the fundamentals contributing to the develop- 
ment of a personal style of leadership with emphasis on the dimensions of junior executive 
management. 

116. Orienteering. (2) A study of navigational aids, linear time/ distance relationships, 
and mapping techniques. Includes navigating in unfamiliar terrain. 

117, 118. Leadership Laboratory. (0,0) Basic military skills instruction designed to 
technically and tactically qualify the student for assumption of an officer leadership 
position at the small-unit level. Either 117 (fall) or 118 (spring) is required each semester 
for contracted AROTC cadets (including those conditionally contracted), advance desig- 
nee scholarship winners, and non-contracted AROTC cadets taking their third and fourth 
military science core courses. Pass/fail only. C — Any other military science core course. 
P — Permission of the professor of military science, except when required as explained 
above. 



134 



121. Introduction to Army ROTC and the US Army. (2) An introduction to the Army 
Reserve Officers' Training Corps and to the United States Army, exploring roles, organi- 
zation, customs and traditions. C — Military Science 117 or 118, as appropriate. 

122. Introduction to Military Leadership. (2) Introduction to military leadership, plan- 
ning, organizing, communication skills and problem analysis. Techniques of motivation 
and management of subordinates. Examination of moral issues, requirements and 
dilemma of the military profession. P — Military Science 121 or permission of the professor 
of military science. C — Military Science 117 or 118, as appropriate. 

123. Land Navigation and Terrain Analysis. (2) A study of the methods of land 
navigation and terrain analysis for military operations. P — Military Science 121 and 122, 
or permission of the professor of military science. C — Military Science 117 or 118, as 
appropriate. 

124. Tactics and Leadership in the US Army. (2) An introduction to planning, organizing, 
and conducting military ground operations, with a consideration of the principles of war. 
Focuses on current leadership doctrine within the Army. P — Military Science 121, 122, and 
123, or permission of the professor of military science. C — Military Science 117 or 118, as 
appropriate. 

225. Military Operations. (2) An in-depth study of the principles of combined arms 
operations. P — Military Science 121 through 124 (or equivalent credit as determined by 
the professor of military science). C — Military Science 117. 

226. Advanced Military Operations. (2) A continuation of Military Science 225 with an 
emphasis on the leadership aspect of combined arms operations. Specific preparation for 
the AROTC Advanced Camp. P — Military Science 121 through 124 (or equivalent credit 
as determined by the professor of military science) and Military Science 225. C — Military 
Science 118. 

227. Leadership and Management in the US Army I. (2) The theory and practice of 
military leadership. Emphasis on the Uniform Code of Military Justice, the Manual for 
Courts-Martial, the Law of Land Warfare and the Army's personnel, training, and 
logistical management systems. P — Military Science 121 through 124 (or equivalent credit 
as determined by the professor of military science) and Military Science 225 and 226. C — 
Military Science 117. 

228. Leadership and Management in the US Army II. (2) A continuation of Military 
Science 227 with emphasis on the transition from cadet to officer. P — Military Science 121 
through 1 24 (or equivalent credit as determined by the professor of military science) and 
Military Science 225 through 227. C — Military Science 118. 

229. American Military History. (4) The American military experience with emphasis on 
the ideas and activities contributing to the development of the United States' unique 
military establishment. Particular emphasis on civilian control of the military. P — 
Permission of the professor of military science. Credit not allowed for this course if credit 
has been earned for History 369. 



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Music 

Susan Harden Borwick, Chair 

Professor Susan Harden Borwick 

Associate Professors Stewart Carter, Louis Goldstein, 

Peter Kairof f, David B. Levy, Dan Locklair 

Assistant Professor Teresa Radomski 

Part-time Assistant Professor Pamela Howland 

Director of Instrumental Ensembles George Trautwein 

Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles Martin Province 

Director of Choral Ensembles Brian Gorelick 

Part-time Instructors Patricia Dixon, Kathryn Levy 

A major in music requires forty-eight credits. This includes a basic curriculum of thirty- 
six credits (Music Theory 171, 172, 173, and 174, sixteen credits; Music History 181, 182, 
six credits; ten credits of applied music; and four credits of ensemble, taken in four 
semesters) plus six semesters of Music Recitals 100 and twelve credits of elective courses 
in music, excluding ensembles and class applied instruction. In addition to the course 
work, music majors are required to present a senior recital, lecture-recital, or project. 

Students anticipating a major in music are urged to begin their studies during the 
freshman year and are required to audition during the second semester of their sopho- 
more year before officially being admitted to the program. 

Highly qualified majors may be invited by the music faculty to apply for admission to 
the honors program in music. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Music," 
a candidate musthave a 3.0 overall GPA and a 3.5 GPA in courses in the major . In addition, 
the candidate must be nominated for this honor by a music faculty member and must 
complete one of the following requirements: (1) an honors-level research paper, (2) an 
analysis project, (3) an original composition, (4) a lecture-recital, (5) a solo recital, (6) a 
chamber-music recital, (7) a solo concert with ensemble, or (8) a conducting project. More 
complete information is available from the Department of Music. 

A minor in music requires twenty-four credits: Music 171, 172; 181, 182; two credits of 
ensemble, taken in two semesters; two semesters of applied music (performance level in 
applied music must be equal to the level expected of majors at the time of the sophomore 
audition); six credits of music electives (excluding ensemble); and four semesters of Music 
Recitals 100. Each minor will be assigned an adviser in the music department and is 
encouraged to begin private lessons, Music 171, and Music 100 as early as possible. 

Regarding ensemble requirements for the major or minor in music, students who, upon 
the advice of their applied instructor, take the sophomore audition in voice must fulfill the 
ensemble requirement by singing in Music 1 1 4, 1 15, and/or 116. Students who, upon the 
advice of their applied instructor, take the sophomore audition on a band or orchestral 
instrument must fulfill the ensemble requirement by performing on that instrument in 
Music 1 13, 1 17, 1 19, and/or 121 . In the caseof majors who concentrate in music education, 
Music 117 may fulfill up to two, but no more than two, semesters of the four-semester 
ensemble requirement. 



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Any student interested in majoring or minoring in music should consult the chair of the 
department as soon as possible after entering the University. 

General Music 

100. Recitals. (0) Recitals, concerts, and guest lectures sponsored by the Department of 
Music and the Secrest Artists Series. (Specific attendance requirements will be established 
at the beginning of each semester.) Six semesters are required of music majors; four 
semesters are required of music minors. (P/F only) 

101. Introduction to the Language of Music. (3,4) Basic theoretical concepts and musical 
terminology. Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected works from the Middle 
Ages through the twentieth century. Satisfies the Division I requirement. For students not 
majoring in music. 

102. Language of Music I. (3,4) Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected works 
from the Middle Ages through the twentieth century. For students who can read music. 
Not open to music majors. Satisfies the Division I requirement. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

202. Language of Music II. (2) An in-depth study of selected major works. Not open to 
music majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

Music Theory 

104. Basic Music Reading and Skills. (2) A study of the fundamentals of music theory 
including key signatures, scales, intervals, chords, and basic sight-singing and ear- 
training skills. Designed for students wishing to participate in University ensembles and 
those wishing to pursue vocal, instrumental, and compositional instruction. May not 
count toward the music major or minor. 

105. Music Theory for Non-Majors. (4) A study and application of music fundamentals 
and music theory for the non-music major; analytical and compositional techniques. P — 
Music 104 or permission of instructor. 

171. Music Theory I. (4) Music fundamentals: key signatures, scales, modes, intervals, 
triads, elements of music. Ear training, sight-singing, and rhythm skills. Fall. 

172. Music Theory II. (4) Seventh chords, beginning part-writing, basic counterpoint, ear 
training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard harmony. Spring. P — Music 171. 

173. Music Theory III. (4) Altered chords, continuation of part-writing, eighteenth and 
nineteenth century forms, ear training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard harmony. 
Fall. P— Music 172. 

174. Music Theory IV. (4) Expanded harmonic system of Impressionism and the twenti- 
eth century. New concepts of style and form. Ear training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, 
keyboard harmony. Spring. P — Music 173. 



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270. Sixteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of sixteenth century contrapuntal 
music, in particular that of Palestrina. Examination of Renaissance writings on counter- 
point. Composition of canon and motet. P — Music 174. 

271. Eighteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of eighteenth century contrapuntal 
styles, with concentration on the Well-Tempered Clavier and Art of the Fugue of J. S. Bach. 
Composition of invention, canon, and fugue. P — Music 174. 

272. Analysis Seminar. (2) A study of analytical writings of theorists and composers and 
the development of practical skills as they can be used in research and performance 
preparation. P — Music 174. 

273. Composition. (1 or 2) Individual instruction in the craft of musical composition. May 
be repeated for credit. P — Permission of instructor. 

276. Current Practices. (2) A survey of twentieth century compositional techniques, 
notation, and performance problems involving the study of music and theoretical 
writings associated with major trends from 1900 to the present. P — Music 174. 

280. Orchestration. (4) A study of the orchestral and wind band instruments, how 
composers have used them throughout history, and the development of practical scoring 
and manuscript skills. (Also offered by the Department of Education as Education 280.) 
Spring. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

Music History 

181. Music History I. (3) History of music from the Greeks to 1750. Satisfies the Division 
I requirement. P — Permission of instructor. 

182. Music History II. (3) History of music from 1 750 to the present. Satisfies the Division 
I requirement. P — Permission of instructor. 

203. History of Jazz. (4) A survey of American jazz from its origin to the present. Open to 
majors and non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

204. Survey of Choral Music. (4) A historical overview of important genera (i.e., anthem, 
cantata, motet, mass, oratorio) with an emphasis on church music and liturgical function. 
Open to majors and non -majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

205. Survey of Orchestral Music. (4) A historical overview of important orchestral 
repertoire (i.e., symphony, concerto, overture, symphonic poem). Open to majors and 
non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

206. Survey of Opera. (4) A study of the development of opera from 1600 to the present. 
Selected operas by European and American composers will be examined in class via 
record, score, and film. Class will attend opera performances when possible. Open to 
majors and non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

207. Music in America. (4) A study of the music and musical trends in America from 1650 
to the present. The course will survey sacred and secular music from the Pilgrims to the 
current trends of American composers. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 



138 



208. Women and Music. (4) A historical overview of women musicians in society. P — 
Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

212. Music in the Church. (4) Function of church musicians and the relationship of their 
work to the church program. Offered fall semester of odd years. P — Permission of instructor. 

213. Beethoven. (4) Compositional process, analysis, criticism, and performance practices 
in selected works by Ludwig van Beethoven. P — Music 101 or permission of instructor. 

215. Philosophy of Music. (2) A survey of philosophical writings about music. Musical 
aesthetics; social, religious, and political concerns. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of 
instructor. 

220. Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Music. (3,4) A study of music before 1600, its 
theory, notation, and performance practices. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

221. Seminar in Baroque Music. (3,4) Musical activity from about 1600 to Bach and 
Handel. Special emphasis on the development of national styles and their resolutions 
toward the end of the era. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

222. Seminar in Eighteenth Century Music. (3,4) Musical developments from the sons of 
Bach through the Viennese Classicism of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. P — Music 174, 
182, or permission of instructor. 

223. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Music. (3,4) Music from thelatter part of Beethoven's 
career through Wagner and Brahms. Special emphasis on the post-Beethoven schism and 
its ramifications. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

224. Seminar in Twentieth Century Music. (3,4) A study of the major musical styles, 
techniques, and media of contemporary music from Debussy to the present. P — Music 
174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3,4) A survey of repertoire, including an examination of 
teaching materials in the student's special area of interest. Also offered by the Department 
of Education as Education 284. P — Permission of instructor. 

a. Instrumental Literature d. Guitar Literature 

b. Choral Literature e. Vocal Literature 

c. Piano Literature 

Music Education 

Music 280, 282, 284, 289, and 354 also appear as Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 354. These 
courses may be taken as Music or Education but not both. 

186. String Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all instruments of the 
string family. Offered spring semester of odd years. 

187. Woodwind Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all principal 
instruments of the woodwind family. Offered fall semester of even years. 



139 



188. Brass and Percussion Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching brass 
and percussion. Offered spring semester of even years. 

280. Orchestration. (4) See page 137 for a course description. 

282. Conducting. (4) See page 142 for a course description. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3,4) See above for a course description. 

289. Ensemble Methods. (2) A practical study of choral and instrumental training 
techniques. Discussion of tonal development, administration, bibliography, and choral 
and instrumental problems. Also offered by the Department of Education as Education 
289. Fall. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

354. Methods and Materials of Teaching Music. (4) Methods, materials, and techniques 
used in the teaching and supervision of choral and instrumental music in the public 
schools, all grades. Also offered by the Department of Education asEducation 354. Spring . 
P— Music 174, 182. 

Honors and Individual Study 

297. Senior Project. (1,2,3, or 4) A major project varying in format according to the 
student's area of concentration. By pre-arrangement. 

298. Individual Study. (1,2,3, or 4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available 
in the department. By pre-arrangement. 

299. Honors in Music. (1,2,3, or 4) Individual study for honors candidates who have 
fulfilled the specific requirements. 

Ensemble 

Departmental ensembles are open to all students. Credit is earned on the basis of one credit 
per semester of participation in each ensemble. 

111. Opera Workshop. Study, staging, and performance of standard and contemporary 
operatic works. P — Permission of instructor. 

112. Collegium Musicum. An ensemble stressing the performance practices and the 
performance of music of the medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque eras. 

113. Orchestra. Study and performance of orchestral works from the classical and 
contemporary repertoire. P — Audition. 

114. Madrigal Singers. A vocal chamber ensemble which specializes in the performance 
of secular repertoire. P — Audition. 

115. Concert Choir. A select touring choir of forty-five voices which performs a variety 
of choral literature from all periods. Regular performances on and off campus, including 
an annual tour. P — Audition. 



140 



116. Choral Union. A large oratorio chorus which concentrates on the performance of 
major choral works. P — Audition. 

117. Marching Deacons Band. Performs for most football games. Meets twice weekly. 
Regular performances on and off campus. Fall. P — Permission of instructor. 

118. Chamber Winds. (1) Study and performance of music for mixed chamber ensembles 
of winds, brass, and percussion. Fall. P — Permission of instructor. 

119. Symphonic Band. Study and performance of music for symphonic band. Regular 
performances on and off campus. Spring. P — Permission of instructor. 

120. Small Chamber Ensemble. Study and performance of music composed specifically 
for small ensemble. Performers are strongly urged to participate in a larger ensemble as 
well. P — Permission of instructor. 

a. percussion c. string 

b. wind/brass d. mixed 

121. Jazz Ensemble. Study and performance of written and improvised jazz for a twenty- 
member ensemble. P — Audition. 

Applied Music 

Applied music courses are open to all students with the permission of the instructor. 
Credit is earned on the basis of lesson duration and weekly preparation. One credit per 
semester implies a half-hour of instruction weekly and a minimum of one hour of daily 
practice. Two credits per semester imply an hour of instruction weekly and a minimum 
of two hours daily practice. With the permission of the music faculty and with a 
proportional increase in practice, a student may earn three or four credits per semester. 
Students in applied music who do not have basic knowledge of notation and rhythm are 
advised to enroll in Music 101 or 104 either prior to or in conjunction with applied study. 
An applied music fee is charged for all individual instruction. (See page 21 of this bulletin 
for specific information regarding the fee.) 

161. Individual Instruction. (1) May be repeated for credit. Technical studies and 
repertoire of progressive difficulty selected to meet the needs and abilities of the student. 



a. violin 


g. clarinet 


m. baritone 


v. voice 


b. viola 


h. bassoon 


n. tuba 


w. recorder 


c. cello 


i. saxoplione 


o. organ 


x. viola da gamba 


d. bass 


j. trumpet 


p. piano 


y. harpsichord 


e. flute 


k. French horn 


q. percussion 




f. oboe 


I. trombone 


r. guitar 





261. Individual Instruction. (2,3, or 4) May be repeated for credit. P — Permission of 
instructor. 



141 



165j. Class Brass. (1) Introduction to the fundamentals of playing brass instruments. 
Designed for students with musical experience as well as beginners with no prior musical 
training. Spring. P — Permission of instructor. 

165p. Class Piano. (1) Scales, chords, inversions, and appropriate repertoire, with 
emphasis on sight-reading, harmonization, and simple transposition. Designed for the 
beginning piano student. 

165q. Class Percussion. (1) Introduction to the fundamentals of playing percussion 
instruments. Includes an introduction to reading music as well as basic techniques on 
instruments of the percussion family. P — Permission of instructor. 

165r. Class Guitar I. (1) Introduction to guitar techniques: strumming, plucking, arpeg- 
gios, and damping. Reading and playing from musical notation and guitar tablature. For 
beginning students. 

166r. Class Guitar II. (1) Continuation of guitar techniques. Emphasis on chordal 
progressions, scales, accompanying patterns, and sight-reading. P — Music 165r. 

165v. Class Voice I. (1) Introduction to the fundamental principles of singing, concepts of 
breath control, tone, and resonance. Fall. 

166v. Class Voice II. (1) Continuation of fundamental vocal techniques. P — Music 165v 
or permission of instructor. 

165w. Class Recorder. (1) Introduction to recorder techniques: breath control, articula- 
tion, F and C fingering systems. Emphasis on ensemble playing. Designed for beginning 
and intermediate recorder players. This course is intended to prepare students for Music 
112, but is not a prerequisite. 

167v. Theatrical Singing I: Class Voice. (1) Basic techniques of singing, breath control, 
phonation, and resonance, with emphasis on theatrical projection. Study and perfor- 
mance of musical theater repertoire. (One hour per week.) Fall. 

168v. Theatrical Singing II: Class Voice. (1) Continuation of theatrical singing techniques 
with increased study and performance of musical theater repertoire. P — Music 167v or 
permission of instructor. (One hour per week.) 

169. Musical Theater Practicum. (1) Musical stage experiences for vocalists or instrumen- 
talists who participate in a departmentally sponsored theatrical production. May not be 
counted toward a major or minor in music. Credit may be earned in a given semester for 
either Music 169 or Theater 283, but not both. Course may be repeated for no more than 
4 credits. Pass/fail only. P — Permission of instructor. 

175v. Advanced Voice Class I. (1) Development of advanced vocal technique and 
repertoire. Limited to eight students. (Two hours perweek.)P — Music 166v or permission 
of instructor. 

176v. Advanced Voice Class II. (1) Further development of advanced vocal technique and 
repertoire. Limited to eight students. (Two hours per week; may be repeated .) P — Music 
175v or permission of instructor. 



142 



177v. Advanced Theatrical Singing I. (1) Development of advanced theatrical singing 
technique and performance of musical theater repertoire. Limited to eight students. (Two 
hours per week.) P — Music 168v or permission of instructor. 

178v. Advanced Theatrical Singing II. (1) Further development of advanced theatrical 
singing technique and performance of musical theater repertoire. Limited to eight 
students. (Two hours per week; may be repeated.) P — Music 177v or permission of 
instructor. 

190. Diction for Singers. (2) Study of articulation in singing, with emphasis on modifica- 
tion of English; pronunciation of Italian, German, andFrench. Development of articulatory 
and aural skills with use of the international phonetic alphabet. Individual performance 
and coaching in class. (Two hours per week.) 

282. Conducting. (4) A study of conducting techniques; practical experience with en- 
sembles. Offered spring semester of odd years. (Also offered by the Department of Education 
as Education 282.) P — Music 174 or permission of instructor. 



Natural Sciences 

Dudley Shape re, Reynolds Professor of 
Philosophy and History of Science 

301. The Beginnings of the Modern World-View. (4) A study of the transition from 
ancient views of the world to the perspective of modern science, with focus on the works 
of the pre-Socratic philosophers, Plato, and Aristotle. (Also listed as History 301 and 
Philosophy 231.) 

302. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) An examination of the philosophical and 
scientific roots, in Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz, of the belief that the universe and 
human beings are "machines" subject to deterministic natural laws, and the relevance to 
this issue of modern scientific ideas. (Also listed as History 302, Interdisciplinary Honors 
252, and Philosophy 242.) 

303. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically new 
ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time in relativity 
theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, and continental 
drift. P — At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science or permission of 
instructor. (Also listed as History 303 and Interdisciplinary Honors 253.) 

320. The Universe of Modern Science. (4) A survey of the contemporary scientific picture 
of the universe and its evolution, and of the major evidence for that picture. 

351. The Scientific Outlook. (4) An exploration of the origins and development of the 
scientific method and some of its contemporary applications in the natural and social 
sciences and the humanities. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 237.) 



143 



352. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human values: 
biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search for extraterres- 
trial life. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 256.) 

396. Individual Study. (1-4) Individual projects in the philosophy and history of science. 
By invitation only. 



Philosophy 



Gregory D. Pritchard, Chair 

Worrell Professor Robert M. Helm 

Professors Thomas K. Hearn Jr., Marcus B. Hester, 

Charles M. Lewis, Gregory D. Pritchard 

Associate Professors Ralph C. Kennedy HI, Win-chiat Lee 

Instructor Charles J. Kinlaw 

Lecturer Hanna M. Hardgrave 

The objective of the program in philosophy is to lead the student to an understanding of 
philosophical thinking — past and present — about such fundamental questions as what it 
is to exist, to know, to be good, right, true, beautiful, or sacred. In examining such matters, 
philosophy may be said to investigate the presuppositions that inform all human action 
and inquiry and thus to be an essentially interdisciplinary kind of subject. The study of 
philosophy can, therefore, play a useful role in preparing the student for a career in almost 
any field, including law, politics, religion, medicine, business, the arts, and the natural and 
social sciences. 

The thirty-six credits in philosophy required for graduation with a major in the subject 
must include a general introduction to philosophy (Philosophy 111), one course in logic 
(selected from Group II), three courses in the history of philosophy (one from each of 
Groups HI, IV and V) and two 200-level or higher topics courses (Group VI), the total to 
include at least three courses at the 300-level. 

A minor in philosophy requires 20 credits in philosophy, which must include at least 
two 200-level or higher courses and one 300-level course . Philosophy being an intrinsically 
interdisciplina ry subject, a minor in philosophy can be designed to complement any major 
subject. Students interested in minoring in philosophy should consult with the depart- 
ment about choosing an appropriate sequence of courses. 

Highly qualified majors are invited to apply in the spring semester of their junior year 
to the honors program in philosophy. Candidates must have an overall grade-point 
average of at least 3.0 and a grade-point average in philosophy courses of at least 3.3. 
Graduation with honors in philosophy requires successful completion of Honors I and II 
in the fall and spring semesters, respectively, of their senior year. The credits earned in 
these two courses do not count toward the thirty-six credits required of all majors. 



144 



Group I — Introduction to Philosophy 

111. Basic Problems of Philosophy. (4) An examination of the basic concepts of several 
representative philosophers, including their accounts of the nature of knowledge, per- 
sons, God, mind, and matter. 

Group II — Logic 

121. Logic. (4) An elementary study of the laws of valid inference, recognition of fallacies, 
and logical analysis. 

221. Symbolic Logic. (4) Basic concepts and techniques of first-order logic; applications 
of first-order logic to arguments expressed in English; some discussion of such topics as 
the unsolvability of the decision problem for first-order logic, the completeness of first- 
order logic, and Godel's incompleteness theorem. 

Group HI — Classical Ancient Philosophy 

231. Beginnings of the Modern World- View. (4) A study of the transition from ancient 
views of the world to the perspective of modern science, with focus on the works of the 
Presocratic philosophers, Plato, and Aristotle. (Also offered as History 301 and Natural 
Sciences 301 .) 

232. Ancient and Med ieval Philosophy. (4) A study of philosophical problems such as the 
nature of faith, reason, uni versals, and God in the thought of Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, 
Abelard, Anselm, Aquinas, and Ockham. P — Philosophy 111. 

331. Plato. (4) A detailed analysis of selected dialogues, covering Plato's most important 
contributions to moral and political philosophy, theory of knowledge, metaphysics, and 
theology. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

332. Aristotle. (4) A study of the major texts, with emphasis on metaphysics, ethics, and 
theory of knowledge. P— One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

Group IV — Classical Modern Philosophy 

241. Modern Philosophy. (4) A survey of major philosophers from Descartes to Nietzsche. 
P— Philosophy 111. 

242. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) An examination of the philosophical and 
scientific roots, in Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz, of the belief that the universe and 
human beings are "machines" subject to deterministic natural laws, and the relevance to 
this issueof modern scientific ideas. (Also offered as History 302, Interdisciplinary Honors 
252, and Natural Sciences 302.) 

341. Kant. (4) A detailed study of selected works covering Kant's most important 
contributions to theory of knowledge, metaphysics, ethics, religion, and aesthetics. P — 
One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 



145 



Group V — Other History 

251. American Philosophy. (4) A study exploring the philosophies of Jonathan Edwards, 
Ralph Waldo Emerson, C.S. Peirce, William James, John Dewey, and others, examining 
their views on logic, experience, science, reality, nature, art, education, and God. P — 
Philosophy 111. 

252. Contemporary Philosophy. (4) A study of the principal works of several represen- 
tative twentieth-century philosophers. P — Philosophy 111. 

253. Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) An introduction to the most 
important traditions in Chinese philosophy and religion: Confucianism, Daoism (Tao- 
ism), and Chinese Buddhism or Chinese Chan (Zen) Buddhism. (Also offered as Religion 
380.) 

351. Early German Idealism. (4) An examination of the development of post-Kantian 
idealism through the works of Fichte, Schelling, and Schleiermacher, with particular 
emphasis on their efforts to address the challenge of critical philosophy. P — One 200-level 
course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

352. Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche. (4) An examination of selected sources embody- 
ing the basic concepts of Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche, especially as they relate to 
each other in terms of influence, development, and opposition. P — One 200-level course 
in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

353. Heidegger. (4) An examination of the structure and development of Heidegger's 
philosophy from the ontological analysis in Being and Time to his later work in the 
philosophy of language and poetry. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission 
of instructor. 

354. Wittgenstein. (4) The work of Ludwig Wittgenstein on several central philosophical 
problems studied and compared with thatof Frege, James, and Russell. Topics include the 
picture theory of meaning, truth, skepticism, private languages, thinking, feeling, the 
mystical, and the ethical. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of 
instructor. 

Group VI — Topics in Philosophy 

161. Medical Ethics. (4) A study of moral problems in the practice of medicine, including 
informed consent, experimentation on human subjects, truthtelling, confidentiality, 
abortion, and the allocation of scarce medical resources. 

162. Applied Ethics . (4) A critical analysis of contemporary moral issues, including capital 
punishment, minority rights and their protection, civil disobedience, euthanasia, family 
relationships, and sexual conduct. 

261. Ethics. (4) A critical study of selected problems and representative works in ethical 
theory. P — Philosophy 111. 



146 



262. Philosophy of Law. (4) A philosophical inquiry into the nature of law and its relation 
to morality. Classroom discussions of readings from the works of classical and modern 
authors focus on issues of contemporary concern involving questions of legal principle, 
personal liberty, human rights, responsibility, justice, and punishment. P — Philosophy 111. 

361. Topics in Ethics. (4) P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of 
instructor. 

362. Social and Political Philosophy. (4) A systematic examination of selected social and 
political philosophers of different traditions, with concentration on Plato, Marx, Rawls, 
and Nozick. Topics include rights, justice, equality, private property, the state, the 
common good, and the relation of individuals to society. P — One 200-level course in 
philosophy or permission of instructor. 

171. Space and Time in Fact and Fiction. (4) Are space and time fundamentally different? 
Are they properties of the physical world or of minds only? Are they finite or infinite in 
extension and duration? Other questions cover problems and paradoxes in the concept of 
space and in the concept of time travel. 

371. Philosophy of Art. (4) A critical examination of several philosophies of art, with 
emphasis upon the application of these theories to particular works of art. P — One 200- 
level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

372. Philosophy of Religion. (4) An analysis of the logic of religious language and belief, 
including an examination of religious experience, mysticism, revelation, and arguments 
for the nature and existence of God . P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission 
of instructor. 

373. Philosophy of Science. (4) A systematic and critical examination of major views 
concerning the methods of scientific inquiry, and the bases, goals, and implications of the 
scientific conclusions which result from such inquiry. P — One 200-level course in philoso- 
phy or permission of instructor. 

374. Philosophy of Mind. (4) A selection from the following topics: the mind-body 
problem; personal identity; the unity of consciousness; minds and machines; the nature 
of experience; action, intention, and the will. Readings from classical and contemporary 
sources. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

381. Topics in Epistemology. (4) The sources, scope and structure of human knowledge. 
Topics include: skepticism; perception, memory, and reason; the definition of knowledge; 
the nature of justification; theories of truth. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or 
permission of instructor. 

382. Topics in Metaphysics. (4) P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of 
instructor. 

Group VII — Honors and Independent Study 

391. Honors I. (2) Directed study and research in preparation for writing a major paper. 
Must be taken in the fall semester of the senior year. P — Admission to the honors program 
in philosophy. 



147 



392. Honors II. (2) Completion of the project begun in Philosophy 391. Requires defense 
of the paper in an oral examination conducted by at least two members of the department. 
Taken in the spring semester of the senior year. P — Philosophy 391 . 



395. Independent Study. (2-4) 



Physics 



Howard W. Shields, Chair 

Reynolds Professor Richard T. Williams 

Professors Robert W. Brehme, George M. Holzwarth, William C. Kerr, 

George Eric Matthews, Howard W. Shields, George P. Williams Jr. 

Associate Professors Keith D. Bonin, Natalie A. W. Holzwarth 

Assistant Professor Paul R. Anderson 

Adjunct Professor George B. Cvijanovich 

Adjunct Associate Professor C. Anne Wallen 

Adjunct Assistant Professor Peter Santago 

The program for each student majoring in physics is developed through consultation with 
the student's major adviser and may lead to either a bachelor of arts or a bachelor of science 
degree. The BA degree requires a minimum of basic physics courses and allows a wide 
selection of electives related to the student's interests in other disciplines. The BS degree 
is designed for students planning careers in science; it requires more courses and prepares 
students to continue on with graduate study. 

The bachelor of arts degree in physics requires thirty-nine credits in physics and must 
include the following courses: 113, 114, 141, 162, 230, 339, 340, 343, and 345. Mathematics 
251, 301, and 302 also are required. The bachelor of science degree in physics requires 
forty-seven credits in physics and must include the following courses: 113, 114, 141, 162, 
165-6, 230, 301-2, 343-4, 345, 337, 339, 340, and 351 . The remaining credits may be satisfied 
with any other 300-level course in the department. In addition, Mathematics 251, 301, 302, 
and 304 are required; Mathematics 303 is strongly recommended. 

A typical schedule for the first two years: 

Freshman Sophomore 

Basic and divisional requirements Basic and divisional requirements 

Physics 113, 114 Physics 141, 162, 165, 166 

Mathematics 111, 112 Mathematics 251, 302, 304 
Foreign language 

If this sequence is followed, the physics major may be completed with considerable 
flexibility in exercising various options, such as the five year BA /MS program. This saves 
time, and the outstanding student may qualify for a tuition scholarship in the senior year 
of the five-year program. A candidate for the 3-2 engineering program would also 
complete three years of the BS physics major program prior to transfer. (Consult the chair 
of the department for additional information on these five-year programs.) 



148 



A minor in physics requires twenty-two credits, which must include the courses 113, 
1 1 4, 141, and 1 62. A minor in astrophysics requires twenty-two credits and consists of the 
courses 113, 114, 141, 310, and 312. Students interested in either minor should so advise 
the faculty member responsible for advising physics majors (inquire in Olin Physical 
Laboratory Room 100). 

If physics is not taken in the freshman year, the degree requirements in physics may still 
be completed by the end of the senior year if a beginning course is taken in the sophomore 
year. No student may be a candidate for a degree with a major in physics with a grade less 
than C in General Physics without special permission of the department. 

Physics courses satisfying Division II requirements must be taken at Wake Forest. 

Satisfactory completion of the laboratory work is required for a passing grade in all 
courses with a laboratory. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in physics through the major adviser. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Physics," students must pass Physics 381, write a paper on the 
results of the research in that course, pass an oral exam on the research and related topics 
given by a committee of three physics faculty members, and obtain a GPA of 3.5 in physics 
and 3.0 overall. 

105. Descriptive Astronomy. (4) An introductory study of the universe, from the solar 
system to the galaxies. No lab. Does not satisfy Division II requirements. 

109. Astronomy. (5) An introductory study of the universe consisting of descriptive 
astr onomy, the historicaldevelopmentof astronomical theories, and astrophysics. Knowl- 
edge of basic algebra and trigonometry is required. Lab — two hours. 

110. Introductory Physics. (5) A conceptual, non-calculus one-semester survey of the 
essentials of physics, including mechanics, wave motion, heat, sound, electricity, magne- 
tism, optics, and modern physics. Not recommended for pre-medical, mathematics or 
science students. Credit not allowed for both 110 and 113. Lab — two hours. 

113, 114. General Physics. (5,5) Essentials of mechanics, wave motion, heat, sound, 
electricity, magnetism, optics, and modem physics treated with some use of calculus. 
Recommended for science, mathematics, and pre-medical students. C — Mathematics 111 
or equivalent. P — 113 is prerequisite for 114. Lab — two hours. 

141. Elementary Modern Physics. (4) The development of twentieth century physics and 
an introduction to quantum ideas. P — Physics 113 and Mathematics 111. 

162. Mechanics. (4) A study of the equations of motion describing several kinds of 
physical systems: velocity-dependent forces; damped and forced simple harmonic mo- 
tion; orbital motion; inertial and non-inertial reference frames; and relativistic mechanics. 
The course includes extensive use of computers. P — Physics 113 and Mathematics 1 1 1 or 
equivalent. 

165, 166. Intermediate Laboratory. (1,1) Experiments on mechanics, modem physics, 
electronics, and computer simulations. 

230. Electronics. (4) Introduction to the theory and application of transistors and elec- 
tronic circuits. Lab — three hours. P — Physics 164 or equivalent. 



149 



301, 302. Physics Seminar. (0,0) Discussion of contemporary research, usually with 
visiting scientists. Attendance required of junior and senior physics majors. 

310. Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology. (4) Topics covered include galactic 
structure, models for galaxies and galaxy formation, the large scale structure of the 
universe, the big bang model of the universe, physical processes such as nucleosynthesis 
in the early universe, and observational cosmology. P — Physics 114, 141. 

312. Introduction to Stellar Astronomy. (4) The physics of stellar atmospheres and 
interiors. Topics covered will include radiation transfer, absorption and emission of 
radiation, formation of spectra, models for stellar interiors, nuclear fusion reactions, and 
stellar evolution. Methods of measuring distances to stars and interpretation of stellar 
spectra also will be included. P — Physics 114, 141, Mathematics 301 . 

320. The Physics of Macromolecules. (4) The physics of polymers, especially proteins and 
nucleic acids, including the molecular basis for their secondary and tertiary structure. P — 
Physics 351 or Chemistry 341 or Biology 371 . 

330. Data Acquisition and Analysis. (4) Advanced treatment of computer interfacing, 
signal processing methods, non-ideal integrated circuit behavior, and data reduction and 
fitting procedures. P — Physics 130, 230. 

337. Analytical Mechanics. (2) The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of me- 
chanics with applications. This course is taught in the first half of the fall semester. P — 
Physics 162, Mathematics 251. 

339, 340, 342. Electricity and Magnetism. (2,2,2) Electrostatics, magnetostatics, dielectric 
and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and applications to radiation, relativistic 
formulation. The first half course is taught in the second half of the fall semester, following 
Physics 337. The other two are taught in the first and second halves of the spring semester. 
These should be taken in sequence. P — Physics 114, Mathematics 251 and 301 . 

343, 344. Quantum Physics. (4,4) Application of the elementary principles of quantum 
mechanics to atomic, molecular, solid state, and nuclear physics. P — Physics 141 and 
Mathematics 251. 

345. Advanced Physics Laboratory. (1) The laboratory associated with 344, taught in the 
spring term. Lab — three hours. 

351. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics. (4) Introduction to classical and 
statistical thermodynamics and distribution functions. 

352. Physical Optics and Optical Design. (5) Interaction of light with materials; diffrac- 
tion and coherent optics; ray trace methods of optical design. Lab — three hours. 

354. Introduction to Solid State Physics. (4) A survey of the structure, composition, 
physical properties, and technological applications of condensed matter. P — Physics 343. 

381, 382. Research. (2-4, 2-4) Library, conference, computation and laboratory work 
performed on an individual basis. 



150 



Politics 

Jack D. Fleer, Chair 

Professors David B. Broyles, Jack D. Fleer, 

Donald O. Schoonmaker, Richard D. Sears 

Associate Professors Katy J. Harriger, Charles H. Kennedy, Kathleen B. Smith 

Assistant Professors Brian F. Crisp, Wei-chin Lee, David P. Weinstein 

Visiting Professors Carl C. Moses, Jerry Pubantz 

Visiting Associate Professor William E. Schmickle 

Visiting Assistant Professor Bradley Macdonald 

In its broadest conception, the aim of the study of politics is to understand the way in which 
policy for a society is formulated and executed and to understand the moral standards by 
which policy is or ought to be set. This center of interest is often described alternatively as 
the study of power, of government, of the state, or of human relations in their political 
context. For teaching purposes, the study of politics has been divided by the department 
into the following fields: (1) American politics, (2) comparative politics, (3) political 
philosophy, and (4) international politics. Introductory courses in these fields provide 
broad and flexible approaches to studying political life. 

The major in politics consists of thirty-six credits, at least half of which must be 
completed at Wake Forest University. The courses must include the following: (a) a first 
course selected from Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116; (b) any non-seminar course in each of 
the four fields of the discipline except Politics 284, 285, 287, 288, 289; (c) one seminar in 
politics (usually a student takes no more than one seminar in each field and no more than 
three seminars overall). No more than four credits for any one or any combination of the 
following courses may be counted toward the thirty-six credits required for the major: 
Politics 287, 288, and 289. A minimum grade average of C on all courses attempted in 
politics is required for graduation. Majors should consult with their advisers concerning 
additional regulations. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in politics. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Politics," 
one must successfully complete Politics 284 and 285. Politics 284 and 285 must be taken 
as additional courses beyond the thirty-six credits ordinarily required. For additional 
information members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

The minor in politics consists of twenty credits, including Politics 113 but excluding 
individual study and seminar courses. No more than eight credits may be from among the 
following courses: Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116. Sixteen of the credits must be taken at Wake 
Forest and any transfer courses must be approved by the chair. None of the courses may 
be taken pass/fail. 

A student who selects politics to fulfill the Division IV requirement must take one of the 
following courses: Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116. Students whoare not majors in politicsmay 
take upper level courses as electives without having had lower-level courses, unless a 
prerequisite is specified. 



151 



American Politics 

113. American Government and Politics. (4) The nature of politics, political principles, 
and political institutions, with emphasis on their application to the United States. 

210. Major Topics in Public Policy. (2,3, or 4) A study of major policies on the current 
public agenda in the United States, including consideration of alterna ti ve policy responses 
and the politics which surround them. Possible topics include the politics of poverty and 
welfare, medical care, education, crime, and energy. Credit varies with the number of 
topics studied. 

211. Political Parties and Voting Behavior. (4) An examination of party competition, 
party organizations, the electorate and electoral activities of parties, and the responsibili- 
ties of parties for governing. 

213. Public Administration. (4) Introduction to the study of public administration 
emphasizing policymaking in government agencies. 

215. Democracy and Public Policymaking. (4) An examination of the role and responsi- 
bilities of citizens in democratic policymaking. Includes discussion of democratic theory, 
emphasis on a policy issue of national importance (i.e. poverty, crime, environment), and 
involvement of students in projects that examine the dimension of the issue in their 
community. P — Permission of instructor. 

217. Politics and the Mass Media. (4) Exploration of the relationship between the political 
system and the mass media. Two broad concerns will be the regulation of the mass media 
and the impact of media on political processes and events. 

218. Congress and Policymaking. (4) An examination of the composition, authority 
structures, external influences, and procedures of Congress with emphasis on their 
implications for policymaking in the United States. 

219. Fundamentals of Public Policy Analysis. (4) Fundamentals of public policy analysis 
with emphasis on techniques of decision-making such as cost benefit analysis and utility 
analysis. Each student will participate in a major collective research project centered on 
a local issue. 

220. The American Presidency. (4) Emphasis on the office and the role; contributions by 
contemporary presidents considered in perspective. 

222. Urban Problems and Politics. (4) Political structures and processes in American cities 
and suburbs as they relate to the social, economic, and political problems of the metropo- 
lis. 

223. Blacks in American Politics. (4) A survey of selected topics, including black political 
participation, political organizations, political leadership, and political issues. It will also 
show the relationship of these phenomena to American political institutions and pro- 
cesses as a whole. 



152 



225. American Constitutional Law: Separation of Powers and the Federal System. (4) An 

analysis of Supreme Court decisions affecting the three branches of the national govern- 
ment and federal/ state relations. Not open to freshmen. 

226. American Constitutional Law: Civil Liberties. (4) Judicial interpretations of First 
Amendment freedoms, racial equality, and the rights of the criminally accused. Not open 
to freshmen. 

227. Politics, Law, and Courts. (4) Analysis of the nature and role of law in American 
society and the structure and procedure of American courts. Questions of judicial 
organization, personnel, and decision-making, as well as the impact of law and court 
decisions on the social order, are explored at local, state, and national levels. 

229. Women and Politics. (4) The course will examine classical and contemporary 
arguments regarding the participation of women in politics as well as currentpolicy issues 
and changes in women's political participation. 

Comparative Politics 

114. Comparative Government and Politics. (4) A survey of political processes and 
principles as applied to traditional, developing, and mature states. 

231. Western European Politics. (4) Analysis of the political systems of Great Britain, 
France, and Italy, focusing primarily on the problems of stable democracy. 

232. G overnment and Politics in Russia. (4) Analysis of the political, economic, and social 
trends of the region with an emphasis on state building and economic development. 

233. The Politics of Modern Germany. (4) A study of the historical legacy, the political 
behavior, and governmental institutions of contemporary Germany (newly unified 
Germany). 

236. Government and Politics in Latin America. (4) Comparative analysis of the 
institutions and processes of politics in the Latin American region. 

237. Comparative Public Policy in Selected Industrialized Democracies. (4) An inves- 
tigation of the public policy choices involving such matters as health, education, and 
income maintenance plans in selected Western European countries. The origins, develop- 
ment, trends of the "welfare state" will be examined in Great Britain, West Germany, and 
Sweden. 

238. Comparative Economic Development and Political Change. (4) An overview of the 
relationship between economic development, socio-structural change, and politics since 
the creation of the international capitalist system in the sixteenth century. The course is 
organized around case studies of what we now recognize as industrialized democracies, 
evolving Communist systems and command economies, and "Third World" countries. 

242. Problems in Comparative Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems in contemporary comparative politics. 



153 



244. Politics and Literature. (2,3, or 4) An examination of how literature can extend our 
knowledge of politics and political systems. The course considers the insights of selected 
novelists, such as Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Heinrich Boll, Robert Perm Warren, George 
Orwell, and Gabriel Garcia Marquez. 

245. Politics of Ethnicity. (4) This course is concerned with the role of ethnicity in world 
politics. It focuses on both theoretical and substantive issues relating to: (a) the nature of 
ethnicity and ethnic group identity; (b) the sources of ethnic conflict; (c) the politics of 
ethnic conflict; (d) the policy management of ethnic conflict; and (e) international 
intervention in ethnic conflict. 

246. Politics and Policies in South Asia. (4) A survey of major issues relevant to politics 
and policy in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. 

247. Islam and Politics. (4) The course explores the interrelationship of Islam and politics 
in the contemporary world. The course has two main foci. The first deals with Islam as a 
political ideology which shapes the structure of political institutions and behavior. The 
second looks at Islam in practice by examining the interaction between Islam and the 
political systems of Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and others. 

248. Government and Politics of China. (4) A survey of the political institutions and 
processes in China (People's Republic of China and Republic of China). Emphasis on 
group conflict, elites, ideology, as well as current policy changes in the process of 
modernization. 

249. Government and Politics of Japan. (4) A survey of the political institutions and 
processes in Japan. Attention also is given to the relationship between politics and 
economics. 

International Politics 

116. International Politics. (4) A survey of the forces which shape relations among states 
and some of the major problems of contemporary international politics. 

250. G lobal Crises . (4) An introductory survey of the major current issues in international 
affairs. Students learn how to effectively read and criticize materials and present critiques 
in oral and written fashion. 

251. The Foreign Policy of Decline: Britain Since 1945. (4) The course will study the 
efforts of Great Britain to maintain its status as a world power after 1945 and then, when 
it recognized that this was not possible, to find, or adjust to, a new role in the international 
system. Both theories of international politics and historical analysis will be employed in 
seeking to understand the policies which were adopted and rejected. Offered in London, 
Spring 1993. 

252. Problems in International Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems of contemporary international politics. 



154 



253. The Politics of International Economic Relations. (4) A study of the emergence of 
international economic transactions, including trade, monetary affairs, investment, and 
multinational corporations, as a central aspect of world politics. 

254. American Foreign Policy: Contemporary Problems. (4) A critical examination of 
different methods of studying American foreign policy and of selected policies followed 
by the United States since the early 1960s. 

256. Nuclear Weapons and National Security. (2 or 4) An analysis of the strategic, 
political, and moral implications of nuclear weapons as instruments of national policy. 
Both American and Soviet perspectives will be considered and special attention will be 
given to contemporary debates over the possession and control of nuclear weapons. 

258. U.S. National Security Policymaking. (4) A critical analysis of how U.S. national 
security policy is made with particular emphasis on the period 1960 to present. 

259. The Arab-Israeli Confrontation. (4) An analysis of factors influencing the relation- 
ship between Israel and its neighbors relative to fundamental aspects of United States, 
Israeli, Palestinian, and Arab states policies. 

260. East Asian International Relations. (4) An analytical survey of the bilateral and 
multilateral political relations of the East Asian states, with particular emphasis on the 
security relations and economic interactions. 

267. America in Vietnam: Myth and Reality. (4) An analysis of American policy towards 
Vietnam with special emphasis on the period of 1954-75. The focus will be on the 
relationship between American policies and the problems posed by Vietnamese and 
American cultures. 

Political Philosophy 

115. Political Philosophy. (4) A survey of major systematic statements of the rules and 
principles of political life. Representative writers are Tocqueville, Dahl, and Aristotle. 

270. Topics in Political Theory. (4) An intensive study of one or more major topics in 
political theory. 

271. Plato, Aristotle, and Classical Political Philosophy. (4) An examination of the nature 
and goals of the classical position, with attention to its origins in ancient Athens and its 
diffusion through Rome. Representative writers are Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. 

273. Radical Critiques of Political Society. (4) Anarchist, socialist, and communist 
criticisms of and alternatives to existing political societies, with special attention to such 
problems as utopianism and alienation. Representative writers are Marx and Nietzsche. 

274. Noble Greeks and Romans. (4) The good man and the good citizen as comprehended 
in classical political philosophy. Representative writers are Aristotle, Plutarch, Aquinas, 
Shakespeare. 



155 



275. American Political Philosophy. (4) Critical examination of the nature of the Ameri- 
can polity as expressed by its founders and leading statesmen. Representative writers are 
the Federalists, Lincoln, modern political scientists, and radical critics. 

278. Modern Political Philosophy. (4) Political thought in the period from Machiavelli to 
the present, including such topics as democracy, equality, liberty, radical theories, and/ 
or the rise of "scientific" political theory. Representative writers include Hobbes, Locke, 
Rousseau, Kant, Marx and Heidegger. 

279. Contemporary Political Theory. (4) An examination of representative twentieth 
century political thinkers such as Arendt, Dewey, Foucault, Rawls, and Weber. 

Honors and Individual Study 

284. Honors Study. (3) Directed study and research in preparation for a major paper on 
a subject of special interest to the student. Taken in the fall semester of the senior year by 
all candidates for departmental honors. 

285. Honors Study. (2) Directed study toward completion of the project begun in Politics 
284 and to the writing and defense of an honors paper. Taken in the spring semester of the 
senior year by all candidates for departmental honors. P — Politics 284. 

287. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) Intensive research leading to the completion of an 
analytical paper conducted under the direction of a faculty member. Students are 
responsible for initiating the project and securing the permission of an appropriate 
instructor. P — Permission of instructor. 

288. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not otherwise 
available. Students are responsible for initiating the project and securing the permission 
of an appropriate instructor. P — Permission of instructor. 

289. Internship in Politics. (2,3, or 4) Field work in a public or private setting with related 
readings and an analytical paper under the direction of a faculty member. Students are 
responsible for initiating the project and securing the permission of an appropriate 
instructor. Normally one course in an appropriate subfield will have been taken prior to 
the internship. P — Permission of instructor. 

Seminars 

291. Seminar in American Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study on 
selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 

292. Seminar in Comparative Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study on 
selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 

293. Seminar in International Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study on 
selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 

294. Seminar in Political Philosophy. (4) Readings, research, and independent study on 
selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 



156 



Psychology 



John E. Williams, Chair and Wake Forest Professor 
Professors Robert C. Beck, Deborah L. Best, David W. Catron, 

Robert H. Dufort, Mark R. Leary, Charles L. Richman 

Associate Professors Terry D. Blumenthal, Dale Dagenbach, 

Philippe R Falkenberg, David Allen Hills, Cecilia H. Solano 

Assistant Professor Christy M. Buchanan 

Visiting Assistant Professors Sarah S. Catron, Kelly B. Kyes, Catherine E. Seta 

Adjunct Professor W. Jack Rejeski Jr. 

Adjunct Associate Professors C. Drew Edwards, Jay R Kaplan, Frank B. Wood 

Adjunct Assistant Professors Phillip G. Batten, Marianne A. Schubert, 

Carol A. Shively 

Adjunct Instructor Randall C. Kyes 

Psychology 1 51 is prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. Courses numbered below 
151 do not count toward Division IV requirements or toward the major in psychology. 
Psychology 21 1, or special permission of the instructor, is prerequisite for all 300-level 
courses except 313, 335, 344, 357, 358, and 367. 

It is recommended that students who are considering psychology as a major take 
Psychology 151 in their freshman year and Psychology 21 1 no later than the fall of their 
junior year. An average of C or higher in psychology courses is required at the time the 
major is elected. The major in psychology requires the completion of a minimum of forty 
credits in psychology, including 151, 21 1, 212, and 313. In addition, the major student must 
complete at least one course from each of the following groups: 320, 326, 329, 331, and 333; 
341, 351, 355, and 362. No more than 48 psychology credits may be counted toward the 
graduation requirements of 144 credits. 

The minor in psychology requires twenty credits in psychology, distributed as follows: 
151 (4 credits); 21 1 (5 credits); at least one of the following courses: 320, 326, 329, 331, 333 
(4 credits each); and seven additional credits in courses numbered 200 or above. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to participate in the honors 
program in psychology. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Psychology," 
the student must complete satisfactorily a special sequence of courses (381, 383) and pass 
an oral or written examination. In addition, the honors student normally has a non-credit 
research apprenticeship with a faculty member. For more detailed information, members 
of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

100. Learning to Learn. (2,3, or 4) A workshop designed primarily for first and second- 
year students who wish to improve their academic skills through the application of basic 
principles of learning, memory, organization, etc. Third and fourth-year students by 
permission of the instructor only. No prerequisites. Pass/ fail only. 



157 



102. Exploration of Career Planning. (2,3, or 4) Examination of educational/vocational 
planning as a personal process, based on knowledge of self and the work world. No 
prerequisite. 

151. Introductory Psychology. (4) A systematic survey of psychology as the scientific 
study of behavior. Prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. 

211, 212. Research Methods in Psychology. (5, 5) Introduction to the design and statistical 
analysis of psychological research. Lab — twice weekly. P — Psychology 151 and permis- 
sion of instructor. 

239. Altered States of Consciousness. (4) Examination of altered states of consciousness 
with special reference to sleep and dreams, meditation, hypnosis, and drugs. P — 
Psychology 151. 

241. Developmental Psychology. (4) Survey of physical, emotional, cognitive, and social 
development in humans from conception to death. P — Psychology 151. 

245. Survey of Abnormal Behavior. (4) Study of problem behaviors such as depression, 
alcoholism, antisocial personality, the schizophrenias, and pathogenic personality pat- 
terns, with emphasis on causes, prevention, and the relationships of these disorders to 
normal lifestyles. P — Psychology 151. 

250. Psychology Abroad. (4) The study of psychology in foreign countries. Content and 
travel plans vary from year to year depending upon interests of faculty and students. 
Usually offered in summer. P — Psychology 151. 

255. Personality. (4) Survey of theory and research on the structure and function of human 
personality, with attention to the relationship to cognition, emotion, motivation, and 
behavior. P — Psychology 151. 

260. Social Psychology. (4) A survey of the field, including theories of social behavior, 
interpersonal attraction, attitudes and attitude change, and group behavior. P — Psychol- 
ogy 151. 

262. Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism. (4) A comparison of cross-cul rural similari- 
ties and differences in the initiation, maintenance, and treatment of prejudice, discrimina- 
tion, and racism, with an emphasis on past and current trends in the United States. P — 
Psychology 151. 

265. Human Sexuality. (4) An exploration of the psychological and physiological aspects 
of human sexuality, with attention to sexual mores, sexual deviances, sexual dysfunction, 
and sex-related roles. P — Psychology 151 . 

268. Psychology of Business and Industry. (4) Psychological principles and methods 
applied to problems commonly encountered in business and industry. P — Psychology 
151. 



158 



270. Topics in Psychology. (1,2, or 3) The student selects from among a group of short one- 
credit courses dealing with topics of special interest. The courses meet sequentially, not 
concurrently, and options are offered in each portion of the semester. P — Psychology 151 . 



270A 


Child Development and 


27 OS Primate Cognition 




Social Policy 


270U The Self and Social Behavior 


270E 


Emotion 


270W Problem Solving and Decision 


270H 


Intelligence 


Making 


270} 


Memory 


270X Psychobiology 


270N 


Liking and Loving Relationships 


270Y Women, Health, and Culture 


270P 


Animal Flying Behavior 


270Z Primate Models of Human Disorder 


270R 


The Human Factor: Designing 
Your Own World 





280. Directed Study. (1-4) Student research performed under faculty supervision. P — 
Psychology 151 and approval of faculty member prior to registration. 

313. History and Systems of Psychology. (4) The development of psychological thought 
and research from ancient Greece to present trends, with emphasis on intensive examina- 
tion of original sources. P — Two psychology courses beyond 151 or permission of 
instructor. 

320. Physiological Psychology. (4) Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical explana- 
tions of behavior. P — Psychology 211 or permission of instructor. 

322. Psych opharmaco 1 ogy . (4) A survey of the influences of a wide range of psychoactive 
drugs, both legal and illegal, on human physiology, cognition, and behavior. P — 
Psychology 151 . 

323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal behavior. 
This course may count as biology or psychology but not both; choice to be made at 
registration. P — Psychology or biology major or permission of instructor. 

326. Learning Theory and Research. (4) Survey of concepts and research in learning, with 
particular emphasis on recent developments. P — Psychology 211 . 

329. Perception. (4) Survey of theory and research findings on various sensory systems 
(vision, hearing, touch, taste). P — Psychology 211 . 

331. Cognition. (4) Current theory and research in cognitive processes. Emphasis on 
memory, attention, visual and auditory information processing, concept identification/ 
formation, and language. P — Psychology 211 . 

333. Motivation of Behavior. (4) Survey of basic motivational concepts and related 
evidence. P — Psychology 211. 

335. Fundamentals of Human Motivation. (4) Description and analysis of some funda- 
mental motivational phenomena, with special reference to human problems; includes 
reward and punishment, conflict anxiety, affection, needs for achievement and power, 
aggression, creativity, and curiosity. P — Psychology 151. 



159 



341. Research in Child Development. (4) Methodological issues and selected research in 
child development. Research projects required. P — Psychology 21 1 . 

344. Abnormal Psychology. (4) Descriptive analysis of the major types of abnormal 
behavior with attention to organic, psychological, and cultural causes and major modes 
of therapy. Offered in the summer. P — Psychology 151. 

346. Psychological Disorders of Childhood. (4) Survey of problems including conduct 
disorders, attention deficits disorders, depression, and autism. Emphasis on causes, 
prevention, treatment, and the relationships of disorders to normal child development 
and family life. P — Psychology 245 or 344 or permission of instructor. 

351. Personality Research. (4) The application of a variety of research procedures to the 
study of human personality. Research projects required. P — Psychology 211. 

355. Research in Social Psychology. (4) Methodological issues and selected research in 
the study of the human as a social animal. Research projects required. P — Psychology 21 1 . 

357. Cross-Cultural Psychology. (4) An examination of differences in psychological 
processes (e.g., attitudes, perception, mental health, organizational behavior) associated 
with cultural variation. P — Psychology 151. 

358 . Psychology of Woman. (4) Intensive study of the behavior of women and its personal 
application, including consideration of biological, social, and motivational factors. P — 
Psychology 151. 

362. Psychological Tests and Measurements. (4) Theory and application of psychological 
assessment procedures in the areas of intelligence, aptitude, vocational interest, and 
personality. P— Psychology 211. 

363. Survey of Clinical Psychology. (4) An overview of the field of clinical psychology. 
P — Psychology 245 and senior standing or permission of instructor. 

367. Effectiveness in Parent/Child Relations. (4) A survey of popular approaches to 
child-rearing, with examination of the research literature on parent/child interaction and 
actual training in parental skills. P — Psychology 151. 

381. Honors Seminar. (3) Seminar on selected problems in psychology. Intended prima- 
rily for students in the departmental honors program . P — Psychology 2 1 1 and permission 
of instructor. 

383. Honors Research. (3) Seminar in selected issues in research design, followed by 
independent empirical research under the supervision of a member of the departmental 
faculty. P — Psychology 211 and permission of instructor. 

392. Contemporary Problems in Psychology. (4) Seminar treatment of current theory and 
research in several "frontier" areas of psychology. Principally for senior majors planning 
to attend graduate school. P — Psychology 211 and senior standing. 



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Religion 



Fred L. Horton Jr., Chair and Albritton Professor of the Bible 

John Easley Professor of Religion Ralph C. Wood Jr. 

University Professor James A. Martin 

Wake Forest Professor Charles H. Talbert 

Professor John E. Collins 

Associate Professors Stephen B. Boyd, Alton B. Pollard III 

Adjunct Associate Professor Thomas E. Dougherty Jr. 

Assistant Professors Kenneth G. Hoglund, Ulrike Wiethaus 

Visiting Assistant Professor Philip LeMasters 

Visiting Lecturer Thomas P. Liebschutz 

The department offers courses designed to give every student an opportunity to acquire 
at least an introduction to the field of religion. 

A course in religion is required for all degrees. Any four credits at the 100-level offered 
by the department is accepted to meet the Division HI requirement. 

A major in religion requires a minimum of thirty-two credits, at least half of which must 
be in courses above the 100-level. 

A minor in religion requires twenty credits, eight of which must be above the 100-level. 
The required courses may include one pass/ fail course if the course is offered on the pass/ 
fail basis only. The department will provide advisers for students electing the minor in 
religion. 

Pre-seminary students are advised to include in their program of study, in addition to 
courses in religion, courses in psychology, history, public speaking, and at least two 
languages (Hebrew, Greek, Latin, German, or French). 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in religion. To graduate with the designation, "Honors in Religion," a 
student must apply to the department chair for admission to the honors program, 
normally by February of the junior year. Upon completion of all the requirements, the 
candidate may graduate with "Honors in Religion." For additional information, consult 
any member of the departmental faculty. 

111. Introduction to the Old Testament. (4) A survey of the Old Testament designed to 
introduce the student to the history, literature, and religion of the ancient Hebrews. 

112. Introduction to the New Testament. (4) A survey of the literature of the New 
Testament in the context of early Christian history. 

120. Introduction to the Bible. (4) A consideration of prominent themes found in the Old 
and New Testaments. 

131. Basic Christian Ethics. (4) A study of prominent themes, figures, and issues in 
Christian ethics, with attention to selected contemporary problems. 



161 



151. Religion and Society. (4) A study of religion as a social phenomenon and its 
relationship to the structures of society — political, economic, and others, with special 
focus on the contemporary United States. (Same as Sociology 301 .) 

161. World Religions. (2,2,2,2) An introductory study of major religious traditions with 
an emphasis on the fundamental teachings of selected sacred texts. 

161 (a) Buddhism 

161 (b) Primal Religion (Taoism and Native American) 

161 (c) Hinduism 

161 (d) Islam 

164. The Formation of the Christian Tradition. (4) A survey of the history of the Christian 
church from its origins to the Reformation. 

165. History of Christianity in Modern Times. (4) A survey of the history of the Christian 
church from the Reformation to the present. 

166. American Religious Life. (4) A study of thehistory, organization, worship and beliefs 
of American religious bodies, with particular attention to cultural factors. 

171, 172. Meaning and Value in Western Thought. (4,4) A critical survey of religion and 
philosophy in the Western world from antiquity to modern times. Either Religion 171 or 
172 satisfies the philosophy or religion requirement; both 171 and 172 satisfy both the 
philosophy and religion requirements; choice made at registration. 

173. Basic Christian Beliefs. (4) An introduction to the language of Christian faith, its 
central images and doctrines, its root narratives and practices, and its essential terms and 
truths. 

177. Faith and Imagination. (4) A study of modern writers, including C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. 
Tolkien, who seek to retell the Christian story in imaginative terms. 

209. The Pre-exilic Prophets. (2) A study of the background, personal characteristics, 
function, message, and permanent contribution of the prophets from Samuel through 
Jeremiah. 

210. The Post-exilic Prophets. (2) A study of the background, personal characteristics, 
function, message, and permanent contribution of the prophets from Ezekiel to the end 
of the Old Testament era. 

212. The Wisdom Literature. (2) An introduction to the Wisdom Literature of the Old 
Testament, with special attention to Proverbs. 

217. Old Testament Apocrypha. (2) Reading of the books of the Apocrypha, with special 
attention to their origin and significance, and with a consideration of the ambivalence of 
Judaism and Christianity toward this literature. 

218. Seminar in the Mediterranean World. (4) Travel and study in such countries as 
Greece, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, and Israel. 



162 



235. Passion, Mind, and Power. (4) An examination of the relation between emotion, 
reason, and will in Christian ethical theory, ancient to modern, including feminist. 

261. Judaism in the First Three Centuries of the Common Era. (4) A study of the 
development of Rabbinic Judaism out of the sects and movements of first century 
Judaism. 

262. Contemporary Judaism. (2) A survey of Judaism today, including a study of some 
major religious, political, and literary figures. 

263. Contemporary Catholicism. (2) An introduction to recent thoughtand practice in the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

266. Religious Sects and Cults. (4) An examination of certain religious sects in America, 
including such groups as Jehovah's Witnesses, communal groups, and contemporary 
movements. 

267. The Baptists. (2) A survey of Baptist history, thought, and polity, including an 
examination of various Baptist groups and a study of important controversies. 

270. Theology and Modern Literature. (4) An introduction to such modern theologians 
as Karl Barth and Reinhold Niebuhr, and to literary figures who share their concerns, 
including Flannery O'Connor and Walker Percy. 

273. Studies in Ecumenical Theology. (4) A study of various images and models of the 
church, their interrelationships and implication for ecumenism. 

277. Christian Literary Classics. (4) A study of Christian texts which are masterpieces of 
literature as well as faith, including works by Augustine, Dante, Pascal, Bunyan, Milton, 
and Newman. 

282. Honors in Religion. (4) A conference course including directed reading and the 
writing of a research project. 

286, 287. Directed Reading. (1-4, 1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available 
in the department. P — Permission of instructor. 

292. Teaching Religion. (4) A study of the teaching of religion in church, school, and 
community. 

300. Meaning of Religion. (4) A phenomenological study of different ways of defining 
religion, including the views of representative philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, 
anthropologists, theologians, and historians of religion. 

301. Myth. (4) A study of the approaches to the interpretation of myth, with a focus on the 
meaning and values implicit in the myths of contemporary culture. 

302. Mysticism. (4) A study of mysticism from a multi-religious perspective, with 
emphasis on the psychological and sociological aspects of the phenomenon. 

303. Religion and Science. (4) An examination of the ways in which religion and science 
have conflicted with, criticized, and complemented one another in the history of Western 
thought from Galileo to the present. 



163 



310. The Prophetic Literature. (4) An examination of the development and theological 
contents of the literary products of Israel's prophetic movement. 

311. Poetic Literature of the Hebrew Bible. (2,4) A study of Hebrew poetry in English 
translation with special attention to its types, its literary and rhetorical characteristics, and 
its importance for our understanding of the religion and culture of ancientlsrael. (The first 
half of the course may be taken for two credits and is a prerequisite for the second half.) 

312. The Critical Study of the Pentateuch. (4) A study of the five traditional books of 
Moses (the Torah) and the various lines of analysis that modem Biblical critics have used 
to interpret their composition and role in the development of Israelite theological thought. 

313. Near Eastern Archeology. (4) A survey of twentieth century archeology in the Near 
East with attention to its importance for Biblical studies. 

314. Ancient Israel and Her Neighbors. (2) A study of ancient Near Eastern archeology 
with special emphasis on Israel's relationships with surrounding peoples. 

315, 316. Field Research in Biblical Archeology. (4,4) A study of the religion and culture 
of the ancient Near East through the excavation and interpretation of an ancient site. 

319. Visions of the End: Jewish and Christian Apocalyptic. (4) Reading and study of 
Daniel. Revelation and certain non-Biblical apocalyptic texts. 

320. Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels. (4) A study of Jesus' proclamation and activity in 
light of modern critical research on the Gospels. 

321. The Quest for the Historical Jesus. (4) An investigation of the possibility and 
relevance of historical knowledge about Jesus through a consideration of the seminal 
"Lives of Jesus" since the eighteenth century. 

322. The General Epistles. (4) An exegetical study of two or more of the general Epistles, 
with emphasis on the setting of the Epistles in the life of the Early Church. 

326. Early Christian Theologians: Paul. (4) An introduction to the Pauline interpretation 
of Christianity and its place in the life of the Early Church. 

327. Early Christian Theologians: The Fourth Evangelist. (4) An examination of the 
Johannine interpretation of Jesus and the Christian faith. 

328. The New Testament and Ethics. (4) A study of selected ethical issues in the New 
Testament within the context of Mediterranean culture. 

332. Christian Ethics and Leadership. (2) A study of the moral practice of leadership from 
Christian and secular perspectives, with particular attention to the use of power and 
authority. 

333. Christian Ethics and the Professions. (2) A study of the nature of the professions in 
contemporary society, their foundational ethical suppositions, and the significance of 
being Christian for professional conduct. 



164 



334. Christian Approaches to Bio-Medical Ethics. (4) An examination of Catholic and 
Protestant understandings of life and death, with analysis of ethical issues in the context 
of the U.S. health-care system. 

336. Roman Catholic and Protestant Ethics. (4) A study and comparison of Catholic 
natural law ethics and Protestant responsibility ethics. 

338. Ethics in Feminist Perspective. (4) A study of the implications of feminist theologies, 
social theories, and views of human nature for ethical theory and practice. 

341. Civil Rights and Black Consciousness Movements. (4) A social and religious history 

of the African-American struggle for citizenship rights and freedom from World War II 
to the present. (Same as History 376.) 

342. Religion, Culture, and Modernity. (4) An inquiry into the origins and development 
of modernity as idea and ideology, with special emphasis on its significance for non- 
Western social and religious movements. 

343. The City as Symbol. (4) A study of the city, past and present, as a unique repository 
and symbol of human values and aspirations. 

345. The African-American Religious Experience. (4) An exploration of the religious 
dimensions of African-American life from its African antecedents to contemporary 
figures and movements. 

346. Theological Foundations of Religious Education. (4) A study of theological meth- 
odology, theories of learning, and philosophies of education in terms of their implications 
for religious education. 

347. The Emerging Church in the Two-Thirds World. (4) An investigation of contempo- 
rary Christian communities in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and La tin America with special 
attention to theological, political, and economic activities. 

350. Psychology of Religion. (4) An examination of the psychological elements in the 
origin, development, and expression of religious experience. 

354. Religious Development of the Individual. (4) A study of growth and development 
through childhood and adolescence to adulthood, with emphasis on the role of the home 
and the church in religious education. 

355. Theology of Pastoral Care and Counseling. (4) A study of the relationship between 
theology and the purpose, theories, and methods of pastoral care. 

360. Hinduism. (4) An advanced study of the Hindu tradition. Permission of instructor. 

361. Buddhism. (4) An advanced study of the Buddhist tradition and its impact on the 
culture of Asia. Permission of instructor required. 

362. Zen Buddhism. (4) The history and teaching of Zen. 

363. Hellenistic Religions. (4) Consideration of available source materials, questions of 
method, and bibliography related to such Hellenistic religions as the mysteries, Hellenis- 
tic Judaism, and Gnosticism. 



165 



364. Islam. (4) An advanced study of Islamic thought and the historical context of its 
development. Both ancient and contemporary impact of the teachings of Islam consid- 
ered. Permission of instructor required. 

365. History of Religions in America. (4) A study of American religions from colonial 
times until the present. 

366. Gender and Religion. (4) An examination of the historical and contemporary 
interaction between religion and sex roles, sexism, and sexuality. 

367. The Mystics of the Church. (4) A historical study of the lives and thought of selected 
Christian mystics with special attention to their religious experience. 

368. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations. (4) A study of the origin and develop- 
ment of Reformation theology and ecclesiology . 

369. Radical Christian Movements. (4) A study of selected radical movements in the 
Christian tradition and their relation to contemporary issues. 

372. History of Christian Thought. (2,4) A study of the history of Christian thought, 
beginning with its Hebraic and Greek backgrounds and tracing its rise and development 
to modern times. The course may be divided into halves for two credits each. 

372(a) Patristic Thought 

372 (b) Medieval and Reformation Thought 

374. Contemporary Christian Thought. (4) An examination of the major issues and 
personalities in modern theology. 

375. Major Themes in Catholic Theology. (4) A detailed examination of the central 
themes of Christian theology through the study of major Roman Catholic theologians. 

376. The Origins of Existentialism. (4) A study of the principal nineteenth century figures 
who form the background for twentieth century existentialism: Goethe, Kierkegaard, 
Nietzsche, Dostoevsky, and Tolstoy. 

377. The Problem of Evil from Job to Shakespeare. (4) A comparative analysis of the 
source and remedy of evil in Job, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Plato, Dante, and Shakespeare. 

378. Aesthetics and Religion. (4) An examination of aesthetic and religious theories of 
selected thinkers, noting what the arts and religion have in common as modes of 
perception and expression. 

380. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) An introduction to the 
most important traditions in Chinese philosophy and religion: Confucianism, Daoism 
(Taoism), and Chinese Buddhism or Chinese Chan (Zen) Buddhism. (Same as Philosophy 
226.) 

Near Eastern Languages and Literature 

11, 112. Elementary Hebrew. (4,4) A course for beginners in the classical Hebrew of the 
Bible, with emphasis on the principles of Hebrew grammar and the reading of Biblical 
texts. Both semesters must be completed. 



166 



153. Intermediate Hebrew. (4) Intensive work in Hebrew grammar and syntax based 
upon the readings of selected texts. Readings emphasize post-Biblical Hebrew. P — 
Hebrew 111, 112, or the equivalent. 

211. Hebrew Literature. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical Hebrew 
texts. P— Hebrew 153. 

212. Hebrew Literature II. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical and post- 
Biblical texts. Offered on demand. P — Hebrew 153. 

301. Introduction to Semitic Languages. (4) A study of the history and structure of four 
languages from the Hamito-Semitic family. 

302. Akkadian I. (4) An analysis of the phonology, morphology, and syntax of the East 
Semitic languages of the ancient Near East as they relate to the larger family of Semitic 
languages. On demand. 

303. Akkadian II. (4) A continuation of Akkadian 302 with further emphasis on building 
expertise in vocabulary and syntax through the reading of texts from the Middle 
Babylonian period. On demand. 



Romance Languages 



Byron R Wells, Chair 

Wake Forest Professor Kathleen M. Glenn 

Professors Milorad Margitic, Candelas M. Newton 

Associate Professors Sarah E. Barbour, Mary L. Friedman, Antonio Vitti, 

Kari Weil, Byron R. Wells, M. Stanley Whitley 

Assistant Professors Jane W. Albrecht, Gunnar Anderson, 

Debra Boyd-Buggs, Constance Dickey, Ramiro Fernandez, Judy K. Kem, 

Linda S. Maier, Stephen Murphy, Juan Orbe 

Lecturer Eva Marie Rod twitt 

Instructors Guy M. Arcuri, Martha Golden, Sabine Loucif, Bill B. Raines, Jennifer 

Sault, Walter W. Shaw, Alison T. Smith, 

Anna- Vera Su II am (Venice), Florence Toy 

The major in French literature requires a minimum of thirty-six credits above French 213 . 
French 216, 217, 219, and 221 or their equivalents are required, as are four additional 
literature courses. The major in French language and culture requires a minimum of 
thirty-six credits above French 213. French 216, 217, 219, 220, 222, and 224 or their 
equivalents are required, as are twoof the following courses: 221, 223, 229. History 321 and 
322 are recommended. An average of at least C must be earned in all courses taken in the 
major. 

The minor in French language and culture requires twenty credits in French above 
French 213. It includes French 219, 220, 224, or their equivalents. The minor in French 
literature requires twenty credits in French literature above French 213. 



167 



The major in Spanish requires a minimum of thirty-six credits above Spanish 213. 
Spanish 217, 218, 219, 220, 223, 224, or their equivalents, plus one additional advanced 
course in Spanish literature and one in Spanish- American literature are required. Spanish 
181, 1829, and 1 87 may not count toward the major. An average of atleastC must be earned 
in all courses taken in the major. 

The minor in Spanish language and culture requires twenty credits in Spanish above 
Spanish 213. It includes 217 or 218, plus 219, 220, 223, and 224. The minor in Hispanic 
literature requires twenty credits in Spanish above Spanish 213. It includes 217 and 218, 
plus three additional advanced courses in Spanish and Spanish-American literature. For 
both Spanish minors, with departmental approval, equivalent courses may be selected 
from the programs in Salamanca or Bogota, and certain other substitutions may be made. 

The minor in Italian language and culture requires twenty credits in Italian above Italian 
153. It includes Italian 215, 216,219, 220, and 224 or their equivalents. An average of at least 
C must be earned in all courses taken in the minor. 

All majors are strongly urged to take advantage of the department's study abroad 
programs. (French majors are urged to live for at least a semester at the French House, a 
foreign language theme house for students of French.) 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in French or Spanish. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Romance Languages," a candidate must complete French or Spanish 280 and 281 and pass 
a comprehensive written and oral examination. The oral examination may be conducted, 
at least in part, in the major language. For additional information, members of the 
departmental faculty should be consulted. 

French 

111, 112. Elementary French. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering the principles of 
French grammar and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. 
Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary French. (5) A one-semester course covering the elements of 
grammar and skills presented in French 111, 112. Intended for students whose prepara- 
tion for French 153 is inadequate. Not open to students who have received credit for 
French 112. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate French. (5) A review of grammar and composition with practice in 
conversation. Reading of selected texts. Lab required. P — French 112, 113, or two years 
of high school French and placement. 

153x. Intermediate French. (4) Open to students by placement or permission. Lab 
required. 

164. A Classic in Comedy. (2 or 4) Participants plan and present a production of a French 
comedy. The play is rehearsed and performed in French; students are involved in all 
aspects of production. For four credits, students also read and discuss other dramatic 
works. Course may be repeated for credit, but only four credits may be counted toward 
the major. P — Permission of instructor. 



168 



181. Swiss French Civilization. (4) The course is designed to acquaint the student with the 
Swiss people and their civilization by living for a few weeks with families. Visits are made 
to points of cultural, historical, literary, and artistic interest. A journal and a paper 
describing in detail some aspect of Swiss French civilization, both in French, are required. 
Usually offered in the summer. 

185. Paris, Cultural Center of France. (4) A study of Paris monuments on location to 
explore the development of the city as capital and cultural center of France. No prerequi- 
sites. Usually offered in the summer. 

199. French Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of the department. 

213. Introduction to French Literature. (4) Reading of selected texts in French. Particular 
periods, genres, and authors may vary from section to section. Parallel reading and 
reports. Does not count toward the major or the minor. P — French 153 or equivalent. 

216. Survey of French Literature from the Middle Ages through the Eighteenth 
Century. (4) Study of selected texts, parallel reading, and study of trends and movements. 
P — French 153 or permission of instructor. 

217. Survey of French Literature of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. (4) Study 
of selected texts, parallel reading, and study of trends and movements. P — French 153 or 
permission of instructor. 

219. Composition and Review of Grammar. (4) A systematic review of the fundamental 
principles of comparative grammar, with practical training in writing idiomatic French. 
Required for major. P — French 153 or equivalent. 

220. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing French, 
stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and vo- 
cabulary for everyday situations. Required for major. Lab required. P — French 153 or 
equivalent. 

221. History and Structure of the Language. (4) Study of the historical development of 
French in a cultural and linguistic context from its earliest stages to the present and 
analysis of the phonology, morphology, and syntax of modern French. P — French 219 and 
221. 

222. French Phonetics. (2) A study of the principles of standard French pronunciation, 
with emphasis on their practical application as well as on their theoretical basis. 

223. Contemporary France. (4) A study of present-day France, including aspects of 
geography and consideration of social, political, and educational factors in French life 
today. P — French 221 or permission of instructor. 

224. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical develop- 
ment. Emphasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life of France. P — 
French 221 or permission of instructor. 

229. Business French. (4) A study of French used in business procedures, emphasizing 
specialized vocabulary pertaining to business correspondence, corporate organization, 



169 



banking, and governmental relations, with practice in translation and interpretations, oral 
and written. P — French 219 and 221 or permission of instructor. 

231. Medieval French Literature. (2-4) A survey of French literature of the Middle Ages 
with cultural and political backgrounds. Selected masterpieces in original form and 
modern transcription. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

233. Sixteenth Century French Literature. (4) The literature and thought of the Renais- 
sance in France, with particular emphasis on the works of Rabelais, Montaigne, and the 
major poets of the age. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

241. Seventeenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of the outstanding writers of the 
Classical Age. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

242. Seminar in Seventeenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of selected topics of 
the period. Topics may vary from year to year. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

251. Eighteenth Century French Literature. (2-4) A survey of French literature of the 
eighteenth century with cultural and political backgrounds. P — French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

252. Seminar in Eighteenth Century French Literature. (2-4) Study of selected topics of 
the period. Topics vary from yearto year. P — French 21 6 or 21 7 or permission of instructor. 

261. Nineteenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of French literature of the 
nineteenth century with cultural and political backgrounds. P — French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

262. Seminar in Nineteenth Century French Literature. (4) Study of selected topics of the 
period. Topics vary from year to year. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

263. Trends in French Poetry. (4) A study of the development of the poetic genre with 
analysis and interpretation of works from each period. P — French 216 or 21 7or permission 
of instructor. 

264. French Novel. (4) A broad survey of French prose fiction, with critical study of several 
masterpieces in the field. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

265. French Drama. (4) A study of the chief trends in French dramatic art, with reading and 
discussion of representative plays. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

271. Twentieth Century French Literature. (4) A study of general trends and representa- 
tive works of the foremost prose writers, dramatists, and poets. P — French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

272. Seminar in Twentieth Century French Literature. (4) Study of selected topics of the 
period. Topics vary from year to year. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

274. African and Caribbean Literatures in French. (4) An introduction to the literature 
and culture of the French-speaking countries of Africa and the Caribbean . Emphasis will 



170 



be placed upon the contemporary negro-African novel along with highlights of culture 
and civilization. 

275. Special Topics in French Literature. (2,4) Selected themes or approaches to French 
literature that transcend boundaries of time and genre. P — French 216 or 217 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in French. 

281. Directed Study. (3,4) Extensive reading and/or research to meet individual needs. 
Required for departmental honors. P — Permission of the department. 

Semester in France 

The department sponsors a semester in France in Dijon, the site of a well-established 
French university. Students go as a group in the fall semester, accompanied by a 
departmental faculty member. 

No particular major is required for eligibility. However, a student (1) should be of junior 
standing and (2) should have taken as prerequisite French 220 or its equivalent or at least 
one French course beyond the intermediate level. At least one semester's residence in the 
French House is strongly recommended. 

Students are placed in language courses according to their level of ability in French, as 
ascertained by a test given at Dijon. Courses are taught by native French professors. The 
resident director supervises academic, residential, and extracurricular affairs and has 
general oversight of independent study projects. 

2192. Advanced Oral and Written French. (4) Study of grammar, composition, pronun- 
ciation, and phonetics, with extensive practice in oral and written French. 

2242. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical 
development. Field trips to museums and to points of historical and cultural significance 
in Paris and the French provinces. 

2232. Contemporary France. (4) A study of present-day France, including aspects of 
geography and consideration of social, political, and educational factors in French life 
today. 

2402. Independent Study . (2-4) Oneof several fields; scholar's journal and research paper. 
Supervision by the director of the semester in France. Work may be supplemented by 
lectures on the subject given a t the Universite de Bourgogne Faculte des Lettres et Sciences 
Humaines. 

2742. Special Topics in French Literature. (2) Selected topics in French literature; topics 
vary from year to year. 

2752. French Literature. (2) Topics in the novel, theater, and poetry of France, largely of 
the period since 1850. 

Art 2712. Studies in French Art. (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, sculpture, 
and architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 



171 



Spanish 

111, 112. Elementary Spanish. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar essentials 
and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Spanish. (5) A one-semester course covering the elements of 
grammar and skills presented in Spanish 111,112. Intended for students whose prepara- 
tion for Spanish 153 is inadequate or who have demonstrated proficiency in another 
language. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 112. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate Spanish. (5) A review of grammar and composition with practice in 
conversation. Reading of selected texts. P — Spanish 112 or 113 or two years of high school 
Spanish and placement. Lab required. 

153x. Intermediate Spanish. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of the department. 

213. Introduction to Hispanic Literature. (4) Selected readings in Spanish and Spanish 
American literature. Does not count toward the major or the minor. P — Spanish 153 or 
equivalent. 

217. Masterpieces of Spanish Literature. (4) Study of selected texts, trends, and move- 
ments. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish beyond the basic require- 
ment. P — Spanish 213 or permission of instructor. 

218. Masterpieces of Spanish American Literature. (4) Study of selected texts, trends, and 
movements. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish beyond the basic 
requirement. P — Spanish 213 or permission of instructor. 

219. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) A systematic study of Spanish morphol- 
ogy, sentence structure, and expository usage applied to various kinds of composition: 
description, narration, argumentation, etc. P — Spanish 213 or equivalent. 

220. Advanced Conversation. (4) Practice with oral Spanish, stressing fluency, listening 
comprehension, vocabulary growth, and proficiency in handling everyday situations, 
with additional work on support writing skills. Lab required. P — Spanish 213 or equiva- 
lent. 

221. History and Structure of the Spanish Language. (4) Study of the historical develop- 
ment of Spanish in a cultural and linguistic context from its earliest stages to the present. 
Analysis of its current and internal changes. P — Spanish 219 and 220 or permission of 
instructor. 

222. Spanish Phonology. (4) Description of, and practice with, the sound system of 
Spanish. Systematic analysis of the phonemes, allophones, and stress and intonation 
patterns of the language, and discussion of dialectal and stylistic variation. Lab required. 
P — Spanish 219 and 220 or permission of instructor. 

223. Latin American Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; empha- 
sis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P — Spanish 217 or 218. 



172 



224. Spanish Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; emphasis on 
intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P — Spanish 217 or 218. 

228. Spanish for the Professions. (2) Spanish usage of a selected professional area. 
Emphasis on communication in typical situations and interactions, specialized vocabu- 
lary, cultural differences, and related technical readings in the subject matter. Topics 
offered from following list: a. Health Occupations; b. Social Work; c. Law and Law 
Enforcement; d. Other (on demand). P — Spanish 219, 220, and permission of instructor. 

229. Commercial, Official, and Social Correspondence. (4) Instruction in the special 
vocabularies, formats, and styles required in written communications, with an emphasis 
on business Spanish. Students write in Spanish communications appropriate to each type 
of correspondence. P — Spanish 219 and 220 or permission of instructor. 

230. Spanish American Literature. (4) Extensive reading and study of works from the 
colonial through the contemporary periods, with emphasis on the late nineteenth and 
twentieth centuries. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

231. Medieval and Pre-Renaissance Spanish Literature. (4) Study of the major literary 
works of the Middle Ages and pre-Renaissance. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of 
instructor. 

232. Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Study of the major 
literary works of the Golden Age. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

233. Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Study of a representa- 
tive selection of poetry, drama, essays, and novels of these two centuries. P — Spanish 217 
or 218 or permission of instructor. 

241. Golden Age Drama. (4) A study of the major dramatic works of Lope de Vega, 
Calderon de la Barca, Tirso de Molina, Ruiz de Alarcon, and others. P — Spanish 217 or 218 
or permission of instructor. 

243. Cervantes. (4) Intensive study of the life and works of Cervantes, with special 
attention on the Quixote and the novelas ejemplares. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission 
of instructor. 

252. Spanish Poetry. (2-4) A study of selected topics, such as gongorismo, the Romancero, 
and the Generation of 1927. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

262. Spanish-American Poetry. (4) Intensive study and textual analysis of Spanish- 
American poetry with special emphasis on representative poets and major trends: 
Culteranismo, epic poetry, gaucho poetry, Modernismo, avant garde poetry, and anti- 
poetry. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

263. Contemporary Spanish-American Theater. (4) A study of the Spanish- American 
dramatic production from the end of the 19th century to the present. The course focuses 
on the development of some of the main dramatic movements of the 20th century : realism, 
absurdism, avant garde, and collective theater. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of 
instructor. 



173 



264. Spanish- American Short Story. (4) Intensive study of the twentieth century Spanish- 
American short story with emphasis on major trends and representative authors, such as 
Quiroga, Rulfo, Borges, Cortazar, Donoso, Garcia Marquez. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

265. Spanish-American Novel. (4) A study of the novel in Spanish-America from its 
beginning through the contemporary period. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of 
instructor. 

266. Seminar in Spanish-American Novel. (2-4) A study of one or more categories of 
Spanish-American novels, such as romantic, indianista, realistic, gauchesca, and social 
protest. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

273. Modern Spanish Novel. (4) A study of representative Spanish novels from the 
Generation of 1898 through the contemporary period. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

274. Modern Spanish Literature. (2 or 4) An analysis of selected contemporary works 
representative of the novel, poetry, theater, and essay. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

275. Special Topics. (2-4) Selected special topics in Spanish literature. P — Spanish 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in Spanish. 

281. Directed Study. (3-4) Extensive reading and/or research, to meet individual needs. 
Required for departmental honors. P — Permission of the department. 

287. Special Topics. (2-4) Selected special topics in Spanish-American literature. P — 
Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

Semester in Spain 

The department offers a semester in Spain at Salamanca, the site of a well-established 
Spanish university. Students go as a group in the spring semester, accompanied by a 
professor from the College. 

No particular major is required for eligibility. However, students (1 ) should be of junior 
standing, (2) should have completed Spanish 221, and (3) should be approved by both 
their major department and the Department of Romance Languages. 

1829. Introduction to Spain. (2-4) Familiarization with the Spanish people, Spanish 
culture, and daily life in Spain. Classes in conversational and idiomatic Spanish, excur- 
sions to points of historical and artistic interest, and lectures on selected topics. 

2019. Intensive Spanish. (2) Intensive study and practice of the oral and written language. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

2049. Spanish Phonetics and Phonology. (4) Theory and practical application of the 
elements involved in speaking correct Spanish. 



174 



2199. Advanced Spanish. (4) Study of grammar, composition, and pronunciation, with 
extensive practice of the written and oral language. P — Permission of instructor. 

2259. Survey of Spanish Literature from the Middle Ages through the Seventeenth 
Century. (4) Extensive reading and study of trends and influences. 

2279. Spanish American Literature. (4) Extensive reading and study of works from the 
colonial through the contemporary periods, with emphasis on the late nineteenth and 
twentieth centuries. 

2419. Spanish Literature of the Golden Age. (4) A survey of the most important authors 
and genres of the Golden Age, with particular emphasis on the novel and the drama. 

2759. Contemporary Spanish Literature. (4) A study of general trends and representative 
works of selected prose writers, dramatists, and poets from the modern period. 

Sociology 2029. Social-Political Structures of Present-Day Spain. (4) A study of the 
various social and political elements which affect the modern Spanish state. 

History 2019. General History of Spain. (4) History of Spain from the pre-Roman period 
to the present day. 

Art 2029. Spanish Art and Architecture. (4) A study of the development and uniqueness 
of Spanish art and architecture within the framework of Mediterranean and Western art 
in general. 

Italian 

111, 112. Elementary Italian. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar essentials 
and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Italian. (5) Intensive course for beginners, emphasizing the 
structure of the language and oral practice. Recommended for students in the Venice 
program and for language majors. Lab required. Lecture — five hours. Offered every 
semester. 

127. Basic Conversation. (2) Brief review of grammar; emphasis on vocabulary building 
and conversation for everyday survival while discovering Italy and Italian culture 
through film, TV, documentaries and literature. P — Italian 113 or equivalent. Does not 
satisfy requirements for minor or certification in Italian studies. 

153. Intermediate Italian. (5) Continuation of 113, with emphasis on reading and 
speaking. Lab required. Lecture — five hours. P — Italian 113 or two years of high school 
Italian. Also offered in Venice. 

153x. Intermediate Italian. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of instructor. 



175 



215. Introduction to Italian Literature I. (4) Reading of selected texts in Italian. Satisfies 
basic requirement in foreign language. Offered in the spring. P — Italian 153 or equivalent. 
Also offered in Venice. 

216. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) May alternate with 215. Satisfies basic 
requirement in foreign language. P — Italian 153 or equivalent. 

219. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) A thorough review of the basics of 
structure and vocabulary featuring a more detailed examination of complex syntax and 
idiomatic expressions; practice in translation of texts of diverse styles and from varied 
sources, and free composition. P — Italian 215 or equivalent. 

220. Advanced Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing 
Italian, stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and 
vocabulary for everyday situations. P — Italian 219 or 275. 

224. Italian Civilization I. (4) The culture and its historical development from Charlemagne 
to the Risorgimento; emphasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. 
P— Italian 215 or 216. 

225. Italian Civilization II. (4) The historical development of modem Italian culture from 
the Risorgimento to the present. Use of newspapers, magazines, TV broadcasts, films, and 
literary readings to stimulate oral and written responses to the problems of contemporary 
Italy. P— Italian 215 or 216. 

275. Special Topics. (4) Selected special topics in Italian literature. P — Italian 215 or 216. 

Semester in Venice 

153. Intermediate Italian. (5) 

215. Introduction to Italian Literature I. (4) 

216. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) 

See the course listings under Italian (pages 174-175) for descriptions and prerequisites. 



176 



Sociology 



Philip J. Perricone, Chair 

Wake Forest Professor Charles F. Longino 

Professors John R. Earle, Catherine T. Harris, 

Willie Pearson Jr., Philip J. Perricone 

Associate Professors H. Kenneth Bechtel, Beverly Wright 

Assistant Professor Ian M. Taplin 

Visiting Instructors Kevin D. Everett, Doug Pryor 

A major in sociology requires thirty-seven credits and must include Sociology 371 and 372. 
A minimum average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required at the time the major is 
declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all sociology courses is required for 
graduation. 

A minor in sociology requires twenty credits and must include Sociology 371. A 
minimum grade-point average of 2 .0 in sociology courses is required a t the time the minor 
is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required for 
certification as a minor. Students who intend to pursue a sociology minor are encouraged 
to notify the department early in their junior year, and they are invited to participate in all 
departmental functions. 

The program in sociology provides majors with several options. In addition to pursuing 
a regular major in sociology, students may choose to specialize in any of four concentra- 
tions: 1) family studies, 2) crime, law, and social control, 3) health and society, and 4) 
business and society. These concentrations are described in detail in the Handbook for 
Sociology Students, a copy of which may be obtained from the sociology office or any 
member of the departmental faculty. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Sociology," highly qualified majors 
are invited to apply to the department for admission to the honors program. They must 
complete a senior research project, document their research, and satisfactorily defend 
their work in an oral examination. For additional information members of the departmen- 
tal faculty should be consulted. 

A student who selects sociology to fulfill the Division IV requirement must take one of 
the following courses: Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154. No introductory-level course is 
required for students taking a sociology course as an elective unless such a prerequisite 
is specified in the course description. 

151. Principles of Sociology. (4) General introduction to the field; social organization and 
disorganization, socialization, culture, social change, and other aspects. 

152. Social Problems. (4) Survey of contemporary American social problems. 

153. Marriage and the Family. (4) The social basisof the family, emphasizing the problems 
growing out of modern conditions and social change. 



177 



154. The Sociology of Deviant Behavior. (4) A sociological analysis of the nature and 
causes of and societal reaction to deviant behavior patterns such as mental illness, suicide, 
drug and alcohol addiction, sexual deviation, and criminal behavior. 

205. Photography in the Social Sciences. (4) Explores the use of photography as a research 
technique for the social sciences; camera and darkroom instruction included. Not open to 
students who have had Art 119. P — Permission of instructor. 

301. Religion and Society. (4) Study of religion as a social phenomenon and its relation- 
ship to the other structures of society — political, economic and others, with special focus 
on the contemporary United States. (Also offered as Religion 151.) 

302. Bureaucracy and Society. (4) The sociological analysis of complex organizations 
focusing on bureaucracy, power, authority, decision making, and change. Attention will 
be given to business as well as government and other non-profit organizations. 

303. Business and Society. (4) Historical development, organization, and current prob- 
lems of business enterprises in American society. 

305. Male and Female Roles in Society. (4) Changing male and female roles in the context 
of societal institutions and sociological theories that explain such changes. Consideration 
of feminism as a social movement and of consequences of changing roles for human 
interaction. 

308. Sociology of Art. (2) Art as an institution, its functions, organization, relationship to 
social change and to the communication of meanings. 

309. Sexuality and Society. (4) Study of the societal forces that impinge on human sexual 
behavior, emphasizing the effects of social change, the implications of changing gender 
roles, cross-cultural and subcultural variations, and the influence of the mass media. 

310. Death and Dying. (2) Study of some of the basic issues and problems of modern man 
in accepting and facing death. 

311. Women in Professions. (4) Emphasis on the status of women in professional 
occupations (e.g., law, medicine, science, business, etc.) in socio-historical perspective. 

325. Self and Society. An Interactionist Perspective. (4) An analysis of the effects of social 
relationships upon self-development, self-preservation, and the learning of social roles 
and norms, with special emphasis on language and symbolic interaction. 

326. Interpersonal Crime. (4) Analysis of the dynamics of nonconsensual face-to-face 
crime and deviance from an interactionist perspective. Includes exploration of the 
standpoints of offenders, victims, control agents, and the public toward rape, incest, 
spouse battering, robbery, child physical abuse, and sexual harassment. 

327. Qualitative Methods in Deviance Research. (4) An exploration of field observation 
and depth interview research methods for studying deviance and crime. Emphasis on 
entering field settings and collecting data in collaboration with the instructor. 



178 



334. Society and Higher Education. (4) An analysis of the social forces that shape 
educational policies in the United States. Assessment of significant contemporary writ- 
ings on the manifest and latent functions of education. 

335. Sociology of Health and Illness. (4) Analysis of the social variables associated with 
health and illness. 

336. Sociology of Health Care. (4) An analysis of health care systems, including the social 
organization of medical practice, health care payment, the education of medical practi- 
tioners, and the division of the labor in health care. 

337. Aging in Modern Society. (4) Basic social problems and processes of aging. Social 
and psychological issues discussed. Course requirements will include field placement in 
a nursing home or similar institution. P — Permission of instructor. 

338. Sociological Issues in Criminal Justice. (4) Introduction to the structure, organiza- 
tion and operation of the various components of the criminal justice system with emphasis 
on the police and correctional institutions. 

339. Sociology of Violence. (4) A survey of the societal factors associated with individual 
and collective violence. Discussion will focus on the contemporary and historical condi- 
tions which have contributed to various patterns of violence in American society. 

340. Sociological Issues in Human Development. (4) Socialization through the life span 
in the light of contemporary behavioral science, emphasizing the significance of changes 
in contemporary society. 

341. Criminology. (4) Crime, its nature, causes, consequences, methods of treatment, and 
prevention. 

342. Juvenile Delinquency. (4) The nature and extent of juvenile delinquency; an 
examination of prevention, control, and treatment problems. 

343. Sociology of Law. (4) Consideration will be given to a variety of special issues: 
conditions under which laws develop and change, relationships between the legal and 
political system, the impact of social class and stratification upon the legal order. 

344. Women and Crime. (4) Course will focus on four major areas related to women and 
crime: women as offenders, the processing of women by the criminal justice system, 
women as victims, and women as criminal justice professionals. P — 341 and permission 
of instructor. 

345. Advanced Topics Seminar in Criminology. (4) Emphasis on current topics in the 
field of criminology and criminal justice such as measurement issues, ethical issues, 
history, crime and mass media, and theoretical debates. P — 341 and permission of 
instructor. 

347. Society, Culture, and Sport. (4) An examination of the interrelationship of sport and 
other social institutions. Emphasis on the study of both the structure of sport and the 
functions of sport for society. 



179 



348. Sociology of the Family. (4) The family as a field of sociological study. Assessment 
of significant historical and contemporary writings. An analysis of the structure, organi- 
zation, and function of the family in America. 

349. Sociology of Science. (4) Emphasis on the origins and growth of science in socio- 
historical perspective, reciprocal relations between science and society in the twentieth 
century, science as a social system. 

350. Mass Communications and Public Opinion. (4) The study of the increasing 
importance of collective behavior, emphasizing the relationship between the media and 
a changing society. 

351. Management and Organizations. (4) A study of macro organizational processes and 
changes in contemporary industrial societies and their effects upon managerial systems, 
managerial ideologies and managers in firms. 

352. White-Collar Crime. (4) Study of criminal activity committed in the course of 
legitimate occupations including workplace crime, graft, and business crime. P — 341. 

358. Population and Society. (4) Techniques used in the study of population data. 
Reciprocal relationship of social and demographic variables. 

359. Race and Ethnic Relations. (4) Racial and ethnic group prejudice and discrimination 
and their effect on social relationships. Emphasis on psychological and sociological 
theories of prejudice. 

360. Social Stratification. (4) The study of structured social inequality with particular 
emphasis on economic class, social status, and political power. 

361. Sociology of the Black Experience. (4) A survey and an analysis of contemporary 
writings on the status of black Americans in various American social institutions (e.g., 
education, sports, entertainment, science, politics, etc.). 

362. Sociology of Work. (4) Changing trends in the U.S. labor force. The individual's view 
of work and the effect of large organizations on white and blue collar workers . Use of some 
cross-cultural data. 

363. Markets and Industry. (4) An analysis of industrial organization, including discus- 
sion of market relations and the behavior of firms, the structure of industrial development, 
and labor relations and the growth of trade unions. 

364. Political Sociology. (4) Examination of the structure and organization of power in 
society with emphasis on political socialization, political ideology, and the growth of the 
welfare state. 

371, 372. The Sociological Perspective. (4,5) A two-semester course dealing with the 
development and application of major theories and research methods in sociology. A 
continuing effort is made to enable the student to deal with current theoretically oriented 
research. Regularly scheduled computer labs will be arranged during the Sociology 372 
portion of the course. P— Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154. 



180 



380. Social Statistics. (4) Basic statistics, emphasizing application in survey research. (A 
student who receives credit for this course may not also receive credit for Biology 380, 
Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Anthropology 380. A sociology major may take 
Anthropology 380 in lieu of Sociology 380 to meet major requirements.) 

385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline which concentrates on problems of contemporary interest. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

398,399. Individual Study. (1-4, 1-4) Reading, research, or internship courses designed to 
meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be carried out under the supervision 
of a departmental faculty member. 



Spanish Studies 

(Foreign Area Study) 
Kathleen Glenn (Romance Languages), Coordinator 

Students are required to participate in the semester in Spain program at Salamanca . They 
also are required to take History 2019, General History of Spain (4) taught in Salamanca; 
Sociology 2029, Social and Political Structures of Present Day Spain (4) taught in Salamanca; 
either Art 2029, Spanish Art and Architectu re (4) taught in Salamanca or Spanish 224, Spanish 
Civilization (4); and Spanish 217, Masterpieces of Spanish Literature (4). 

Students must take twelve additional credits from the advanced courses in Spanish 
language and the literature of Spain offered by the Department of Romance Languages, 
or from those offered at the University of Salamanca. 




181 



Speech Communication 

Michael David Hazen, Chair 

Professors Julian C. Burroughs Jr., Michael David Hazen 

Adjunct Professor Jo Whitten May 

Associate Professors Allan D. Louden, Jill Jordan McMillan 

Assistant Professors John T. Llewellyn, Randall G. Rogan 

Instructors Mary M. Dalton, Margaret D. Zulick 

Visiting Instructor Andrew Leslie 

Adjunct Instructors Susan L. Faust, Mardene G. Morykwas, Karen L. Oxendine 

Debate Coach Ross K. Smith 

A major in speech communication requires forty credits, at least twelve of which must be 
at the 300-level. All majors are required to take courses 100, 110, and 220 or 225 and should 
begin their study of speech communication with these courses. In addition, at least twelve 
credits must be taken from among the following courses: 113, 114, 200, 201, 245, 246, 335, 
and 340 (or 341). An overall minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all speech communi- 
cation courses attempted is required for graduation. 

A minor in speech communication requires twenty-four credits, at least four of which 
must be at the 300-level, and shall include courses 100, 110, and 220 or 225. Remaining 
coursework must include at least four credits from among the following courses: 1 13, 1 14, 
200, 201, 245, 335, and 340 (or 341). An overall minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all 
speech communication courses attempted is required for graduation. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in speech communication. To be graduated with the designation 
"Honors in Speech Communication," students must pass the departmental honors 
course, complete a senior research project, and satisfactorily defend their work in an oral 
examination. For more details, consult faculty members in the department. 

100. Introduction to Communication and Rhetoric. (4) An introduction to the theories, 
research, and analysis of verbal and nonverbal processes by which human beings share 
meanings and influence one another. 

110. Public Speaking. (4) A study of the theory and practice of public address. Lab 
experiences in the preparation, delivery, and critique of informative and persuasive 
speeches. 

111. Radio-TV Speech. (4) An introduction to announcing and performing on radio and 
television. 

112S. Oral Interpretation of Literature. (4) Fundamentals of reading aloud, with empha- 
sis on selection, analysis, and performance. Offered in summer only. 

113. Interpersonal Communication. (4) An introductory overview of interpersonal 
communication theories and principles designed to improve the student's understanding 
of and ability to effectively communicate in interpersonal contexts. 



182 



114. Group Communication. (4) An introduction to the theory and practice of group 
interaction and decision-making. The course features lectures and discussions of theory 
and includes opportunities to participate in formal and informal group processes. 

115. Writing for Radio-TV-Film. (4) An introduction to writing for radio, television, and 
film. Emphasis will be on informational and persuasive writing (news, features, public 
service announcements, commercials, political announcements, news analyses, commen- 
taries, and editorial). 

160. Sign Language for the Deaf I. (2) An introduction to the basic expressive and 
receptive skills for finger spelling and the language of signs with attention to the culture 
of the deaf. 

161. Sign Language for the Deaf II. (2) Advanced work on basic expressive and receptive 
skills for finger spelling and the language of signs with attention to the culture of the deaf. 

200. Debate and Advocacy. (4) The use of argumentative techniques in oral advocacy: 
research, speeches, and debate. 

201. Persuasion. (4) A study of the variables and contexts of persuasion in contemporary 
society. 

210. Advanced Public Speaking. (4) Advanced study in the art of public address. This 
course is recommended for students with some previous speech experience and/or 
training. 

211. Media Production: Studio. (4) An introduction to the production of audio and video 
media projects. Multiple camera studio production emphasized. Lecture/ laboratory. 

212. Media Production: Field. (4) An introduction to the production of audio and video 
media projects. Single camera field production and post-production emphasized. Lec- 
ture/laboratory. 

213. Film Production. (4) A study of the basic elements of motion picture production. 

220. Empirical Research in Communication. (4) An introduction to methodological 
design and univariate statistics as used in communication research. 

225. Historical/Critical Research in Communication. (4) Introduces students to the 
historical and critical analysis of rhetoric. Examines current methods of rhetorical criti- 
cism with a view to researching and composing a critical paper in the field. 

245. Introduction to Mass Communication. (4) A historical survey of mass media and an 
examination of major contemporary media issues. 

246. Introduction to Film. (4) An introduction to the aesthetics of motion pictures through 
a study of the basic elements of film such as cinematography, editing, sound, lighting, 
color, etc. 

261. Clinical Management of Speech and Language Disorders. (4) Methods used to 
correct speech disorders of voice, rhythm, language, and articulation; observation of 
methods used with selected cases in clinical or public school settings. Offered in alternate 
fall semesters. 



183 



262. Communication Disorders of the Hearing-Impaired. (4) The etiology and effect of 
hearing impairment on communication. The fundamentals of auditory training, speech 
reading, and other resources for the rehabilitation of the hearing-impaired individual. 
Offered in alternate spring semesters. 

263. Speech and Language Disorders I. (4) Study of the disorders of language, articula- 
tion, and rhythm, with special emphasis on functional disorders; focus is on the role the 
therapist plays in assisting the speech-handicapped child. Offered in alternatefall semesters. 

264. Speech and Language Disorders II. (4) Consideration of etiology and symptoms of 
speech and language problems due to organic disorders of voice, articulation, language, 
and hearing. Offered in alternate spring semesters. 

280. Communication Practicum I. (2,4) Individual projects in debate or communication 
internship to be approved, supervised, and evaluated by an appropriate faculty adviser. 
No student may register for more than two credits of practicum in any semester. No 
student is allowed to take more than a total of eight credits in practicum, only four credits 
of which may be counted toward a major in speech communication. Pass/fail only. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

281. Communication Practicum II. (2,4) See previous description. 

283. Individual Study. (1-4) Directed study in an area of interest to be approved and 
supervised by a faculty adviser. P — Permission of instructor. 

285. Honors Course. (2,4) Intensive research in an area of special interest for selected 
seniors who wish to graduate with departmental honors. P — Permission of department. 

300. Classical Rhetoric. (4) A study of major writings in Greek and Roman rhetorical 
theory from the Sophists to Augustine. Offered in alternate years. 

301. Semantics and Language in Communication. (4) A study of how meaning is created 
by sign processes. Among the topics studied are language theory, semiotics, speech act 
theory, and pragmatics. Offered in alternate years. 

302. Argumentation Theory. (4) An examination of argumentation theory and criticism; 
examines both theoretical issues and social practices. Offered in alternate years. 

303S. Directing the Forensic Program. (2,4) A pragmatic study of the methods of directing 
high school and college forensics with work in the High School Debate Workshop. Offered 
in the summer. 

304. Freedom of Speech. (4) An examination of the philosophical and historical traditions, 
significant cases, and contemporary controversies concerning freedom of expression. 
Offered in alternate years. 

310. Advanced Media Production. (1-4) Special projects in audio and video production 
for students with previous media production experience. P — Speech Communication 
211, 212, 213, or permission of instructor. 

330. Communication and Conflict. (4) A review of the various theoretical perspectives on 
conflict and negotiation as well as methods for managing relational conflict. 



184 



335. Survey of Organizational Communication. (4) An overview of the role of commu- 
nication in constituting and maintaining the pattern of activities that sustain the modem 
organization. 

336. Organizational Rhetoric. (4) Explores the persuasive nature of organizational 
messages — those exchanged between organizational members, and those presented in 
behalf of the organization as a whole. Offered in alternate years. 

337. Rhetoric of Institutions. (4) A study of the communication practices of institutions 
as they seek to gain and maintain social legitimacy. Offered in alternate years. 

340. American Rhetorical Movements to 1900. (4) Examines the interrelation of American 
rhetorical movements through the nineteenth century by reading and analyzing original 
speeches and documents with emphasis on antislavery and women's rights. 

341. American Rhetorical Movements since 1900. (4) Examines the interrelation of 
American rhetorical movements in the twentieth century by reading and analyzing 
original speeches and documents. Among the movements addressed are labor, civil 
rights, student radicals, and women's liberation. 

342. Political Communication. (4) Study of electoral communication, including candi- 
date and media influences on campaign speeches, debates, and advertising. 

345. Mass Communication Theory. (4) Theoretical approaches to the role of communi- 
cation in reaching mass audiences and its relationship to other levels of communication. 

346. Film Theory and Criticism. (4) A study of film aesthetics through an analysis of the 
work of selected filmmakers and film critics. P — Speech Communication 246 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

347. Film History to 1945. (4) A survey of the developments of motion pictures to 1945. 
Includes lectures, readings, reports, and screenings. 

348 Film History since 1945. (4) A survey of the development of motion pictures from 1946 
to the present day. Includes lectures, readings, reports, and screenings. 

350. Intercultural Communication. (4) An introduction to the study of communication 
phenomena between individuals and groups with different cultural backgrounds. Offered 
in alternate years. 

351. Comparative Communication. (2,4) A comparison of communicative and rhetorical 
processes in the United States with one or more other national cultures with an emphasis 
on both historical and contemporary phenomena. A. Japan; B. Soviet Union; C. Great 
Britain; D. Multiple countries. Offered in alternate years. 

370. Special Topics. (1-4) An examination of topics not covered in the regular curriculum. 

380. Great Teachers. (2,4) An intensive study of the ideas of three noted scholars and 
teachers in the field of communication. Students will interact with each teacher during a 
two to three day visit to Wake Forest. 



185 



Theater 

Donald H. Wolfe, Chair 

Professors James H. Dodding, Harold C. Tedf ord, Donald H. Wolfe 

Adjunct Professor Darwin R. Payne 

Adjunct Instructor Mary Lucy Bivins 

Lecturers Zanna Beswick (London), Jonathan H. Christman, 

John E. R. Friedenberg, Patricia W. Toole, Mary R. Wayne 

A major in theater consists of a minimum of forty credits, at least eight of which must be 
at the 300-level. This includes a required core of 36 credits: Theater 1 1 or 1 1 2, 140, 1 50, 250, 
251 or 252, 260, 261, 340, 381 and 385. (Students interested in a theater major should elect 
Theater 112.) Four semesters of Theater 100 (0 credits) also are required. Majors may 
choose their remaining courses from the offerings listed under the Department of Theater. 
A minimum grade of 2.0 in all theater courses attempted is required for graduation. 
Majors should consult with their advisers about additional regulations. Theater majors 
are required to take two courses in dramatic literature from the Departments of English 
or Classical Languages or from Humanities. 

Those who plan to be theater majors are urged to begin their studies during their first year. 

Highly qualified majors (departmental GPA of 3.3, overall GPA of 3.0) are invited by 
the department to apply for admission to the honors program in theater. To be graduated 
with the designation "Honors in Theater," a student must successfully complete Theater 
292 (4). Honors projects may consist of a) a research paper of exceptional quality; b) a 
creative project in playwriting or design; or c) a directing or acting project. The theater 
honors project must be presented and defended before the departmental Honors Com- 
mittee. The department can furnish honors candidates complete information on prepara- 
tion and completion of projects. 

Aminorin theater requires24credits:Theaterll0orll2, 140, 150, 260 or 261, two theater 
electives and two semesters of Theater 100 participation. Theater minors are required to 
take one course in dramatic literature from the Departments of English or Classical 
Languages or from Humanities. 

Any person who is interested in a theater major or minor should contact the chair of the 
department soon after arrival on the campus. 

100. Participation. (0) Attendance/participation in Mainstage and Studio performances; 
and other events as established by the department. (Specific attendance/participation 
requirements will be established at the beginning of each semester.) Four semesters, or a 
minimum of eight University Theater productions, are required of theater majors. 
Participation in at least two of the eight productions must be in technical production. Two 
semesters, or a minimum of four University Theater productions, are required of theater 
minors. Participation in one of the four productions must be in technical production. 
Assignments for technical production are made through consultation with the technical 
and design faculty. 



186 



110. Introduction to the Theater. (4) For the theater novice. A survey of the theory and 
practice of the major disciplines of theater art: acting, directing, playwriting, and design- 
Participation in Studio and Mainstage productions. Students planning to major in theater 
are encouraged to take THE 112. Credit will not be given for both THE 110 and 112. May 
be used to satisfy a requirement in Division I. 

112. Introduction to the Theater. (4) For the experienced theater student. A survey of the 
theory and practice of the major disciplines of theater art: acting, directing, playwriting, 
and design. Students planning to major in theater are encouraged to take THE 112. Credit 
will not be given for both THE 110 and 112. Experience in Studio and Mainstage 
productions. May be used to satisfy a requirement in Division I. 

140. Acting I. (4) Fundamental acting theory and techniques including exercises, mono- 
logues and scene work. 

143. Speech for Stage and Workplace. (4) Vocal resonance, articulation, awareness of 
regional dialects, ear training, phonetics and body tensions are explored in conjunction 
with text. Exercises, readings and performances. 

144. Mime. (4) An introductory study of basic mime forms. The student will gain skills and 
understanding of this theatrical form through practical exercises, readings, rehearsals, 
and performances. 

146. Performance Techniques. (4) A course focusing on acting styles appropriate to 
various modes of theatrical production. Specialized techniques such as dance, stage 
combat, etc., may also be included. (Suitable for non-majors.) 

150. Introduction to Design & Production. (4) An introduction to the architecture and 
technology of the theater, including the essentials of the operation of the scene shop, stage 
equipment, occupational health and safety. The course stresses the collaborative art of the 
theater through an introduction to theater design including script analysis, visual 
research, communication of the design, drafting, and color. 

155. Stagecraft. (4) This introductory course focuses on contemporary materials, construe- 
tion methods, and rigging practices employed in the planning, fabrication and installation 
of stage scenery. Emphasis on using current technologies for problem solving. 

188. The Contemporary English Theater. (2) An exploration of the English theater 
through theater attendance in London and other English theater centers. Readings, 
lectures. Participants submit reviews of the plays and complete a journal of informal 
reactions to the plays, the sites and thevariety of cultural differences observed. Twoweeks. 
Offered in London before spring term. P — Permission of instructor. 

241. Stage Movement. (4) An advanced class exploring stage movement theories, 
techniques, and skills, drawing upon the theories of Alexander, LeCoq, Fialka, Kantor, 
Pisk, and others. P— THE 140. 

244. Advanced Mime. (4) This course enlarges upon skills and techniques acquired in 
THE 144 (Mime), with the addition of other mime forms. The course includes exercises, 
rehearsals, and performances. P — THE 144. 



187 



245. Acting II. (4) Advanced study and practice of the skills introduced in Acting I. P — 
THE 140, 143. 

246. Period and Style. (4) A study of social customs, movement, dances, and theatrical 
styles relating to the performance of drama in historical settings as well as in period plays. 
The course includes performances in class. P — THE 140, 143. 

250. Theatrical Scene Design. (4) A study of the fundamental principles and techniques 
of stage design. Drafting, model building, perspective rendering, historical research, and 
scene painting will be emphasized. P — THE 150. 

251. Costume and Makeup Design. (4) A study of the fundamental principles and 
techniques of costume and makeup design with an emphasis on historical research. The 
basics of costume rendering, costume construction and stage makeup will be explored. 
P— THE 150. 

252. Lighting and Sound Design. (4) An exploration of the lighting and sound designer's 
process from script to production. A variety of staging situations will be studied, 
including proscenium, thrust and arena production. P — THE 150. 

259. Theater Management: Principles and Practices. (4) This course reviews the develop- 
ment of theater management in the U.S. with emphasis on the role of the producer; 
explores commercial and not-for-profit theater with attention to planning, personnel, and 
the economics of theater. Includes readings, lectures, and reports. 

260. History of Western Theater I (Beginnings to 1642). (4) A survey of the development 
of Western theater and drama through the Greek, Roman, medieval, and Renaissance 
theaters to 1642; includes lectures, readings and reports. (Suitable for non-majors.) 

261. History of Western Theater II (1642 to the Present). (4) A survey of Western theater 
and drama from the French Neoclassic theater through the English Restoration, the 
eighteenth century, Romanticism, Realism, the revolts against Realism and the post- 
modern theater; includes lectures, readings and reports. (Suitable for non-majors.) 

281. Acting Workshop. (2) Scene work with student directors utilizing realistic texts. 
Offered pass/fail only. P — THE 140 or permission of instructor. 

283. Practicum. (1-2) Projects under faculty supervision. May be repeated for no more than 
4 credits. P — Permission of the department. 

290. Special Seminar. (2-4) The intensive study of selected topics in theater. May be 
repeated. 

292. Theater Honors. (4) A tutorial involving intensive work in the area of special interest 
for qualified seniors who wish to graduate with departmental honors. P — Permission of 
department. 

294. Individual Study. (1-4) Special research and readings in an area of interest to be 
approved and supervised by a faculty adviser. May be taken for no more than 4 credits. 
P — Permission of department. 



188 



2650. The English Theater, 1660-1940. (4) A study of the major developments in the 
English theater from the Restoration to World War II, including the plays, playwrights, 
actors, audiences, theater architecture, theater management, costumes and sets. Field trips 
include visits to theaters, museums, and performances. Offered in London. 

340. Directing. (4) An introduction to the theory and practice of play directing. P — THE 
110/112,140 and 150; C— THE 381. 

344. Acting Shakespeare. (4) A practical study of varying styles in interpreting and acting 
Shakespeare's plays from the time of the Elizabethans to the present day. P — THE 1 40, 1 43 . 

381. Directing Workshop. (2) The practical application of directing techniques in realistic 
scene study utilizing student actors. This course is a co-requisite of THE 340. 

385. Studio Production. (2) The organization, techniques and problems encountered in 
the production of a play for the public. P — THE 340 and permission of department. 

390, 391. Special Seminar. (2-4) The intensive study of selected topics in the theater. May 
be repeated. 

Dance 

Rebecca Myers, Instructor and Director of Dance 

A dance minor requires twenty-four credits and must include Dance 120, 121, 122, 123, 
126, 127, 128 (or 129, or 131)*, 201 and 202; Music 101 or 102; Theater 110 or 112. The 
remaining credits may be chosen from Music 161, 165p, 165r, 167v, 190, 261; and Theater 
140,144,150,251,252. 

119. Aerobic Dance (1) 

120. Beginning Dance Technique (1) 

121. Intermediate Dance Technique. (1) P — Dance 120 or permission of instructor. 

122. Advanced Dance Technique. (1) P — Dance 121 or permission of instructor. 

123. Dance Composition (1) P— Dance 121. 

124. Social Dance. (1) 

125. Folk and Social Dance. (1) 

126. Jazz Dance. (1) 

127. Beginner Classical Ballet Techniques. (1) 



The dance minor requires only one course in classical ballet. Most dancers take Dance 128, 
Beginning Ballet; however, students who arrive at Wake Forest with extensive dance preparation 
may enter the program at the intermediate or advanced level. 



189 



128. Dance Theater. (1) May be repeated for a maximum of eight credits. P — Permission 
of instructor. 

129. Intermediate Classical Ballet. (1) 
131. Advanced Classical Ballet. (1) 

201. Senior Dance Project. (2) A course involving the creative process of developing a 
dance. 

202. History of American Dance. (4) A survey of American dance from the 1600s to the 
present with emphasis on scope, style, and function. 

Women's Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Mary K. DeShazer (Women's Studies), Coordinator 

121. Introduction to Women's Studies. (4) An interdisciplinary course, taught by faculty 
representing at least two fields, that integrates materials from the humanities and the 
social sciences. Topics include methods and goals of women's studies, feminist critical 
theory, and the place of women in culture and society. 

321. Seminar in Women's Studies. (4) Consideration of theoretical and methodological 
questions and research on current topics in women's studies. 

359. Fathers and Daughters. (4) The ways in which fathers influence their daughters' 
emotional, psychological, and intellectual development. Selected materials from psychol- 
ogy, mythology, film, and contemporary literature. 

396. Independent Study. (1-4) Independent projects in women's studies which either 
continue study begun in regular courses or develop new areas of interest. By prearrange- 
ment. 

397. Internships in Women's Studies. (2-4) Practicum opportunities for work and for 
research in conjunction with a local women's organization: Winston-Salem Family 
Services, NOW, Council on the Status of Women, the North Carolina Center for Laws 
Affecting Women, etc. Pass/ fail only. 

The interdisciplinary minor in Women's Studies requires the core course Women's 
Studies 121 and five other courses. At least two of the five courses must be in the 
humanities and two must be in the social sciences/sciences, and the courses must be 
distributed among at least three departments, for a total of twenty-four credits. It is 
recommended that one of these courses be the upper division seminar, Women's Studies 
321. This structure gives students an understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of 
Women's Studies within the context of the traditional liberal arts curriculum. 

A student minoring in Women's Studies might take Women's Studies 121 as a 
sophomore, one humanities and one social science course as a junior, and Women's 



190 



Studies 321, another humanities course, and another social science course as a senior. In 
addition to the Women's Studies courses listed above, the following courses may be 
included in the minor. (See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

Courses in the Humanities 

Art 251. Women and Art. (4) 

Classics 252. Women in Antiquity. (3,4) 

English 340. Studies in Women and Literature. (4) 

a. The woman writer in society 

b. Feminist critical approaches to literature 
English 376. American Poetry Before 1900. (4) 
English 377. American Jewish Literature. (4) 
English 381. Studies in Black American Literature. (4) 
History 341. History of Women in Modern Asia. (4) 
History 365. Women in American History. (4) 
Humanities 230. Women Writers in Contemporary Italy. (4) 
Humanities 320. Women in the Middle Ages. (4) 
Humanities 347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) 
Humanities 353. African and Caribbean Women Writers. (4) 
Music 208. Women and Music. (4) 

Religion 340. Men's Studies and Religion. (4) 

Religion 366. Gender and Religion. (4) 

Religion 370. Women and Christianity. (4) 

Religion 371. Theology of Sexual Embodiment. (4) 

Speech Communication 357. The Rhetoric of the Women's Rights Movement. (4) 

Courses in the Social Sciences/Sciences 
Biology 318. Gender and Science. (3) 
Politics 229. Women in Politics. (4) 
Psychology 265. Human Sexuality. (4) 
Psychology 358. Psychology of Women. (4) 
Sociology 153. Marriage and the Family. (4) 
Sociology 305. Male and Female Roles in Society. (4) 
Sociology 309. Sexuality and Society. (4) 
Sociology 31 1 . Women in Professions. (4) 
Sociology 348. Sociology of the Family. (4) 
Sociology 359. Race and Ethnic Relations. (4) 

Students intending to minor in Women's Studies should consult the coordinator of 
Women's Studies in Tribble Hall A-106B, preferably during their sophomore year. 



WFU courses taught on overseas campuses during the last five school years 
Fall 1988-Spring 1993 

BEIJING, China Semesters Taught 



CHI 1131. Elementary Chinese (10) 

CHI 1521. Communism in China. Contemporary 

Issues in Historical Perspective (4) 
CHI 1551. Pre- Advanced Intermediate Chinese 

Perspective (10) 
HMN 2431 . China in Perspective (2) 
HMN 3641. Issues in Contemporary China (4) 
HMN 3641. Communism in China. Contemporary 

Issues in Historical Perspective (4) 



Fall: 


1991, 1990 


Fall: 


1991 


Fall: 


1991, 1990 


Fall: 


1991, 1990 


Fall: 


1990 


Fall: 


1991 



DIJON, France 

ART 2712. Studies in French Art (2) 

FRH 2192. Adv. Oral & Written French (4) 
FRH 2232. Adv. Oral & Written French (4) 

FRH 2242. French Civilization (4) 
FRH 2282. Contemporary France (4) 

FRH 2292. French Civilization (4) 

FRH 2402. Independent Study (2) 

FRH 2742. Special Topics in French Literature (2) 

FRH 2752. French Literature (2) 

FREIBURG-im-BREISGAU, Germany 



BUS 5007. European Business Law (4) 

ECN 2317. European Economic Policies (4) 

ECN 2517. European Market Integration (4) 

ECN 2517. Internat. Econ. Relations of the EC (4) 

ECN 2527. Internat. Econ. Relations of the EC (4) 

ECN 2537. European Market Integration (4) 

ECN 2587. Internat. Econ. Relations of the EC (4) 

ECN 2727. Introduction to the Eur. Community (1) 

GER 2197. Adv. Comp. Read, and Conv. (4) 

GER 2317. Authori. & Democ. Trad, of Germany (4) 



Fall: 


1992, 1991, 
1989, 1988 


1990, 


Fall: 


1992 




Fall: 


1991, 1990, 
1988 


1989, 


Fall: 


1992 




Fall: 


1991, 1990, 
1988 


1989, 


Fall: 


1992, 1991, 
1989, 1988 


1990, 


Fall: 


1992, 1991 




Fall: 


1990 




Fall: 


1992, 1991, 
1989,1988 


1990, 


Fall: 


1992 




Fall: 


1992 




Spring: 


1992 




Fall: 


1992 




Spring: 


1992 




Fall: 


1992 




Spring: 


1992 




Spring: 


1992 




Fall: 


1992 




Spring: 


1992 




Spring: 


1992 





192 



GER 2707. 


Elementary German II (4) 


Spring 


1992 


GER 2707. 


Intermediate German I (4) 


Spring 


1992 






Fall 


1992, 1991 


GER 2817. 


20th Cent. Ger. Short Works in Prose (4) 


Spring 


1992 


MUS5007. 


Music & Song in Concentration Camps (4) 


Spring 


1992 


POL 2427. 


Pol. Institutions of the Eur. Community: 
Policies of European Integration (4) 


Spring 


1992 


POL 2517. 


European Market Integration (4) 


Spring 


1992 


POL 2527 


Foreign Policy Between Ger. Unifi. 
and European Integration (4) 


Spring 


1992 


POL 2527. 


Europe in Transition (4) 


Spring 


1992 


POL 2877. 


European Political Cultures (4) 


Spring 


1992 


HIRATSUKA. Tat>an rTnkai IJnivprsih/l 






HMN3421. 


Japan in Perspective (2) 


Fall 


1992, 1991 


HST3461. 


Foreign Encounters with Japan (4) 


Fall 


1992 


JAP 2191. 


Advanced Japanese (10) 


Fall 


1992, 1991 


SCT3711. 


Comparative Communication (4) 


Fall 


1991 


KIEV, Ukraine 






HST 3328. 


Russian and Soviet Hist.: 1880-Present (4) 


Fall 


1991 


POL 2328. 


Current Political Events in the USSR (4) 


Fall 


1991 


POL 2428. 


Form. & Development. Problems of the 
Pol. Syst. of the Common, of Ind. States (4) 


Spring 


1992 


POL 2528. 


Hist, of Internat. Relations & Foreign 
Policy 1975-1992 (4) 


Spring 


1992 


POL 2528. 


Topics in Soviet-American Relations (4) 


Fall 


1991 


RUS 2158. 


Topics in Adv. Russian Liter. (4) 


Spring 


1992 


RUS 2188. 


Russ. & Soviet Liter. & the Mass Media (4) 


Fall 


1991 


RUS 2508. 


History of World Art & Culture (4) 


Spring 


1992 


RUS 2708. 


Adv. Russian Language (6) 


Spring 


1992 






Fall 


1991 


LONDON 


, England 






ART 2320. 


English Art, Hogarth to Present (2,4) 


Fall 


1992, 1991, 1990 
1989 






Spring 


1991, 1990, 1989 


ECN 1500. 


Introduction to Economics (4) 


Fall 


1988 


ECN 2230. 


Financial Markets (4) 


Fall 


1988 


ECN 2650. 


Economic Philosophers (4) 


Spring 


1992 


ECN 2710. 


Selected Areas in Economics (2,4) 


Fall 


1988 






Spring 


1992 


ECN 2900. 


Individual Study (2,4) 


Spring 


1992 



193 



ENG 3300. British Literature of the 
Eighteenth Century (4) 



Fall: 1992,1991,1990 



ENG 3800. 


Henry James in England (4) 


Fall 


1990 




HST 2260. 


History of London (2,4) 


Spring 


1992, 1991, 


1990 






Fall 


1992, 1991, 
1989, 1988 


1990, 


HST 2270. 


The History of the English 
Aristocracy (2,4) 


Fall 


1989 




HST 2340. 


Georgian and Victorian Society 
and Culture (4) 


Fall 


1991 




HST 2370. 


Churchill (2,4) 


Spring 
Fall 


1990 
1988 




HST 2880. 


Honors in History (4) 


Fall 


1992, 1991 




HST 3260. 


Industrial Revolution in England (4) 


Fall 


1992 




HST 3760. 


Anglo- Amer. Relations Since 1940 (2) 


Fall 


1992 




HST 3990. 


Directed Reading (2) 


Fall 


1992 




MUS2090. 


History of Music in the British Isles (4) 


Spring 


1989 




MUS2160. 


History of Music in England (4) 


Spring 


1989 




POL 2420. 


Problems in Comparative Politics (4) 


Fall 


1988 




REL 2010. 


History of Christianity in England (4) 


Spring 


1990 




REL2020. 


British Theological & Literary Classics (4) 


Spring 


1990 




SCT 3110. 


The English Theater 1660-1940 (4) 


Fall 
Spring 


1989, 1988 
1989 




SCT3300. 


Modern English & Continental Drama (4) 


Spring 


1992, 1991, 


1988 




(also THE 3300.) 




Fall: 1992, 1991 


SCT 3310. 


Survey English Theater History (4) 


Spring 


1992, 1991, 


1988 


MOSCOW. Russia 








MTH1098. 


Elem. Probability & Statistics (5) 


Spring 


1992 




MTH2518. 


Ordinary Differential Equations (4) 


Spring 


1992 




RUS2408. 


Seminar in Translation (4) 


Spring 


1992 




RUS2708. 


Independent Study (4) 


Spring 


1992 




SALAMANCA. Spain 








ART 2029. 


Spanish Art & Architecture (2,3,4) 


Spring 


1992, 1991, 
1989 


1990, 


HST 2019. 


General History of Spain (4) 


Spring 


1992, 1991, 
1989 


1990, 


SOC 2029. 


Social and Political Structures of 
Present Day Spain (4) 


Spring 


1992, 1991, 
1989 


1990, 


SPA 1829. 


Introduction to Spain (2-4) 


Spring 


1992, 1991, 
1989 


1990, 


SPA 2019. 


Intensive Spanish (2) 


Spring 


1992, 1989 





194 



SPA 2029. 


Advanced Spanish (2,4) 


Spring 


1991, 1990, 1989, 


SPA 2059. 


History of the Spanish Language (4) 


Spring 


1991, 1990, 1989 


SPA 2199. 


Advanced Spanish (4) 


Spring 


1992 


SPA 2239. 


Latin American Civilization (4) 


Spring 


1989 


SPA 2419. 


Literature of the Golden Age I (4) 


Spring 


1992, 1991, 1990, 
1989 


SPA 2649. 


Spanish American Short Story (4) 


Spring 


1989 


SPA 2739. 


20th Century Spanish Novel (4) 


Spring 


1991, 1988 


SPA 2759. 


Contemporary Spanish Literature I (4) 


Spring 


1990 


SPA 2759. 


Spanish American Short Story (4) 


Spring 


1992 


TAIPEI, Taiwan 






ANT 3651. 


Cultural Ecology of China (4) 


Fall 


1989 


CHI 1131. 


Elementary Chinese (10) 


Fall 


1989 


CHI 1551. 


Pre-Advanced Intermediate Chinese (10) 


Fall 


1989 


HMN2431. 


China in Perspective (2) 


Fall 


1989 


VENICE, Italv 






ART 2693. 


Venetian Renaissance Art (4) 


Spring 


1992, 1991, 1990, 
1989 






Fall 


1992, 1991, 1990 
1989, 1988 


CLA2553. 


The World of Mythology in Ovid's 
Metamorphoses (4) 


Fall 


1992 


CLA 2713. 


The Roman Civilization of Ancient 
Venetia (3) 


Fall 


1992 


ENG 3613. 


The Italian Experience (4) 


Fall 


1990, 1988 


ENG 3653. 


Twentieth-Century British Fiction (4) 


Fall 


1991 


ENG 3863. 


Independent Study (4) 


Spring 


1992 


HON 1313. 


Approaches to Human Experience 1 (4) 


Spring 


1990 


HON 1353. 


Approaches to Human Experience (4) 


Fall 


1991, 1989 


HON 2433. 


Literature, Travel & Discovery (4) 


Spring 


1991 


HST 2223. 


Renaissance & Reformation (4) 


Fall 


1989 


HST 2253. 


History of Venice (4) 


Fall 


1992, 1991, 1989 






Spring 


1992 


HMN 2603. 


Rom/Ital. Forerunners: Western Liter. (4) 


Fall 


1990, 1988 


ITA 1533. 


Intermediate Italian (4) 


Spring 


1991, 1990 






Fall 


1990, 1989, 1988 


ITA 1993. 


Independent Study (4) 


Spring 


1992 


ITA 2153. 


Introduction to Italian Literature I (4) 


Spring 


1991, 1990, 1989 






Fall 


1992, 1991, 1990 
1989 



195 



ITA 2163. Introduction to Italian Literature II (4) 

ITA2213. Spoken Italian: Venice (4) 

MUS 2143. The Language of Music in Italy (4) 

PHI 2853. Philosophy of Art (4) 

POL 1143. Intro, to Politics: Comparative (4) 

POL 2373. Comparative Public Policy in Selected 

Industrialized Democracies (4) 

POL 2423. Problems in Comparative Politics (4) 

POL 2703. Topics in Political Theory (4) 

VIENNA, Austria 



ART 5007. Austria: Art & Architecture (4) 

BUS 2217. International Trade & Marketing (4) 

BUS 2237. International Trade & Marketing (4) 

BUS 2317. International Finance (4) 

BUS 2347. International Finance (4) 

BUS 5017. International Trade & Marketing (4) 

ENG 5007. Austrian Literature in Comp. Eur. (4) 

GER 1117. Elementary German (4) 

GER 2187. Intermediate German (4) 

GER 2707. Conversation & Composition (4) 

GER 2707. Intermediate German I (4) 

GER 2707. Theater in Vienna II (in German) (4) 

HST 1027. Hist, of Eastern Europe: 1918-Present (4) 

HST 5007. Hist, of Eastern Europe: 1918-Present (4) 

HST 5037. Vienna 1900: Le Fin de Siecle (4) 

HST 5047. Hist, of Eastern Europe: 1918-Present (4) 

HMN 2157. Austrian Lit. in a Compar. Eur. Perspec. (4) 

MUS 5007. Music in Performance (4) 

POL 5007. Internat. Law & Transnat. Corporations (4) 



Spring 


1991, 1990 


Fall 


1991, 1989 


Spring 


1992, 1990 


Fall 


1992, 1991, 1988 


Spring 


1991 


Spring 


1990 


Spring 


1992, 1988 


Spring 


1989 


Spring 


1992, 1989 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 


Spring 


1992 



Courses on Other Sites 



ASIA, PACIFIC RIM 



BUS 290. International Management Study Tour (4) Summer: 1992,1989 

(China, Japan, Hong Kong) 
EDU272B. Geography Study Tour (4) Summer: 1992,1989 



196 



EUROPE 



ACC 290. International Accounting (4) (Belgium, 
France, Germany, Switzerland, UK) 

ANT 383. Field Research in Cultural Anthropology 
384. (4,3; 4,3) (Highlands, Scotland) 

BUS 291 . International Marketing Field Study (4) 
(Belgium, France, England, Luxem- 
bourg, Switzerland, West Germany) 

EDU 272A. Geography Study Tour (4) 

ENG 32010. Medieval Mystery Rays (4) 

(Oxford, England) 
FRH 181 . Swiss French Civilization (4) 
FRH 185. Paris as Cultural Center of France (4) 
GER 160. German Language & Customs (4) 
HMN 32010. Medieval Women (2) (Oxford, England) 
MLS 484. The Oberammergau Passion Play 1990: 

A Study Tour (3) 
REL 218. Seminar in the Mediterranean World (4) 
RUS 242. Research on Language & Culture in the 

Soviet Union (2) (also HMN 242.) 



Summer: 1992 
Summer: 1990,1989 
Summer: 1990 



Summer: 1992,1991,1990, 
1989 

Summer: 1992 

Summer: 1990 

Summer: 1990,1989 

Summer: 1992,1990,1989 

Summer: 1992 

Summer: 1990 

Summer: 1990 

Spring: 1990,1989 



MIDDLE EAST 



REL 315. Field Research in Biblical Archeology 
316. (4,4) (Caesarea, Israel) 



Summer: 1992 



CARIBBEAN 



ANT 381A. Archeological Research (4,4) 
382A. (San Salvador, the Bahamas) 
ANT 384. Field Research in Cultural Anthropology 
(4,3) (Roatan Island, Honduras) 



Summer: 1992,1991,1990 
Summer: 1992,1991 




School of Business and Accountancy 

Dana J. Johnson, Dean 

C. Michael Thompson, Assistant Dean 

Hylton Professor of Accountancy Thomas C. Taylor 

Professors Umit Akinc, Eddie V. Easley, Stephen Ewing, 

Dale R. Martin, Ralph B. Tower 

Associate Professors S. Douglas Beets, Leon P. Cook Jr., A. Sayeste Daser, 

Aran P. Dewasthali, John S. Dunkelberg, Thomas S. Goho 

Assistant Professors P. Candace Deans, J. Kline Harrison, Paul E. Juras 

Lecturers Horace O. Kelly Jr., DeLeon E. Stokes, 

Olive S. Thomas, C. Michael Thompson 
Adjunct Instructors Helen Akinc, Emily G. Neese 

Mission 

The mission of the School of Business and Accountancy is to provide students with an 
excellent business and professional accounting education within the framework of the 
liberal arts tradition of Wake Forest University. The School's distinctiveness in the pursuit 
of this mission derives from the size, reputation, and location of the University; the 
primary emphasis upon undergraduate and professional education within a separate 
school; and business and accounting curriculums which stress knowledge and skills in the 
various functional areas of business blending with the extensive liberal arts curriculum of 
the University. 

In implementing this commitment to quality education, highly effective teaching is of 
paramount importance. Teaching is complemented by research which provides new 
perspectives to be shared by students and colleagues. 

The ultimate goal of the School is to graduate young men and women who are 
technically competent and who have the ability to assume managerial and leadership 
positions in business, government, and other organizations. 

Objectives 

The School of Business and Accountancy has four specific objectives: 

1. to offer sound academic programs in business leading to the bachelor of science 
degree and in professional accountancy leading to the master of science degree; 

2. to undertake on a continuous basis the professional development of its faculty; 

3. to serve the University community; and 

4. to maintain a productive association with the public, especially the business 
community. 

Currently, two four-year programs of study leading to the bachelor of science degree 
are offered. Students may choose a major in either business or accountancy and finance. 
A five-year program of study leading to a bachelor of science and a master of science 
degree with a major in professional accountancy also is offered. 



198 



The five-year program is an integrated BS/MS program in accountancy. Interested 
students will declare an accountancy major during their sophomore year and will apply 
to the master's program during their third year. Students will receive both the B.S. and the 
M.S. degrees upon completion of the program. The program is designed for the student 
seeking a career in public accounting and wishing to become a CPA. 

The first graduate courses will be offered in 1 995-96, and the first students will graduate 
with both degrees in May 1997. Students who entered Wake ForestUniversity as freshmen 
in the fall of 1992 will be the first class that will apply for admission to the master's program 
in the spring of 1995. 

Students who do not wish to pursue the master's degree and a career in public 
accounting will have theoption of the four-year baccalaureate program in accounting and 
finance. The four-year program will be designed to prepare students for accounting or 
finance positions in corporate or not-for-profit organizations. These positions do not 
require a CPA. 

Goals 

The primary goal of the business program is to provide a general study of business which 
will enable graduates to enter the business world with a breadth of understanding of 
relevant business problems and concepts. The general, as opposed to specialized, orien- 
tation of the major in business is appropriate for Wake Forest in light of both its strong 
liberal arts tradition and its small size. 

The primary goal of the accountancy/ finance program of study is to provide students 
with a thorough understanding of the accounting and finance functions of business, 
especially as they relate to one another, preparing the students for accounting and finance 
careers in the corporate and not-for-profit sectors of the economy. 

The major goal of the five-year professional accountancy program is to give students a 
thorough understanding of the practice of professional accounting and of the theoretical 
framework which supports the practice of professional accounting. Students study the 
basic functional areas of business as a means of understanding how accounting relates to 
theseareas. Skills necessary to address ill -defined and/or unstructured practice problems 
are developed in a series of case-based research and analysis courses. In addition, 
opportunities exist within the program of study to enhance awareness of practice issues 
on both a domestic and international level through a professional internship program and 
an international study tour program. 

Both the business and accountancy programs are accredited by the American Assembly 
of Collegiate Schools of Business. 

Admission 

Admission to the School is by formal application, and applicants will be screened by the 
Committee on Admission and Continuation of the School of Business and Accountancy. 
Before being considered for admission to the School, the applicant first must have been 
admitted to Wake Forest College. Minimum requirements for admission to the School of 
Business and Accountancy a re completion of sixty-five credits with an overall grade-point 
average of 2.2, completion of Economics 150, Mathematics 108 or 1 1 1, Accounting 1 1 1 and 



199 



112, and a 2.0 average in these four courses. In addition, students should have completed 
Business 100 and Speech 110. Students who have not met fully the above requirements 
may request a one-semester provisional acceptance. 

The number of students who can be accommodated is limited. Meeting the minimum 
requirements is not a guarantee of admission. Therefore, the School reserves the right to 
grant or deny admission or readmission to any student even though he or she meets the 
minimum requirements. Readmission to the School of Business and Accountancy first 
requires readmission to Wake Forest College, requirements for which are discussed on 
page 28. 

Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 

It is expected that most work toward degrees offered by the School of Business and 
Accountancy will be taken in the School. For students wishing to transfer credit from other 
schools, the following general guidelines apply: 

(a) Courses at another school passed with the minimum passing grade at that school 
may not be transferred. 

(b) Courses transferred in business and accountancy may be subject to validating 
examinations. 

(c) No work in courses numbered 200 and above will be accepted from two-year 
schools. 

(d) Courses taken elsewhere in subjects not offered at the School of Business and 
Accountancy will not count necessarily towards the credits required in the School 
of Business and Accountancy. 

For the BS in business, a minimum of forty credits must be earned in the School of 
Business and Accountancy at Wake Forest University; for the BS in accountancy, the 
minimum credits earned in this school must total fifty-two. 

Requirements for Continuation 

In addition to the requirements stated on pages 27-28, a student must be academically 
responsible and must show satisfactory progress towards completing the requirements 
for the degree. The administration of the School of Business and Accountancy will notify 
the student if satisfactory progress is not being made and, after consultation with the 
Admission and Continuation Committee, will decide if the student may continue as a 
major in this school. 

Requirements for Graduation 

The School of Business and Accountancy confers the bachelor of science degree with 
majors in business and in the combined study of accountancy and finance. The School also 
confers the master of science degree in accountancy. For the major in business, a student 
must complete the following course work: Accounting 111 and 112; Business 100, 201, 203, 
211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 252, 261, and 271; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; Speech 



200 



110; and a minimum of twelve credits from Business 21 2, 213, 215, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 
232, 233, 234, 237, 242, 253, 254, 270, 290, 291, 292 or accounting courses numbered 200 or 
above. One elective may be taken from economics courses numbered 200 or above. 

The accounting and finance major will require the following courses: Accounting 111, 
112, 211, 212, 253, 254, 270, 280, and 352; Business 100, 201, 211, 221, 231, 232, 233, 234, 237, 
241, 251, 261, and 271; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; and Speech 110. 

For the combined bachelor of science/master of science degree in accountancy, the 
following course work must be completed: Accounting 111, 112, 211, 212, 253, 254, 261, 
271, 272, 273, 352, and 420; Business 100, 201, 211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, and 271; 
Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; and Speech 110. Additional graduate accounting 
courses will be available when the first graduate students are admitted in the Spring 1995, 
which will enable the students to choose from one of two concentrations for further study. 
The first will emphasize auditing and financial accounting in preparation for careers in 
auditing or management consulting. The second would concentrate on tax issues pursu- 
ant to careers in tax compliance and tax planning. 

In addition to the courses stipulated above, the student in business and accountancy 
also must meet the following requirements for graduation: 

(a) a minimum of 144 credits for the four-year programs and 178 credits for the five- 
year program, including the basic and divisional requirements established by 
Wake Forest College; 

(b) a minimum grade-point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at Wake Forest; 

(c) a minimum grade-point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at other institu- 
tions; and 

(d) an overall 2.0 grade-point average on all business and accountancy courses, 
exclusive of courses repeated with a C grade or better. 

Senior Honors Program 

Students with a grade-point average of at least 3.0 on all college work and 3.3 on all work 
in business and accountancy are invited to apply for admission to the honors program in 
business and accountancy. A project, paper, or readings, and an oral examination are 
required. Those who successfully complete the requirements specified by the School are 
graduated with the designation "Honors in Business" or "Honors in Accountancy." For 
additional information, interested students should consult a member of the faculty of the 
School of Business and Accountancy. 

Beta Gamma Sigma, National Honor Society 

Membership in Beta Gamma Sigma is the highest national recognition a student can 
receive in an undergraduate program in accounting or business. To be eligible for 
membership, a student must rank in the upper 7 percent of the junior class or the upper 
10 percent of the senior class. 



201 



Courses of Instruction 

Business 

100. Introduction to Computers and Business Applications. (2) Fundamentals of 
computers, related peripheral technologies and basic telecommunications concepts. 
Knowledge and basic skills of business software applications including the operating 
system and windows, spreadsheets, business presentation graphics, and databases. 
Students demonstrating proficiency in these skills may test out of this course. C — 
Accounting 111 or P — Accounting 111. 

201. Business Statistics. (4) Techniquesof analysis of numerical data, including descriptive 
statistics, probability theory, sampling theory, statistical inference, chi-square analysis, 
analysis of variance, and regression and correlation analysis. P — Business 100. 

203. Quantitative Applications. (4) This course emphasizes the understanding and 
application of quantitative tools for managerial decision-making. Specific tools covered 
include linear programming, transportation, assignment problems, decision analysis, 
program evaluation and review technique, Markov analysis, and queuing models. P — 
Business 201 . 

211. Organizational Theory and Behavior. (4) This course focuses on the behavior, 
structure, and processes within organizations . Emphasis is on developing knowledge and 
skills regarding the role of individuals and groups within organizations, as well as the 
functions of organizational systems and dynamics. 

212. Human Resource Management. (4) The application of concepts from Business 211 
to human resource problems faced by general managers and their organizations. Activities 
include class discussions, case analyses, and projects. P — Business 211. 

213. Entrepreneurship. (4) The course is designed to acquaint the student with the scope, 
current trends and elements of entrepreneurship. Students will study new business 
opportunities and will design a business plan for a new business start-up concept. Topics 
covered will include the entrepreneurship environment including entrepreneurial 
personalities, assessing new ventures including financial planning, sources of capital, 
managing entrepreneurial growth, marketing and marketing research, and legal issues of 
entrepreneurship. P — Business 211, 221, and 231. 

215. International and Comparative Management. (2,4) This course deals with the global 
issues in management. Particular emphasis is placed on the different management 
philosophies and styles employed by managers in an international context. The course 
focuses on the complexities involved in operating in different cultures and the implications 
which these cultural differences have on managing organizations and their employees' 
behavior. P — Business 211. 

221. Principles of Marketing. (4) A study of the role of marketing in business and the 
economy. Emphasis is on the examination of marketing concepts, functions, institutions, 
and methods. P — Economics 150 and Business 100. 



202 



222. Marketing Strategy. (4) Managerial techniques in planning and executing marketing 
programs in business and nonbusiness organizations. Emphasis ison the group experience 
in decision-making related to market segmentation, product innovation and positioning, 
channels of distribution, pricing, and promotion. Extensive use of cases, readings, and 
team presentations. P — Business 201 and 221. 

223. International Marketing. (4) Study of problems and opportunities in marketing 
overseas, analysis of cultural, economic, and political environment of foreign marketing 
operations, organization, and control of the multinational company. P — Business 221 and 
senior standing. 

224. Marketing Research. (4) Introduction to fundamentals of research methodology and 
use of research information in marketing decision-making. Topics include research 
design, data collection methods, scaling, sampling, and alternate methods of statistical 
data analysis. Students design and execute their own research projects. P — Business 201 
and 221. 

225. Consumer Behavior. (4) Study of interdisciplinary behavioral science findings in 
buying decision processes and application of this knowledge to the design of marketing 
strategies and to the development of creative communication programs. P — Business 221 . 

226. Retail Management. (4) This course is designed to acquaint the student with the 
scope, current trends and elements of retail management. Topics covered will include 
market structure of retailing, consumer behavior and retail strategy, changing retail 
institution types, merchandising strategies, basic financial tools essential to retail 
profitability and current research in retailing. P — Business 221. 

231. Principles of Finance. (4) An introduction to the field of finance including financial 
management, investment analysis, and financial institutions and markets. Emphasis is 
placed on financial management at the level of thebusiness entity ornonprofitorganization. 
P — Business 100, Accounting 112 and Economics 150. 

232. Advanced Financial Management. (4) Management decision-making applied to the 
financial function, including investment, financing, dividend, and working capital decisions 
and their impact on the value of the firm. P — Business 231 . 

233. Investment Analysis. (4) Study of investment alternatives, expected returns, and 
corresponding risks; valuation of stocks and bonds applying both fundamental and 
technical analysis; survey of past and current methods of stock selection techniques, 
including portfolio considerations. P — Business 231 . 

234. Multinational Financial Management. (4) Analysis of the international aspects of 
managerial finance. Emphasis upon institutional and environmental factors influencing 
capital acquisition and allocation. P — Business 231 . 

237. Taxes and Their Role in Business and Personal Decisions. (4) A review of tine basic 
principles of income, property, sales, and payroll-related taxes and an examination of their 
impact on business and personal decisions. Introduction to tax return preparation and tax 
planning techniques. Not open to accounting majors; credit not granted for both Business 
237 and Accounting 271 . P — Accounting 112. 



203 



241. Production and Operations Management. (4) A study of the problems of the 
operations function in organizations, their interfaces with other functional areas, and the 
methods of their solutions. Topics include process selection, forecasting, aggregate 
planning, job shop scheduling, project management, MRP inventory management, 
facilities location and design, quality planning and control. P — Business 201 . 

242. International Operations Management. (2) This course represents a relatively new 
dimension in the field of production and operations management. It is intended to 
introduce the student to the international aspects of managing manufacturing service 
operations drawing on relatively modest amount of literature — books, articles, and cases 
that have recently accumulated. The following topics will be covered: international 
exchange rates, international logistics, international facility location decisions, international 
sourcing, joint manufacturing ventures and their strategic implications and performance 
analysis of multinational production systems. P — Business 241 . 

251. Management Information Systems. (2) An introduction to the design, development 
and implementation of information systems to support the decision making processes 
and functions of the organization. An overview of management support systems and 
organizational impacts will be incorporated. The course is taught from a manager/ user 
perspective. P — Business 100. 

252. Management of Information Technology. (2) A study of information technology (IT) 
trends and relevant managerial issues. Telecommunications and network management 
issues relevant to the development of an IT infra structure will be incorporated . Information 
technology planning, implementation of IT control struc-tures and development of an IT 
strategy will be included. P — Business 100 and 251 . 

253. Advanced Topics in Information Technology. (2) An in-depth coverage of selected 
information technology topics including network management, database management 
and management of expert systems technology. Students will gain hands-on experience 
with business applications development including the development of a simple expert 
system. P— Business 100, 251, and 252. 

254. Global Information Systems Issues. (2) The course will focus on managerial and 
technological information systems issues from a global perspective. The role of information 
technology in a changing international business environment and the relevant cultural, 
political, legal, and economic implications for the multinational IS manager will be 
incorporated. P— Business 100, 251, and 252. 

261. Legal Environment of Business. (4) A study of the legal environment in which 
business decisions are made in profit and nonprofit organizations. Emphasis is put upon 
how the law develops and how economic, political, social, international, and ethical 
considerations influence this development. Includes substantive areas such as torts and 
government regulation of the employment relationship, the competitive marketplace and 
the environment. P — Accounting 111. 

270. Business Law. (4) A study of substantivelaw topics applicable to business transactions 
including property (personal, real, and intellectual), contracts /UCC sales, agency and 
business organizations. P — Business 261 . 



204 



271. Business Policy. (4) A study of strategic planning and implementation in business 
policy formulation . Empha sis is placed on ca se study analysis of domestic and interna tional 
business situa tions . Methods of solution include basic principles of strategic planning and 
the use of computer simulations. P — Business 211, 221, 231, and 241. 

275. Business Law for Accountants. (2) Continued study of law applicable to business 
transactions with emphasis on areas with auditing and accounting implications. P — 
Business 261, C — Business 270. 

281. Individualized Reading and Research. (2,3, or 4) Directed study in specialized areas 
of business. P — Permission of instructor. 

290. International Management Study Tour. (4) An experiential learning course which 
provides students an opportunity to learn about management decisions and practices in 
selected Pacific Rim countries. A guided tour of manufacturing plants and home offices 
of foreign companies and American companies with branches located in the Far East. 
Background readings and assignments are required prior to the trip, and a subsequent 
paper (including library research) analyzing a topic from the tour also is expected. P — 
Business 211 and permission of instructor. Offered in the summer. 

291. International Marketing Field Study. (4) An experiential learning journey to a 
foreign setting to conduct an in-depth study of marketing functions and practices. A 
guided tour of plants and offices of local and multinational companies will be provided 
in the selected foreign countries. Background readings and research are required prior to 
the class trip. An investigation designed by the student is carried out during the trip and 
an evaluative paper follows. P — Business 221 and permission of instructor. Offered in the 
summer. 

292. International Finance Study Tour. (4) An experiential learning course which 
provides students with an opportunity to learn about international financial institutions, 
policies, and practices in overseas financial centers. The students will visit international 
banks, as well as the multinational manufacturing firms with global financial operations. 
Background readings and assignments are required prior to the trip, and a subsequent 
paper (including library research) analyzing a topic from the tour will also be required. 
P — Business 231 and permission of the instructor. Offered in the summer. 

295. Summer Management Program. (8) A study of the various functions of business 
including accounting, finance, information systems, management, marketing, produc- 
tion, and strategic planning. Offered only in the summer and open only to junior and 
senior liberal arts majors. Special application and admission procedures. 

Accountancy 

110. Introduction to Financial and Managerial Accounting. (4) Basic accounting concepts 
and procedures used in the preparation of financial reports issued to stockholders, 
creditors, and managers of business enterprises. Open only to juniors and seniors not 
majoring in business or accountancy. Cannot be substituted for Accounting 111. 



205 



111. Accounting Principles I. (4) The basic accounting process and underlying principles 
pertaining to the preparation and interpretation of published financial statements. 

•lfinhnmnrp stanHintr 



Sophomore standing 



112. Accounting Principles II. (4) A study of the concepts fundamental to management 
accounting which aid in decision making, performance evaluation, and planning and 
control. The topics covered in the course include product costing systems, budgeting, 
differential and breakeven analysis, responsibility accounting, cost allocation, and 
management accounting reports. P — Minimum of C in Accounting 111. 

211. Intermediate Accounting I. (4) A detailed analysis of theory and related problems for 
typical accounts in published financial statements. P — Business 100 and minimum of C in 
Accounting 112. 

212. Intermediate Accounting II. (4) A continuation of Accounting 211. P — Minimum of 
C in Accounting 211. 

252. Management Accounting. (4) Advanced study of management accounting, including 
budgeting, product-costing, cost allocation, standard costs, transfer-pricing, differential 
analysis, cost-behavior analysis, and emerging issues. P — Business 100 and minimum of 
C in Accounting 112. 

253. Accounting Information Systems. (2) A study of the design and operation of 
accounting systems relating to the functions of purchasing, production, sales, and cash 
management. Emphasis is placed upon the necessary controls for reliable data. P — 
Business 100 and 251, Accounting 252. 

254. Accounting in the Not-f or-Prof it Sector. (2) A study of the accounting practices and 
financial reporting standards of governmental and not-for-profit organizations. P — 
Accounting 211. 

261. Advanced Accounting Problems. (4) A study of the concepts and theories of 
accounting for business combinations, consolidated financial statements, international 
transactions and holdings, and partnerships. Interim and segment reporting are also 
examined. P — Minimum of C in Accounting 212. 

270. Internal and Operational Auditing. (2) A survey of basic internal and operational 
auditing concepts, procedures, and practices. P — Accounting 21 2. (To be offered in connection 
with the five-year program.) 

271. Income Tax Accounting I. (4) A survey of basic income tax concepts associated with 
individuals, partnerships, corporations, estates, and trusts. Introduction to tax research 
and planning. P — Minimum of C in Accounting 212. 

272. Income Tax Accounting II. (2) A survey of basic income tax concepts associated with 
corporations; review of current changes in the federal income tax law. P — Accounting 271 . 

273. Auditing. (4) Examination of basic auditing concepts and relationships, and the 
auditor's reporting and professional responsibilities. Study of auditing procedures 
commonly used in public accounting and internal auditing. P — Accounting 212 and 253. 



206 



275. CPA Review- Accounting Practice and Theory. (4) An intensive study of CPA-type 
problems found on the accounting practice and accounting theory sections of the CPA 
exam. P — Accounting 252 and 261. 

278. Individualized Reading and Research. (2,3, or 4) Directed study in specialized areas 
of accountancy. P — Permission of instructor. 

280. Contemporary Issues in Accounting and Finance. (2) This course focuses on the role 
of management in the formulation of financial reporting policies and practices with an 
emphasis on the impact of these policies and practices on financial reports, decisions, and 
markets. Contemporary accounting and finance topics such as earnings management, 
lease capitalization, cash flow vs. earnings reporting, foreign currency translation, debt 
extinguishment, oil and gas accounting, among other issues, are analyzed in the course. 

290. International Accounting. (4) An experiential learning course that provides students 
with an opportunity to learn about international and transnational accounting standards, 
policies, and practices. Students will participate in a study tour of several selected 
countries and will gain an international accounting and business perspective through 
meetings with individuals in government, professional accounting firms, financial 
institutions, and manufacturing companies. Background readings and assignments are 
required prior to the tour, and a paper analyzing an issue related to the tour must be 
completed after the tour. P — Accounting 211 and permission of the instructor. Offered in 
the summer. 

352. Advanced Managerial Accounting. (4) Advanced study of management accounting 
topics including strategic and operational decisions, behavioral issues related to budgeting, 
transfer pricing, performance measurement, and contemporary issues in accounting for 
management planning and control. P — Business 241, minimum of C in Accounting 112. 

390. Professional Accounting Internship. (4) Professional accounting field work, under 
thedirection of a faculty member, in a public accounting firm, corporate enterprise, ornot- 
for-profit organization. Students gain relevant practical experience which builds on prior 
course work and provides an experiential knowledge base for course work in the fifth 
year. P — Accounting 211 and permission of the instructor. (To be offered in connection with 
the five-year program.) 

420. Financial Accounting Research and Analysis. (4) An examination of contemporary 
financial accounting and reporting issues using a case approach. Students are introduced 
to available research tools and databases, examine and analyzea number of cases, prepare 
written reports, and make oral presentations. Research and analysis is conducted 
individually and in small groups. P — Permission of the instructor. (To be offered in 
connection with the five-year program.) 



Enrollment 




All Schools— Fall 1992 



Men 



Women 



Total 



Undergraduate Schools 

The Graduate School (Reynolda Campus) 

The Graduate School (Hawthorne Campus) 

The School of Law 

Babcock Graduate School of Management 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine 

University Totals 



,876 


1,748 


3,624 


154 


190 


344 


60 


63 


123 


275 


198 


473 


362 


145 


507 


323 


230 


553 



3,050 



2,574 



5,624 







By State (1992-93 Session) 






Alabama 


30 


Kentucky 


40 


Ohio 


91 


Alaska 


1 


Louisiana 


17 


Oklahoma 


9 


Arizona 


6 


Maine 


14 


Oregon 


3 


Arkansas 


6 


Maryland 


179 


Pennsylvania 


135 


California 


25 


Massachusetts 


67 


Rhode Island 


9 


Colorado 


11 


Michigan 


17 


South Carolina 


163 


Connecticut 


72 


Minnesota 


11 


South Dakota 


2 


Delaware 


34 


Mississippi 


20 


Tennessee 


100 


District of Columbia 


9 


Missouri 


30 


Texas 


54 


Florida 


214 


Montana 


4 


Utah 


2 


Georgia 


276 


Nebraska 


6 


Vermont 


9 


Hawaii 


2 


New Hampshire 


12 


Virginia 


223 


Illinois 


45 


New Jersey 


185 


Washington 


2 


Indiana 


16 


New York 


143 


West Virginia 


61 


Iowa 


3 


North Carolina 


1,189 


Wisconsin 


9 


Kansas 


8 


North Dakota 


2 


Wyoming 


1 



By Country (1992-93 Session) 



Argentina 


1 


Germany 


2 


Netherlands 


5 


Australia 


1 


Ghana 


1 


Paraguay 


1 


Bolivia 


1 


Greece 


1 


Peru 


1 


Brazil 


3 


Iceland 


1 


Philippines 


1 


Bulgaria 


1 


India 


1 


Saudi Arabia 


1 


British Virgin Islands 


1 


Italy 


1 


South Africa 


1 


Canada 


8 


Jamaica 


2 


Spain 


6 


China 


1 


Japan 


2 


United Kingdom 


9 


France 


2 


Kuwait 


1 


U.S. Virgin Islands 


1 




Governing and Advisory Boards 



The Board of Trustees 



1990-1994 



Wayne Calloway, Greenwich, CT 
C. C. Hope Jr., Charlotte* 
James B. Hunt Jr., Raleigh 
James E. Johnson Jr., Charlotte 
Russell W. Meyer Jr., Wichita, KS 



Barbara B. Millhouse, Winston-Salem 

Michael G. Queen, Wilmington 

Zachary T. Smith, Winston-Salem 

Lonnie B. Williams, Wilmington 

J. Tylee Wilson, Jacksonville, FL 

G. Todd Turner, Winston-Salem (student) 



1991-1995 



Murray C. Greason Jr., Winston-Salem 
Deborah S. Harris, Charlotte 
Harvey R. Holding, Atlanta, GA 
Lawrence D. Hopkins, Winston-Salem 
James W. Johnston, Winston-Salem 



Petro Kulynych, Wilkesboro 
John G. Medlin Jr., Winston-Salem 
Frances P. Pugh, Raleigh 
William B. Sansom, Knoxville, TN 
K. Wayne Smith, Dublin, OH 



1992-1996 



Clifton L. Benson Jr., Raleigh 
Jean H. Gaskin, Charlotte 
Joseph C. Hough Jr., Nashville, TN 
Hubert B. Humphrey Jr., Greensboro 



Albert R. Hunt, Washington, D.C. 
Joseph W. Luter III, Smithfield, VA 
Adelaide A. Sink, Tampa, FL 
J. Lanny Wadkins Jr., Dallas, TX 
Kyle A. Young, Greensboro 



1993-1997 



Herbert Brenner, Winston-Salem 
Ronald E. Deal, Hickory 
J. William Disher, Charlotte 
Dee Hughes LeRoy, Charleston, SC 
L. Glenn Orr, Lumberton 



Arnold D. Palmer, Orlando, FL 
Bob D. Shepherd, Morganton 
R. Jay Sigel, Berwyn, PA 
Charlotte C. Weber, New York, NY 
John C. Whitaker Jr., Winston-Salem 



Life Trustees 



Bert L. Bennett, Winston-Salem 
Henry L. Bridges, Raleigh 
Albert L. Butler Jr., Winston-Salem 
C. C. Cameron, Charlotte 
Charles W. Cheek, Greensboro 
Egbert L. Davis Jr., Winston-Salem 
Thomas H. Davis, Winston-Salem 
Hoyd Fletcher, Durham 
John C. Hamrick Sr., Shelby 

* Died on March 1, 1993 
** Died on March 7, 1993 



Weston P. Hatfield, Winston-Salem 

J. Samuel Holbrook, Southern Pines 

Lex Marsh, Charlotte 

James W. Mason, Laurinburg 

W. Boyd Owen, Waynesville 

George W. Paschal Jr., Raleigh 

J. Robert Philpott, Lexington 

Samuel C. Tatum, Greensboro** 

T. Eugene Worrell, Charlottesville, VA 

J. Smith Young, Lexington 



209 



Officers 
(For one-year terms beginning January 1, 1993) 

Wayne Calloway, Greenwich, CT, Chair 

John G. Medlin Jr., Vice-Chair 

Leon H. Corbett Jr., Winston-Salem, Secretary 

John G. Williard, Winston-Salem, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

Carlos O. Holder, Clemmons, Assistant Treasurer 



The Board of Visitors 

Bruce M. Babcock, Winston-Salem, N. C. 
Chair, College Board of Visitors 

Wake Forest College and Graduate School 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1993 

James S. Boshart m, New York, NY Henry D. Clarke Jr., Vero Beach, FL 

Germaine Bree, Winston-Salem Roberta W. Irvin, Winston-Salem 

Janet H. Brown, Washington, DC Thomas W. Lambeth, Winston-Salem 

F. Hudnall Christopher Jr., Gillian Lindt, New York, NY 



Winston-Salem 



Terms Expiring December 31, 1994 



Joyce B. Baldwin, Durham Frank S. Ioppolo, Orlando, FL 

Robert H. Demsey, Rancho Sante Fe, CA Joanne Kemp, Bethesda, MD 

David H. Diamont, Pilot Mountain Caroline L. Lattimore, Durham 

Frank H. Dunn Jr., Charlotte Dottie Martin, Charlotte 

Evelyn P. Foote, Accokeek, MD A. C. Moore, Santa Barbara, CA 

John D. Graham, Norfolk, MA L. Richardson Preyer, Greensboro 

J. Howard Stanback, Hartford, CT 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1995 

Bruce M. Babcock, Winston-Salem E. Michael Howlette, Richmond, VA 

B. Macon Brewer Jr., New York, NY Suzanne Jowdy Jabbour, Winston-Salem 

John W. Chandler, Washington, DC James T. Lambie, Winston-Salem 

Callie Anne Clark, Hinsdale, IL Douglas R. Lewis, Winston-Salem 

Laura M. Elliott, Washington, DC William L. Marks, New Orleans, LA 

Kathleen B. French, Annandale, VA Martin Mayer, New York, NY 

Charles U. Harris, Delaplane, VA Stephen L. Neal, Washington, DC 

Jonathan H. Witherspoon, Winston-Salem 



210 



Teims Expiring December 31, 1996 



L. M. Baker Jr., Winston-Salem 

Thomas M. Belk, Charlotte 

William E. Bierlin Jr., Jenkintown, PA 

Sylva Billue, Linden, TX 

Clifford H. Clarke, Redwood Shores, CA 

Sophia S. Cody, Winston-Salem 

Mark A. Crabtree, Martinsville, VA 

Noel L. Dunn, Winston-Salem 

Gary L. Eckenroth, Winston-Salem 

Elaine El-Khawas, Washington, DC 

Stanley Frank, Greensboro 



Lucy Gordon, New York, NY 
Thomas C. Griscom, Winston-Salem 
O. Bruce Gupton, Stamford, CT 
James R. Helvey ID, Frankfurt, Germany 
Judy Kessler, Los Angeles, CA 
James A. Martin Jr., Winston-Salem 
Robert J. McCreary, Newton 
Bonnie McElveen-Hunter, Greensboro 
Penelope Niven, Winston-Salem 
Howard A. Rollins Jr., Atlanta, GA 
Elizabeth P. Valk-Long, New York, NY 



Ex Officio Member 

W. Louis Bissette Jr., President, Alumni Council, Asheville, N. C. 



Advisory Council 

School of Business and Accountancy 



Thomas R. Adams, Winston-Salem 
Nancy Alderman, New York, NY 
Gayle Anderson, Winston-Salem 
Ren L. Babcock, Raleigh 
J. Paul Breitbach, Winston-Salem 
Victor N. Daley, Charlotte 
W. Chester Evans HI, Greensboro 
James A. Ferency, New York, NY 
Jeffrey W. Frisby, Clemmons 
Kathryn W. Garner, Winston-Salem 
J. W. Goodhew DL Norcross, GA 
Emma Graham, Winston-Salem 
H. Wade Gresham Jr., Durham 
Dennis Hatchell, Winston-Salem 
John A. Howard, Raleigh 
Patrick G. Jones, Atlanta, GA 



Ronald A. Joyce, Winston -Salem 

John M. Kane, Raleigh 

John Keener, Greensboro 

Deborah Lambert, Washington, DC 

Timothy A. Lambeth, Shawnee Mission, KS 

William E. Latta, Morrisville 

C A. Michael TH, Winston-Salem 

William C. O'Neil Jr., Nashville, TN 

Jack Powell, Reston, VA 

Scott Richardson, Winston-Salem 

Ernest J. Sewell, Winston-Salem 

Porter B. Thompson, Greensboro 

Robert S. Vaughan, Charlotte 

Mike Wathen, Charlotte 

William J. Wieners, Winston-Salem 

Jackson D. Wilson Jr., Winston-Salem 



The Administration 




Date following name indicates year of appointment 



University 

Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (1983) 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt 

John P. Anderson (1984) 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Tech.; 
MBA, Alabama (Birmingham) 

Russell E. Armistead Jr. (1976) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; 
MBA, Wake Forest 

Sandra Combs Boyette (1981) 

BA, UNC-Charlotte; MEd, Converse 

David G. Brown (1990) 

BA, Denison; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Leon H. Corbett Jr. (1968) 
BA, JD, Wake Forest 

Richard Janeway (1966) 

BA, Colgate; MD, Pennsylvania 

G. William Joyner Jr. (1969) 
BA, Wake Forest 

John G. Williard (1958) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Edwin Graves Wilson (1946) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Kenneth A. Zick (1975) 

BA, Albion; JD, Wayne State; 
MLS, Michigan 

Laura Christian Ford (1984) 

BA, Wake Forest; EdM, JD, Virginia; 
AM, PhD, Princeton 

Samuel T. Gladding (1990) 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest; 

MAR, Yale; PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

College 

Thomas E. Mullen (1957) 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 

Toby A. Hale (1970) 

BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Duke; EdD, Indiana 



President 



Vice President for 
Administration and Planning 



Vice President for 
Health Services Administration 



Vice President for Public Affairs 

Provost 

Vice President and Counsel 



Executive Vice President for Health Affairs 
of Wake Forest University 

Vice President for University Relations 

Vice President for Financial 
Resource Management and Treasurer 

Vice President for Special Projects 



Vice President for Student Life and 
Instructional Resources 



Associate Provost 



Assistant to the President 
for Special Projects 



Dean of the College 
Associate Dean 



212 



William S. Hamilton (1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) 
BA, Winston-Salem State; 
MA, Wake Forest 

W. Douglas Bland (1975) 
BA, MA, Wake Forest 

Graduate School 



Associate Dean 



Associate Dean 



Director of Academic Services and 
Assistant to the Dean of the College 



Gordon A. Melson (1991) 

BS, PhD, Sheffield (England) 

Nancy Cotton (1977) 

BA, Texas; MA, Wisconsin; PhD, Columbia 

School of Law 



Dean of the Graduate School 

Director of Master of Arts in Liberal 
Studies (MALS) Program 



Robert K. Walsh (1989) 

BA, Providence; JD, Harvard 

H. Miles FoyOI (1984) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Harvard; 
JD, Virginia 

James Taylor Jr. (1983) 

BA, JD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Carol B. Anderson (1985) 
BA,JD,Duke 

Carrie C.Bullock (1987) 
BA, Wake Forest 

James C. Cook (1992) 

BS, South Carolina; JD, Wake Forest 

Rachel L.Hilbun (1984) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Jean K. Holmes (1985) 

Jean K. Hooks (1970) 

Sally A. Irvin (1984) 

BA, JD, Stetson; MA, 

South Carolina; MLS, South Florida 

LeAnn P. Joyce (1977) 
BMu, Salem 

Linda J. Michalski (1983) 
BS, UNC-Greensboro 

MelanieE.Nutt(1969) 



Dean of the School of Law 
Associate Dean, Academic Affairs 

Associate Dean, External Affairs, 
and Director of Clinical Programs 

Associate Director of Clinical Programs 

Director of Placement 

Director of Continuing Legal Education 

Assistant Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

Activities Coordinator 

Director of Computer Services and Administration 

Associate Director of Computer Services 

Registrar 

Director of Professional and Public Relations 

Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 



213 



Deborah Leonard Parker (1984) 
BA, MA, UNC-Greensboro; 
JD, Wake Forest 

Ronald M.Price (1989) 

AB, Guilford; JD, Wake Forest 



Director of Legal Research and Writing 



Assistant Director of Continuing Legal Education 



Babcock Graduate School of Management .. 

John B. McKinnon (1989) 

AB, Duke; MBA, Harvard 

James M. Clapper (1975) 

BS, MS, Rensselaer Poly. Inst.; 
PhD, Massachusetts (Amherst) 

James G. Ptaszynski (1984) 

BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill; MS, Shippensburg 

Thomas M. Brinkley (1991) 

BA, MAT, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
MBA, Wake Forest 



Dean of the Babcock Graduate School 
of Management 



Associate Dean 



Associate Dean 



Director of Executive Education 



Barry L. Dumbro (1992) 

BS, Vermont; MBA, Wake Forest 



Patricia B. Lowder (1988) 
BS, Virginia 

C. Michael LoPiano (1991) 

BBA, George Washington; MBA, Wake Forest 



Director of Information Services 
Director of External Relations and Publications 



Director of Admissions 
and Financial Aid 



Coleen J. Sullivan (1988) 

BA, Denison; MS, Indiana 

Bowman Gray School of Medicine . 

Richard Janeway (1966) 

BA, Colgate; MD, Pennsylvania 

Russell E. Armistead Jr. (1976) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; 
MBA, Wake Forest 

James N. Thompson (1979) 

BA, DePauw; MD, Ohio State 

Eugene W. Adcock III (1989) 

BS, Davidson; MD, Wake Forest 

John D.Tolmie (1970) 

BA, Hobart; MD, McGill 

William C.Park Jr. (1973) 

BS, The Citadel; MBA, Wake Forest 

B.Hofler Milam (1981) 
BS, Wake Forest 



Director of Career Planning and Placement 



Executive Vice President for Health Affairs 
of Wake Forest University and Executive Dean 

Vice President for Health Services Administration 
and Associate Dean for Administrative Services 

Associate Dean 



Associate Dean for Professional Affairs 

Associate Dean for Academic Affairs 

Assistant Dean for Clinical Services 

Assistant Dean for Planning and 
Resource Management 



214 



J.KiffinPenry(1979) 

BS, MD, Wake Forest 

Lawrence D. Smith (1983) 
BS, MS, Illinois 

Patricia L. Adams (1979) 

BA, Duke; MD, Wake Forest 

Michael R. Lawless (1974) 
BA, Texas (Austin); MD, 
Texas Medical Branch (Galveston) 

Lewis H. Nelson m (1976) 

BS, North Carolina State; 
MD, Wake Forest 

James C. Leist (1974) 

BS, Southeastern Missouri State; 
MS, EdD, Indiana 

Paul M.LoRusso (1987) 

BS, Syracuse; MBA, Florida State 

J. Dennis Hoban (1978) 

BA, Villanova; MS, EdD, Indiana 

David P. Friedman (1990) 

BS, Pittsburgh; MS, PhD, New York 
Medical College 

Julie M.Watson (1991) 

BA, Coe; MA, Johns Hopkins 

Velma G. Watts (1983) 

BS, MA, North Carolina A&T; 
MEd, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Duke 

Michael D. Sprinkle (1972) 

BA, MSLS, UNC-Chapel Hill 

School of Business and Accountancy 

Dana J. Johnson (1992) 

BBA, MA, DBA, Kent State 

C. Michael Thompson (1990) 
BA, JD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



John S. Dunkelberg (1983) 

BS, Clemson; MBA, PhD, South Carolina 

Dale R. Martin (1982) 

BS, MS, Illinois State; DBA, Kentucky 



Senior Associate Dean for Research Development 

Associate Dean for Research Development 

Associate Dean for Student Affairs 

Deputy Associate Dean for Student Affairs 

Associate Dean for Admissions 

Associate Dean for Continuing Education 

Associate Dean for Information Services 



Director of the Office of Educational 
Research and Services 

Assistant Dean for Basic Science 
Research Development 



Assistant Dean for Research Administration 
Director of Minority Affairs 

Executive Director, Coy C. Carpenter Library 

Dean oftfie School of Business and Accountancy 

Assistant Dean 
Coordinator of Business Program 
Coordinator of Accountancy Program 



215 



Summer Session 



Lula M. Leake (1964) 

BS, Louisiana State; 

MRE, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Planning and Administration 



Dean of the Summer Session 



John P. Anderson (1984) 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Tech.; 
MBA, Alabama (Birmingham) 

Ross A. Griffith (1966) 

BS, Wake Forest; MEd, UNC-Greensboro 

Larry RHenson (1981) 

BA, Berea; MS, Missouri (Rolla); 
MBA, Wake Forest 

Lula M. Leake (1964) 

BS, Louisiana State; 

MRE, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

James L.Ferrell (1975) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 

MS, Virginia Commonwealth 

Robin Roy Ganzert (1988) 
BS, MBA, Wake Forest 

Thomas P. Gilsenan (1985) 
BS, California (Berkeley) 

W.DeraldHagen(1978) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

Carlos O. Holder (1969) 

BBA, MBA, Wake Forest 

James W. Kausch (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Margaret R. Perry (1947) 
BS, South Carolina 

C Monroe Whitt (1986) 
MBA, Wake Forest 

Legal Department 

Leon H. Corbett Jr. (1968) 
BA, JD, Wake Forest 

J. Reid Morgan (1980) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest 

Donna H. Hamilton (1988) 

AB, Drury; JD, Wake Forest 



Vice President for Administration and Planning 



Assistant Vice President for 
Administration and Planning 

Assistant Vice President for Data Services 



Assistant Vice President for 
Administration and Planning 

Director of Personnel 



Assistant Controller 

General Manager and Director, 
Graylyn Conference Center 

Assistant Controller 

Controller and Assistant Treasurer 

Purchasing Coordinator 

Registrar 

Director of the Physical Facilities 



Vice President and Counsel 

University Counsel 

Assistant University Counsel 



216 



Beverly C. Moore (1989) 

BA, Mount Holyoke; JD, Wake Forest 

Student Life 



Assistant University Counsel 



Kenneth A. Zick (1975) 

BA, Albion; JD, Wayne State; MLS, Michigan 

Harold R. Holmes (1987) 

BS, Hampton; MBA, Fordham 

Paul N. Orser (1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, Emory 

Mary T. Gerardy (1985) 

BA, Hiram; MEd, Kent State 

Mark A. Hall (1987) 

BA, Wake Forest; MEd, UNC-Greensboro 

Edgar D. Cnristman (1956, 1961) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; BD, Southeastern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; STM, Union Theo. Seminary 

William C. Currin (1988) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
BD, Southeastern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Jessica B. Pollard (1988) 

BS, Fisk; MA, North Carolina Central 

Ernest M. Wade (1986) 

BS, Johnson C. Smith; MS, Wisconsin; 
PhD, Michigan State 

Dennis Gregory (1986) 

AA, Ferrum; BA, James Madison; 
MA, EdD, Virginia 

Connie L. Carson (1986) 

BS, MEd, North Carolina State 

Michael Ford (1981) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MDiv, Gordon-Conwell Theo. Seminary 

Natascha L. Romeo (1990) 
BA, South Carolina; 
MEd, UNC-Greensboro 

Elizabeth D. Greer (1992) 

BA, MAEd, James Madison 

Cecil D.Price (1991) 

BS, MD, Wake Forest 

Sylvia T.Bell (1981) 

RN, N.C. Baptist Hosp. School of Nursing 



Vice President for Student Life 
and Instructional Resources 

Dean of Student Services 

Associate Director of 
Student Life-Student Relations 

Director of the Benson University Center 

Associate Director of the 
Benson University Center 

University Chaplain 



Director of Career Services 

Assistant Director of Career Services 
Director of Minority Affairs 

Director of Residence Life and Housing 



Associate Director of Residence Life 
and Housing 

Director of Student Development 



Health Educator 

Coordinator of Volunteer Services 
Director of the Student Health Service 



Assistant Director for Administration, 
Student Health Service 



217 



Marianne A. Schubert (1977) 
BA, Dayton; 
MA, PhD, Southern Illinois 

Sandra L. Chadwick (1989) 
BA, BS, Texas (Austin); 
MA, Columbia; PhD, Fielding 

Chaplain's Office 



Director of the University Counseling Center 



Director of Learning Assistance Program 



Edgar D. Christman (1954) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; MDiv, Southeastern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; STM, Union Theo. Seminary 

David L. Fouche (1982) 
BA, Furman; MDiv, 
Southeastern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Institutional Research 



Chaplain 



Assistant Chaplain and 
Baptist Campus Minister 



Ross A. Griffith (1966) 

BS, Wake Forest; MEd, UNC-Greensboro 

Margaret R Perry (1947) 
BS, South Carolina 

Hallie S. Arrington (1977) 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest 

Susan C. Hunter (1984) 
BS, Louisville 

Judy G.Walker (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Data Services 



Director of Institutional Research 

Registrar 

Associate Registrar 

Assistant Director of Institutional Research 

Assistant Registrar 



Larry RHenson (1981) 

BA, Berea; MS, Missouri (Rolla); 
MBA, Wake Forest 

Buck BayUff (1988) 
BA, Elon 

D. Jean Seeman (1977) 

BA, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, Georgia 

Anne L.Yandell (1981) 

BA, MA, UNC-Greensboro 

JayL.Dominick(1991) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Georgetown 

Tim Covey (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest 



Assistant Vice President for Data Services 

Director of Communication Services 
and Microcomputer Center Manager 

Academic Computing Manager 

Administrative Computing Manager 

Network/Operations Manager 

Microcomputer Technical Coordinator 



218 



Admissions and Financial Aid 

William G. Starling (1958) 
BBA, Wake Forest 

Thomas O. Phillips (1982) 
BA, MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Martha Blevins Allman (1982) 
BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

Steven Brooks (1989) 

BA, MA, EdD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Wayne E. Johnson (1985) 

BA, Northwestern; JD, Wake Forest 

Karen B.Grogan (1988) 

BA, Randolph Macon 

Robert P. Jackson (1989) 

BA, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

JaneE.O'Sullivan(1991) 
BA, Wake Forest 

K. Brooke Fenderson (1991) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Nevan A. Fisher (1991) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Sean H. Henry (1992) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Milton W.King Jr. (1992) 

BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

Career Services 



Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

Associate Director of Admissions and 
Scholarship Officer 

Associate Director of Admissions 

Associate Director of Financial Aid 

Assistant Director of Financial Aid 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

Admissions Counselor 

Admissions Counselor 

Admisswns Counselor 

Assistant Scholarships Officer 



William C. Currin (1988) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
BD, Southeastern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Susan Brooks (1989) 

BA, Lenoir-Rhyne; MAEd, Wake Forest; 
MBA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
MDiv, Iliff School of Theology 

Jessica B. Pollard (1988) 

BS, Fisk; MA, North Carolina Central 

Public Affairs 



Sandra Combs Boyette (1981) 

BA, UNC-Charlotte; MEd, Converse 

T.CleveCallison(1982) 

BA, Duke; MA, PhD, Wisconsin (Madison) 



Director of Career Services 



Director of Internships and 
Experiential Learning Programs 



Assistant Director of Career Services 



Vice President for Public Affairs 
WFDD Station Manager 



219 



Kevin P. Cox (1990) 

BA, East Texas State; MA, Wake Forest 

Brian HEckert (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

David W. Fyten (1991) 

BA, Minnesota; MA, Iowa; MFA, Iowa 

Melody A. Graham (1987) 
BS, Appalachian State 

Catherine M. Home (1992) 

BED, North Carolina State 

Cherin C. Poovey (1987) 
BA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Bernard H. Quigley (1989) 
BA, Massachusetts 

Jim A. Steele (1987) 
BA, Wake Forest 

University Relations 

G. William Joyner Jr. (1969) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Robert T.Baker (1978) 

BA, MS, George Peabody (Vanderbilt) 

Julius H. Corpening (1969) 
BA, Wake Forest; BD, 
Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Robert D.Mills (1972) 

BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

Minta Aycock McNally (1978) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Kay Doenges Lord (1985) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Claudia A. Stitt (1978) 

BS, East Tennessee State 

Dorothy Bryan (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

James R. Bullock (1985) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Cathy B. Chinlund (1986) 
BS, East Carolina 

R. Kriss Dinkins (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Assistant Director, Media Relations 

Director of Media Relations 

University Editor 

Director of Special Events 

Senior Graphic Designer 

Director of Publications and 
Associate University Editor 

Staff Writer 
Media Relations Officer 



Vice President for University Relations 

Assistant Vice President and 
Director of Development 

Assistant Vice President for University Relations 



Assistant Vice President and 
Director of Capital Campaign 

Assistant to the Vice President 
for University Relations 

Director of Alumni Activities 

Director of Records and Support Services 

Director of Prospect Research 

Director of Capital Support 

Manager of Support Services 

Director of Corporate Relations 



220 



Scott KDuBois (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

John W. Gillon (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Christia Hayes (1991) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Wake Forest 

Kerry M.King (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Sheila Massey (1986) 

BA, Winston-Salem State 

Sonja Harvey Murray (1990) 
BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

Joanne F. O'Brien (1989) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Allen H. Patterson Jr. (1987) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Katherine Rand Schamay (1990) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, UNC-Greensboro 

Robert Spinks (1989) 

BA, Furman; MRE, New Orleans 
Theo. Seminary; MA, Iowa 

Kellie Tabor (1991) 

BA, Wake Forest 

James G.Welsh Jr. (1987) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Bruce A. Young (1991) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Graylyn Conference Center 

Thomas P. Gilsenan (1985) 
BS, California (Berkeley) 

Jane Rachlin (1979) 

Financial Resource Management 

John G. Williard (1958) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Richard T. Clay (1956) 
BBA, Wake Forest 

David O. Dyer (1973) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Barry C Schline (1985) 

BBA, Notre Dame; MBA, New Haven 



Director of Law Alumni and Development 

Director ofBabcock Alumni Development 

Prospect Research Officer 

Staff Writer 

Gift Stewardship 

Director of College Fund 

Director of Foundation Relations 

Director of Planned Giving 

Director of Alumni Programs 

Director of Development for Divinity School 

Development Associate 

Associate Director of Alumni Activities 

Assistant Director of the College Fund 



General Manager and Director of the 
Graylyn Conference Center 



Assistant Director 



Vice President for Financial Resource 
Management and Treasurer 

Director of University Stores 

Assistant Director for Administration, 
University Stores 

Real Estate Manager 



221 



Libraries 

Rhoda K. Charming (1989) 

BA, Brooklyn; MS in LS, Columbia; 
MBA, Boston College 

Charles M. Getchell Jr. (1986) 

BA, Tulane; MA, Mississippi; 
MLS, Texas 

John Via (1977) 

BA, Virginia; MS in LS, 
UNC-Chapel Hill 

Thomas M. Steele (1985) 
BA, Oklahoma State; 
MLS, Oregon; JD, Texas 

Michael D. Sprinkle (1972) 

BA, MS in LS, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Athletics 



Director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library 



Assistant Director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library 



Assistant Director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library 



Director of Worrell Professional Center Library 



Executive Director of the Coy C. Carpenter Library, 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine 



Ron Wellman (1992) 

BS, MS, Bowling Green State University 

Dianne Dailey (1988) 

BA, Salem; MEd, North Carolina State 

Larry Gallo Jr. (1987) 

BA, MS, Rhode Island 

Charles W. Patterson m (1984) 
AB, Davidson College 

William M. Faircloth (1978) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, Alabama 

Wake Forest University Theater 

Harold CTedford (1965) 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; 
PhD, Louisiana State 

Donald H.Wolfe (1968) 

BS, MS, Southern Illinois; PhD, Cornell 

Mary R. Wayne (1980) 

BFA, Pennsylvania State; MFA, Ohio State 

Jonathan H. Christman (1983) 
AB, Franklin and Marshall; 
MFA, Massachusetts 

John E. R. Friedenberg (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Carnegie-Mellon 

Patricia W. Toole (1990) 

AB, Smith; MA, Wake Forest 



Director of Athletics 

Director of Women 's Athletics 

Associate Athletic Director 

Associate Athletic Director 

Assistant Athletic Director 



Director of the University Theater 

Associate Director of Theater 

Theater Designer 

Technical Director 

Theater Manager 
Director of Theater Speech 



222 



Other Administrative Offices 



James P. Bareheld (1963) 

BA, MA, Rice; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Mary Jane Berman (1986) 
BA, Harpur; MA, 
PhD, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Julie Cole (1988) 

BS, MA, Appalachian 

Gloria E. Cooper (1987) 
BA, Maryland 

Thomas M. Elmore (1962) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, George Peabody; 
PhD, Ohio State 

Victor Faccin to (1978) 

BA, MA, California State (Sacramento) 

Richard P. Faude (1986) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Montana State 

Susan L.Faust (1991) 

BA, MA, Arkansas (Fayetteville) 

Brian Gorelick (1984) 

BA, Yale; MM, Wisconsin (Madison); 
DMA, Illinois 



Coordinator of the Venice Program 

Director/Curator of the 
Museum of Anthropology 

Director of Research and Sponsored Programs 

Director of Equal Employment Opportunity/ 
Training and Development 

Director of Counseling Program 



Director of the Art Gallery 

Head of Information Technology Center 
(Z. Smith Reynolds Library) 

Assistant to the Vice President 
for Special Projects 

Director of Choral Ensembles 



David W.Hadley (1966) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 



Martin Province (1982) 

BA, Wake Forest; MM, Colorado 

Judith K. Shannon (1980) 



Martine Sherrill (1985) 

BFA, MLF, UNC-Greensboro 

Robert N. Shorter (1958) 

BA, Union; MA, PhD, Duke 

Ross Smith (1984) 

BA, Wake Forest 

George William Trautwein (1983) 

BMus, Oberlin; MMus, Cleveland 
Inst, of Music; MusD, Indiana 

Robert L.Utley Jr. (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Virginia K. Williams (1990) 
BS, Wake Forest 



Coordinator of the London Program 

Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles 
and Director of Bands 

Assistant to the Director of International Studies 
and Adviser for Study Abroad/International Students 

Curator of Slides and Prints 
Director of Program of Academic Support Services 

Debate Coach 



Director of Instrumental Ensembles 
and the Secrest Artists Series 



Director of the Tocqueville Forum 



Internal Auditor 



The Undergraduate Facilities 



David Adams (1992) 

BA, Oregon; PhD, CUNY (New York) 

John M.Aho (1988) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Exeter 
(England) 

Helen W.Akinc (1987) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
MBA, SUNY (Binghamton) 

UmitAkinc(1982) 

BS, Middle East Tech. University 
(Ankara); MBA, Florida State; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Gary R. Albrecht (1987, 1990) 

BA, Tulane; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Jane W. Albrecht (1987) 

BA, Wright State; MA, PhD, Indiana 

William T. Alderson (1990) 

AB, Colgate; MA, PhD, Vanderbilt 

Brian Allen (1977) 

BA, East Anglia; MA, PhD, London 

Edward E. Allen (1991) 

BS, Brigham Young; MA, PhD, 
California (San Diego) 

Eva M. Allen (1990) 

BS, Gardner- Webb; MA, Wake Forest 

Nina Stromgren Allen (1984) 

BS, Wisconsin; MS, PhD, Maryland 

Ralph D. Amen (1962) 

BA, MA, Northern Colorado; 
MBS, PhD, Colorado 

David J. Anderson (1992) 

BA, Denison; MS, Michigan; 
PhD, Pennsylvania 

Gunnar Anderson (1990) 

BA, Lawrence; MA, Northwestern; 
PhD, Chicago 

Paul R. Anderson (1990) 

BS, Wisconsin (Madison); MA, PhD, 
California (Santa Barbara) 



Date following name indicates year of appointment. 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 



Adjunct Assistant Professor of Biology 



Adjunct Instructor in Business 

(School of Business and Accountancy) 

(Part-time) 

Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Adjunct Associate Professor of Economics 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Adjunct Professor of History 
(Part-time) 

Lecturer in Art History (London) 
(Department of Art, Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Mathematics 



Instructor in Mathematics 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Professor of Biology 

Assistant Professor of Biology 



Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Assistant Professor of Physics 



224 



John L. Andronica (1969) 

BA, Holy Cross; MA, Boston College; 
PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Maya Angelou (1982) 

LittD, Smith, Lawrence, Columbia College 
(Chicago), Atlanta, Wheaton; LHD, Mills, Wake 
Forest, Occidental, Arkansas, Claremont, Kean 

Guy M.Arcuri (1989) 

BA, North Carolina State; 
MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Professor of Classical Languages 
(Venice, Fall 1992) 

Reynolds Professor of American Studies 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 



Santa Arias (1992) 

BA, SUNY (New Paltz); 

MA, PhD, Wisconsin (Madison) 

E. Pendleton Banks (1954) 

BA, Furman; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Sarah E.Barbour (1985) 

BA, Maryville; MA, Paris; PhD, Cornell 

Janice B. Bardsley (1989) 

BA, California (Davis); 

MA, PhD, California (Los Angeles) 

James P. Barefield (1963) 

BA, MA, Rice; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Bemadine Barnes (1989) 

BA, Illinois (Urbana-Champaign); 
MA, Pittsburgh; PhD, Virginia 

Richard C Barnett(1961) 

BA, Wake Forest; MEd, PhD, 
UNC-Chapel Hill 

Phillip G. Batten (1991) 

BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Yale 
Divinity School; MA, Wake Forest 

John V.Baxley (1968) 

BS, MS, Georgia Tech; PhD, Wisconsin 

H. Kenneth Bechtel (1981) 

BA, MA, North Dakota; PhD, Southern 
Illinois (Carbondale) 

Robert C Beck (1959) 
BA, PhD, Illinois 

S.Douglas Beets (1987) 
BS, Tennessee; 
MAcc, PhD, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 

Donald B. Bergey (1978) 
BS, MA, Wake Forest 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 



Professor of Anthropology 

Associate Professor of Romance Languages 
(French; Dijon, Fall 1992) 

Assistant Professor of Japanese 
(East Asian Languages and Literatures) 

Professor of History 

Assistant Professor of Art 

Professor of History 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

Professor of Mathematics 
Associate Professor of Sociology 

Professor of Psychology 

Associate Professor of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Instructor in Health and Sport Science 
(Part-time) 



225 



Mary Jane Berman (1986) 
BA, Harpur; 
MA, PhD, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Michael J. Beny (1985) 

BS, Jacksonville State; MA, South- 
eastern Louisiana; PhD, Texas A&M 

Deborah L. Best (1972, 1978) 
BA, MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Zanna Beswick (1987) 

BA, Hons, Bristol (England) 

Lynne Bils-Baumann (1992) 
AB, AM, Illinois 

Mary Lucy Bivins (1985) 

BA, Salem; MA, Wake Forest 

Terry D. Blumenthal (1987) 

BS, Alberta (Edmonton); MS, PhD, Florida 

Keith D. Bonin (1992) 

BS, Loyola; PhD, Maryland 

Susan Harden Borwick (1982) 

BM, BME, Baylor; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Stephen B. Boyd (1985) 

BA, Tennessee; MDiv, ThD, Harvard 
Divinity School 

Debra Boyd-Buggs (1989) 

BA, Iowa; MA, Rutgers; PhD, Ohio State 

Anne Boyle (1986) 

BA, Wilkes College; MA, PhD, Rochester 

Robert W. Brehme (1959) 

BS, Roanoke; MS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

David G. Brown (1990) 

AB, Denison; PhD, Princeton 

Carole L. Browne (1980) 

BS, Hartford; PhD, Syracuse 

Robert A. Browne (1980) 

BS, MS, Dayton; PhD, Syracuse 

David B. Broyles (1966) 

BA, Chicago; BA, Florida; MA, PhD, 
California (Los Angeles) 

Christy M. Buchanan (1992) 

BA, Seattle Pacific; PhD, Michigan 



Director/Curator of the Museum of Anthropology 
and Assistant Professor of Anthropology 

Associate Professor of Health and Sport Science 



Professor of Psychology 
(Venice, Spring 1993) 

Lecturer in Theater (London) 
(Department of Theater, Part-time) 

Instructor in German 
(Part-time) 

Adjunct Instructor in Theater 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Psychology 

Associate Professor of Physics 

Professor of Music 

Associate Professor of Religion 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 
(French; Leave, 1992-93) 

Assistant Professor of English 

Professor of Physics 

Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Professor of Politics 

Assistant Professor of Psychology 



226 



David P. Bumgamer (1990) 
BS, Appalachian 

Julian C. Burroughs Jr. (1958) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Michigan 

Daniel A. Canas (1987) 

BS, Tecnologico de Monterrey (Mexico); 
MS, Georgia Tech; PhD, Texas (Austin) 

Richard D. Carmichael (1971) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Christa G. Carollo (1985) 

BA, UNC-Greensboro; MA, Duke 

Simone M. Caron (1991) 

BA, Bridgewater State; MA, Northeastern; 
PhD, Clark 

John A. Carter Jr. (1961) 

BA, Virginia; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Stewart Carter (1982) 

BME, Kansas; MS, Illinois; PhD, Stanford 

David W. Catron (1963) 

BA, Furman; PhD, George Peabody 

Sarah S. Catron (1989) 

BA, Furman; MA, George Peabody 
(Vanderbilt); PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

Dorothy J. Cattle (1989) 

BA, Washington; MA, PhD, New Mexico 

Jonathan H. Christman (1983) 

AB, Franklin and Marshall; MFA, Massachusetts 

John E. Collins (1970) 

BS, MS, Tennessee; MDiv, Southeastern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; MA, PhD, Princeton 

William E.Conner (1988) 

BA, Notre Dame; MS, PhD, Cornell 

Jule M.Connolly (1985) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MEd, South Carolina 

Leon P. Cook Jr. (1957) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst. & SU; 
MS, Tennessee 

Nancy J. Cotton (1977) 

BA, Texas; MA, Wisconsin; PhD, Columbia 

AllinF.Cottrell(1989) 

BA, Oxford (Merton College); PhD, Edinburgh 



Assistant Professor of Military Science 

Professor of Speech Communication 

Associate Professor of Computer Science 

Professor of Mathematics 

Lecturer in German 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of History 

Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Music 

Professor of Psychology 
(Leave, Fall 1992) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Anthropology 



Lecturer in Theater 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Religion 



Associate Professor of Biology 

Instructor in Mathematics 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of Economics 



227 



Brian F.Crisp (1991) 

BA, Hope College; PhD, Michigan 

Patricia M. Cunningham (1978) 

BA, Rhode Island; MS, Florida State; 
EdS, Indiana State; PhD, Georgia 

James F.Curran (1988) 

BAAS, Delaware; MA, PhD, Rice 

George B. Cvijanovich (1989) 
PhD, Bern (Switzerland) 

Dale Dagenbach (1990) 

BA, New College; MA, PhD, Michigan State 

Mary M.Dalton (1986) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, UNC-Greensboro 

Kate Daniels (1992) 

BA, MA, Virginia; MFA, Columbia 

SayesteA.Daser(1978) 

BS, Middle East Tech 

University (Ankara); MS, Ege (Izmir); 

PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Huw M. L. Davies (1983) 

BSc, University College (Cardiff); 
PhD, East Anglia 

P. Candace Deans (1989) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; MEd, 
North Carolina State; MBA, East 
Carolina; PhD, South Carolina 

Mary K. DeShazer (1982, 1987) 
BA, Western Kentucky; 
MA, Louisville; PhD, Oregon 

Arun P. Dewasthali (1975) 

BS, Bombay; MS, PhD, Delaware 

Constance L. Dickey (1991) 

BA, Portland State; MA, Washington 
(Seattle); PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Ronald V. Dimock Jr. (1970) 

BA, New Hampshire; MS, Florida State; 
PhD, California (Santa Barbara) 

Lorraine DiSimone (1992) 
BM, Connecticut; 
MM, New England Conservatory of Music 

Patricia Dixon (1986) 

BM, North Carolina School of the Arts; 
MM, UNC-Greensboro 



Assistant Professor of Politics 
Professor of Education 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Adjunct Professor of Physics 

Associate Professor of Psychology 

Instructor in Speech Communication 

Poet-in-Residence 
(Department of English) 

Associate Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Associate Professor of Chemistry 



Assistant Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Associate Professor of English 
and Women's Studies 



Associate Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 

Professor of Biology 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Music 
(Fall 1992) 

Part-time Instructor in Music 



228 



Kevin M. Doak (1989) 

BA, Quincy College; MA, PhD, Chicago 

James H. Dodding (1979) 

Diploma, Rose Bruford College of Speech and 
Drama (London); Cert., Birmingham University; 
Cert., Westhill Training College (Birmingham); 
Diploma, Theater on the Balustrade (Prague) 

Thomas E. Dougherty Jr. (1977) 
BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, PhD, 
Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Robert H. Dufort (1961) 
BA, PhD, Duke 

John S. Dunkelberg (1983) 
BS, Clemson; 
MBA, PhD, South Carolina 



Dana Faculty Fellow and 

Assistant Professor of History 

(Tokai, Fall 1992; Leave, Spring 1993) 

Professor of Theater 



Adjunct Associate Professor of Religion 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Psychology 

Associate Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Rebecca Duplantier (1993) 

BA, MA, California (Los Angeles); PhD, Ohio State 



John R. Earle (1963) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Eddie V. Easley (1984) 
BS, Virginia; 
MS, PhD, Iowa State 

C. Drew Edwards (1980) 

BA, Furman; MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, Florida State 

Marianne Eismann (1992) 

AB, Princeton; MA, Chicago 

BashirEl-Beshti(1990) 

BA, Tripoli University (Libya); MA, 
Colorado State; PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Leo Ellison Jr. (1957) 

BS, MS, Northwestern State 



Assistant Professor of German 

Professor of Sociology 

Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 

Instructor in English 

Assistant Professor of English 



Thomas M. Elmore (1962) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MA, George Peabody; PhD, Ohio State 

Helen V.Emmitt (1991) 

AB, Bryn Mawr; PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Gerald W. Esch (1965) 

BS, Colorado College; MS, PhD, Oklahoma 

Paul D.Escott (1988) 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Duke 



Associate Professor of Health and Sport Science 
Professor of Education 



Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

Wake Forest Professor of Biology 

Reynolds Professor of History 



229 



Andrew V. Ettin (1977) 

BA, Rutgers; MA, PhD, Washington (St. Louis) 

Herman E.Eure (1974) 

BS, Maryland State; PhD, Wake Forest 

David K.Evans (1966) 

BS, Tulane; PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Robert H. Evans (1983) 

BA, Ohio Wesleyan; MS, New Hampshire; 
PhD, Colorado 

Kevin D. Everett (1992) 

BA, Kenyon; MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Stephen Ewing (1971) 
BS, Howard Payne; 
MBA, Baylor; PhD, Texas Tech. 

David L.Faber (1984) 

AA, Elgin; BFA, Northern Illinois; MFA, Southern Illinois 



Professor of English 

Professor of Biology 

Professor of Anthropology 

Associate Professor of Education 

Instructor in Sociology 

Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



Philippe R. Falkenberg (1969) 

BA, Queens (Ontario); PhD, Duke 

Susan L.Faust (1992) 

BA, MA, Arkansas (Fayetteville) 

Ramiro Fernandez (1987) 

BA, Miami; MA, Middlebury College 
in Madrid; PhD, Temple 

James C. Fishbein (1988) 

BA, Johns Hopkins; PhD, Brandeis 

Jack D. Fleer (1964) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MS, Florida State; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Doyle RFosso (1964) 

AB, Harvard; MA, Michigan; PhD, Harvard 

Donald E.Frey (1972) 

BA, Wesleyan; MDiv, Yale; PhD, Princeton 

John E. R. Friedenberg (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Carnegie-Mellon 

Mary Lusky Friedman (1987) 

BA, Wellesley; MA, PhD, Columbia 



Associate Professor of Art 
Associate Professor of Psychology 



Adjunct Instructor in Speech Communication 

(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Dana Faculty Fellow and Assistant 
Professor of Chemistry 

Professor of Politics 

Professor of English 

Professor of Economics 

Lecturer in Theater 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Romance Languages 
(Spanish; Leave, Fall 1992) 



N. Ganapathisubramanian (1986) 
BS, Madura College (India); 
MSc, PhD, Indian Inst, of Technology (Madras) 

RufusS.GatlinJr.(1992) 
BS, St. Augustine 



Assistant Professor of Chemistry 



Assistant Professor of Military Science 



230 



J. Whitfield Gibbons (1971) 

BS, MA, Alabama; PhD, Michigan State 

Samuel T. Gladding (1990) 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest; MA, Yale; 
PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

Kathleen M. Glenn (1974) 
BA, MA, PhD, Stanford 

Thomas S.Goho (1977) 

BS, MBA, Pennsylvania 
State; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Martha E. Golden (1992) 

BA, Duke; MA, New York 

Louis R.Goldstein (1979) 

BM, Oberlin; MFA, California 
Inst, of the Arts; DMA, Eastman 

Harold O. Goodman (1958) 
BA, MA, PhD, Minnesota 

Bobbi M. Goodnough (1987) 

BS, Winthrop; MEd, Toledo 

Brian L. Gorelick (1984) 

BA, Yale; MM, Wisconsin (Madison); 
DMA, Illinois 

Margaret C Gregory (1990) 

BA, Wellesley; MA, Michigan 

David W. Hadley (1966) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

William S. Hamilton (1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Claire Holton Hammond (1978) 

BA, Mary Washington; PhD, Virginia 

J. Daniel Hammond (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Virginia 

Philip S. Hammond (1990) 

BA, Gettysburg; MS, PhD, Michigan 

Phillip J. Hamrick Jr. (1956) 

BS, Morris Harvey; PhD, Duke 

James S. Hans (1982) 

BA, MA, Southern Illinois; PhD, Washington 

Hanna M. Hardgrave (1985) 

BA, Brown; MA, PhD, Chicago 

KatyJ.Harriger(1985) 

BA, Edinboro State; MA, PhD, Connecticut 



Adjunct Professor of Biology 
Professor of Education 



Wake Forest Professor of Romance Languages 
(Spanish; Salamanca, Spring 1993) 

Associate Professor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Instructor in Romance languages 
(French) 

Associate Professor of Music 



Adjunct Professor of Biology 

Instructor in Health and Sport Science 

Director of Choral Ensembles 
(Department of Music) 

Visiting Lecturer in Art 
(Part-time) 

Professor of History 

Associate Professor of Russian 

Associate Professor of Economics 

Professor of Economics 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Professor of Chemistry 

Professor of English 
(Leave, Spring 1993) 

Lecturer in Philosophy 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Politics 



231 



Catherine T. Harris (1980) 

BA, Lenoir-Rhyne; MA, Duke: PhD, Georgia 

J. Kline Harrison (1990) 

BS, Virginia; PhD, Maryland 

Negley Boyd Harte (1978) 

BS, London School of Economics 

Elmer K.Hayashi (1973) 

BA, California (Davis); 

MS, San Diego State; PhD, Illinois 

Michael David Hazen (1974) 
BA, Seattle Pacific; 
MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Kansas 

Terry C. Hazen (1988) 

BS, MS, Michigan State; PhD, Wake Forest 

Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (1983) 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Roger A. Hegsrrom (1969) 

BA, St. Olaf; AM, PhD, Harvard 

David Helm (1991) 

BA, Ithaca; MFA, Illinois (Chicago) 

Robert M. Helm (1940) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

J. Edwin Hendricks (1961) 

BA, Furman; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Marcus B. Hester (1963) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 

David A. Hills (1960) 

BA, Kansas; MA, PhD, Iowa 

Willie L.Hinze (1975) 

BS, MA, Sam Houston State; PhD, Texas A&M 

Earl C.Hipp Jr. (1991) 

BA, Wofford, MBA, JD, South Carolina 

Alix Hitchcock (1989) 

BFA, UNC-Greensboro; MA, New York 

Kenneth G. Hoglund (1990) 

BA, Wheaton; MA, PhD, Duke 

George M. Holzwarth (1983) 

BA, Wesleyan; MS, PhD, Harvard 

Natalie A. W. Holzwarth (1983) 

BS, Massachusetts Inst, of Tech.; PhD, Chicago 



Professor of Sociology 

Assistant Professor of Business 
(School of Business &c Accountancy) 

Lecturer in History (London) 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Mathematics and 
Computer Science 

Professor of Speech Communication 



Adjunct Professor of Biology 
Professor of Philosophy 

Wake Forest Professor of Chemistry 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Art 

Worrell Professor of Philosophy 

Professor of History 

Professor of Philosophy 

Associate Projessor of Psychology 

Wake Forest Professor of Chemistry 
(Leave, Spring 1993) 

Associate Projessor of Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Visiting Instructor in Art 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Religion 

Professor of Physics 

Associate Professor of Physics 



232 



Fred L.Horton Jr. (1970) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 

BD, Union Theo. Seminary; PhD, Duke 

William L. Hottinger (1970) 

BS, Slippery Rock; MS, PhD, Illinois 

Frederic T. Howard (1966) 

BA, MA, Vanderbilt; PhD, Duke 

Pamela Howland (1989) 

BM, MM, Wisconsin Conservatory of Music; 
DMA, Eastman 

Paul F.Huck (1989) 

BS, Marquette; MBA, Washington; 
MA, PhD, Northwestern 

Stephen J. Huebner (1989) 

BA, William and Mary; MA, Central Michigan 

Michael L. Hughes (1984) 

BA, Claremont McKenna; MA, PhD, 
California (Berkeley) 

Charles F. Jackets (1977) 

BChem, Minnesota; PhD, Washington 

Susan C.Jackels (1977) 

BA, Carleton; PhD, Washington 

MordecaiJ.Jaffe(1980) 

BS, City College (New York); PhD, Cornell 

Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) 

BA, Winston-Salem State; MA, Wake Forest 

David J. John (1982) 

BS, Emory and Henry; MS, PhD, Emory 

Dana J. Johnson (1992) 

BBA, MA, DBA, Kent State 

Marjorie A. Johnson (1992) 

BA, Wake Forest; MEd, UNC-Greensboro 

W. Dillon Johnston (1973) 

BA, Vanderbilt; MA, Columbia; PhD, Virginia 

Bradley T. Jones (1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, Florida 

Paul E.Juras (1991) 

BBA, MBA, Pace; PhD, Syracuse 



Albritton Professor of the Bible 
(Department of Religion) 

Professor of Health and Sport Science 

Professor of Mathematics 

Part-time Assistant Professor of Music 

Assistant Professor of Economics 

Adjunct Instructor in Military Science 
Associate Professor of History 

Professor of Chemistry 

Professor of Chemistry 

Babcock Professor of Botany 
(Department of Biology) 

Lecturer in English 

Associate Professor of Mathematics and 
Computer Science 

Professor of Business 
(School of Business & Accountancy) 

Visiting Instructor in Education 

Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Assistant Professor of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



233 



Peter D.Kairoff (1988) 

BA, California (San Diego); 
MM, DMA, Southern California 

Jay R.Kaplan (1981) 

BA, Swarthmore; MA, PhD, Northwestern 

Darra Keeton (1992) 

BFA, Miami (Ohio); MFA, Queens College 

Horace O.Kelly Jr. (1987) 
BA, Baylor 

Judy K. Kern (1987) 

BA, Western Kentucky; MA, Louisville; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Charles H. Kennedy (1985) 

BA, Eckerd; AM, MPP, PhD, Duke 

Ralph C. Kennedy IE (1976) 

BA, PhD, California (Berkeley) 

James J. KenneUy (1992) 

BA, Wisconsin (Madison) 

William C.Kerr (1970) 

BS, Wooster; PhD, Cornell 

Charles Jeffery Kinlaw (1986) 

BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Southern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Ellen E.Kirkman (1975) 

BA, Wooster; MA, MS, PhD, Michigan State 

Scott W.Klein (1991) 

AB, Harvard; BA, MA, Cambridge; 
MA, MPhil., PhD, Yale 

Robert Knott (1975) 

BA, Stanford; MA, Illinois; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Dilip K. Kondepudi (1987) 

BS, Madras (India); MS, Indian 
Technology (Bombay); PhD, Texas 

Kathleen A. Kron (1991) 

BS, MS, Michigan State; PhD, Florida 

Philip F.Kuberski (1989) 

BA, MA, PhD, California (Irvine) 

Raymond E. Kuhn (1968) 

BS, Carson-Newman; PhD, Tennessee 

James Kuzmanovich (1972) 

BS, Rose Polytechnic; PhD, Wisconsin 



Associate Professor of Music 



Adjunct Professor of Anthropology 
and Psychology 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Art 



Lecturer in Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 

Associate Professor of Politics 

Associate Professor of Philosophy 

Instructor in History 

Professor of Physics 

Instructor in Philosophy 

Professor of Mathematics 
Assistant Professor of English 

Professor of Art 

Associate Professor of Chemistry 
(Leave, Spring 1993) 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Associate Professor of English 
(Leave, 1992-93) 

Wake Forest Professor of Biology 
Professor of Mathematics 



234 



Kelly B.Kyes (1989) 

BS, South Carolina (Coastal 
Carolina College); MS, PhD, Georgia 

Randall C. Kyes (1990) 

BA, Maine; MA, Bucknell; PhD, Georgia 

Abdessadek Lachgar (1991) 

BS, MS, PhD, University of Nantes (France) 

Hugo C.Lane (1973) 

Licenciate of the Biological Sciences, 
Doctorate of the Biological Sciences, Geneva 

Page H.Laughlin (1987) 

BA, Virginia; MFA, Rhode Island School of Design 

Michael S. Lawlor (1986) 

BA, Texas (Austin); PhD, Iowa State 

LeeAnna Lawrence (1992) 

BA, Vassar; MA, North Carolina State; 
PhD, Duke 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 

Adjunct Instructor in Psychology 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Associate Professor of Biology 



Assistant Professor of Art 
(Leave, 1992-93) 

Associate Professor of Economics 
Visiting Assistant Professor of English 



Mark R. Leary (1985) 

BA, West Virginia Wesleyan; MA, PhD, Florida 



Professor of Psychology 
(Leave, Spring 1993) 



Wei-chin Lee (1987) 

BA, National Taiwan University; MA, PhD, Oregon 



Win-chiat Lee (1983) 

BA, Cornell; PhD, Princeton 

Philip LeMasters (1991) 

BA, Baylor; MA, Rice; PhD, Duke 

Andrew Leslie (1992) 
BA, Virginia 

David B.Levy (1976) 

BM, MA, Eastman; PhD, Rochester 

Kathryn Levy (1988) 
BM, Eastman 



Charles M. Lewis (1968) 

BA, Wake Forest; ThM, Harvard; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Thomas P. Liebschutz (1987) 
BA, MA, Rochester; 
BHL, MAHL, Hebrew Union; DMin, Boston 



Assistant Professor of Politics 

Associate Professor of Philosophy 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Religion 

Visiting Instructor in Speech Communication 

Associate Professor of Music 

Part-time Instructor in Music 

Professor of Philosophy 



Visiting Lecturer in Religion 
(Part-time) 



John H. Litcher (1973) 

BS, Winona State; MA, PhD, Minnesota 

John T. Llewellyn (1990) 

AB, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Arkansas; 
PhD, Texas 



Professor of Education 
Assistant Professor of Speech Communication 



235 



Dan S. Locklair (1982) 

BM, Mars Hill; SMM, Union 
Theo. Seminary; DMA, Eastman 

Charles F. Longino Jr. (1991) 

BA, Mississippi; MA, Colorado; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Sabine Loucif (1992) 

Licence de Lettres, Maitrise de Lettres Modernes, 
Sorbonne Nouvelle; MA, Carthage College 

Allan D. Louden (1985) 

BA, Montana State; MA, Montana; 
PhD, Southern California 



Associate Professor of Music 
and Composer-in-Residence 

Wake Forest Professor of Sociology 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(French) 



Robert W. Lovett (1962, 1968) 

BA, Oglethorpe; MAT, PhD, Emory 

Gene T. Lucas (1967, 1986) 

BA, Phillips; MA, Denver 

Bradley Macdonald (1993) 
BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
MA, PhD, California (Los Angeles) 

Linda S. Maier (1987) 

AB, Washington; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Barry G.Maine (1981) 

BA, Virginia; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Allen Mandelbaum (1989) 

BA, Yeshiva; MA, PhD, Columbia 

Milorad R. Margitic (1978) 

MA, Leiden (Netherlands); PhD, Wayne State 

Dale R.Martin (1982) 

BS, MS, Illinois State; DBA, Kentucky 

James A. Martin Jr. (1983) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Duke; PhD, Columbia 

George Eric Matthews Jr. (1979) 
BS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Associate Professor of Speech Communication 
(Leave, Spring 1993) 

Professor of English 

Lecturer in Mathematics 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Politics 
(Spring 1993) 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 
(Spanish; Leave, 1992-93) 

Associate Professor of English 
Kenan Professor of Humanities 



Professor of Romance Languages 
(French) 

Professor of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

University Professor 
Professor of Physics 
Professor of Mathematics 



J.GaylordMay(1961) 

BS, Wofford; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Jo Whitten May (1972) Adjunct Professor of Speech Communication 

BS, Virginia; MA, PhD, UNC-Greensboro (Part-time) 



W.Graham May (1961) 

BS, Wofford; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Leah P. McCoy (1990) 

BS, West Virginia Inst, of Tech.; MA, 
Maryland; EdD, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU 



Professor of Mathematics 
Assistant Professor of Education 



236 



Thomas W. McGohey (1990) 
BA, MA, Michigan State; 
MFA, UNC-Greensboro 

Jill Jordan McMillan (1983) 

BA, Baylor; MA, Arkansas; PhD, Texas 

Dolly A. McPherson (1974) 

BA, Southern; MA, Boston University; 
PhD, Iowa 

Christopher Melchert (1992) 

BA, California (Santa Cruz); MA, 
Princeton; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Gordon A. Melson (1991) 

BS, PhD, Sheffield (England) 

Stephen P. Messier (1981) 

BS, MS, Rhode Island; PhD, Temple 

Christopher Metress (1990) 

BA, St. Mary's University; MA, PhD, 
Vanderbilt 

William K. Meyers (1988) 

BA, Washington; MA, PhD, Chicago 

Joseph O. Milner (1969) 

BA, Davidson; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

G. Dianne Mitchell (1983) 

BA, Salem; MAEd, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

John C. Moorhouse (1969) 

BA, Wabash; PhD, Northwestern 

Patrick E. Moran (1989) 

BA, MA, Stanford; MA, National 
Taiwan University; PhD, Pennsylvania 



Instructor in English 

Associate Professor of Speech Communication 
(Leave, Fall 1992) 

Professor of English 

Visiting Assistant Professor of History 

Professor of Chemistry 

Professor of Health and Sport Science 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of History 

Professor of Education 

Lecturer in Education 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Economics 

Assistant Professor of Chinese 
(East Asian Languages and Literatures) 



Mardene G Morykwas (1992) 
AB, MA, Michigan 

Carl C.Moses (1964, 1993) 
AB, William and Mary; 
MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

William M. Moss (1971) 

BA, Davidson; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Gloria K. Muday (1991) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; PhD, Purdue 

Thomas E. Mullen (1957) 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 

Margaret Mulvey (1986) 

BA, MS, Connecticut; PhD, Rutgers 



Adjunct Instructor in Speech Communication 

(Part-time) 

Visiting Professor of Politics 
(Part-time, Spring 1993) 

Professor of English 
(Leave, 1992-93) 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Professor of History 

Adjunct Associate Professor of Biology 



237 



Stephen Murphy (1987) 

BA, Canisius; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Rebecca Myers (1981) 
BS, MA, Ball State 



Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 

Instructor in Dance and Director of 
Dance Programs (Department of Theater) 



Emily G.Neese (1991) 
BS, Wake Forest 



Adjunct Instructor in Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy; Part-time) 



Candelas M. Newton (1978) 

BA, Salamanca (Spain); MA, PhD, Pittsburgh 

Linda N. Nielsen (1974) 

BA, MS, EdD, Tennessee 

Ronald E.Noftle (1967) 

BS, New Hampshire; PhD, Washington 

James L. Norris m (1989) 

BS, MS (Science), MS (Statistics), 
North Carolina State; PhD, Florida State 

Mary Anne Nunn (1991) 

AB, Kenyon; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Barbee Myers Oakes (1989) 

BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Tennessee 

Juan Orbe (1987) 

Universidad Nacional de La Plata 
(Argentina); MA, PhD, Michigan State 

Jane F. Ordovensky (1992) 

BS, Delaware; MA, PhD, Duke 

Gillian Rose Overing (1979) 

BA, Lancaster (England); MA, PhD, 
SUNY (Buffalo) 

Karen L. Oxendine (1986) 
BS, Wayne State; MEd, 
UNC-Greensboro 

Anthony S. Parent Jr. (1989) 

BA, Loyola; MA, PhD, California 
(Los Angeles) 

Perry L. Patterson (1986) 

BA, Indiana; MA, PhD, Northwestern 

Darwin R. Payne (1984) 

BS, MFA, Southern Illinois 

Willie Pearson Jr. (1980) 

BA, Wiley; MA, Atlanta; 

PhD, Southern Illinois (Carbondale) 

William M. Pedersen (1992) 

BS, U.S. Military Academy 



Professor of Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 

Professor of Education 

Professor of Chemistry 

Assistant Professor of Mathematics 



Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of Health and Sport Science 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of English 



Adjunct Instructor in Speech Communication 

(Part-time) 



Assistant Professor of History 
(Leave, Fall 1992) 



Associate Professor of Economics 
and Lecturer in Russian 

Adjunct Professor of Theater 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Sociology 



Assistant Professor of Military Science 



238 



Mary L. B. Pendergraft (1988) 
BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Philip J. Perricone (1967) 

BS, MA, Florida; PhD, Kentucky 

Elizabeth A. Petrino (1991) 

BA, SUNY (Buffalo); MA, PhD, Cornell 

Thomas G. Peyser (1992) 

AB, Harvard; MA, PhD, Virginia 

TerisioPignatti(1971) 
PhD, Padua 

Robert J. Plemmons (1990) 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, Auburn 

Alton B. Pollard HI (1988) 

BA, Fisk; MDiv Harvard; PhD, Duke 

James T. Powell (1988) 

BA, Emory; M Phil, MA, PhD, Yale 

Gregory D. Pritchard (1968) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; BD, Southern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary; PhD, Columbia 

Martin R. Province (1982) 

BA, Wake Forest; MM, Colorado 

Doug Pryor (1992) 

BS, MA, Northern Arizona (Hagstaff) 

Jerry Pubantz (1992) 

BSFS, Georgetown (School of 
Foreign Service); MA, PhD, Duke 

Teresa Radomski (1977) 

BM, Eastman; MM, Colorado 

Bill B. Raines (1989) 

BA, Valdosta State; MA, Utah 

Mary Lynn B. Redmond (1989) 
BA, EdD, UNC-Greensboro; 
MEd, UNC-Chapel Hill 

J. Don Reeves (1967) 

BA, Mercer; BD, ThM, Southern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; EdD, Columbia 

W. Jack Rejeski Jr. (1978) 

BS, Norwich; MA, PhD, Connecticut 

Paul M. Ribisl (1973) 

BS, Pittsburgh; MA, Kent State; PhD, Illinois 



Assistant Professor of Classical Languages 

Professor of Sociology 

Assistant Professor of English 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

Reynolds Professor of Art History (Venice) 
(Department of Art, Part-time) 

Reynolds Professor of Mathematics 
and Computer Science 

Associate Professor of Religion 

Assistant Professor of Classical Languages 

Professor of Philosophy 



Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles 
(Department of Music) 

Instructor in Sociology 

Visiting Professor of Politics 
(Part-time, Spring 1993) 

Assistant Professor of Music 
(Leave, 1992-93) 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 

Assistant Professor of Education 



Professor of Education 



Professor of Health and Sport Science; 
Adjunct Professor of Psycfwlogy 

Professor of Health and Sport Science 



239 



Stephen H. Richardson (1963) 

BA, California; MS, PhD, Southern California 



Charles L. Richman (1968) 

BA, Virginia; MA, Yeshiva; PhD, Cincinnati 

Leonard P. Roberge (1974) 

BA, New Hampshire; MA, Atlanta; EdD, Maine 



Stephen B. Robinson (1991) 

BA, PhD, California (Santa Cruz) 

Eva Marie Rodtwitt (1966) 

Cand Philol, Oslo (Norway) 

Randall G. Rogan (1990) 

BA, St. John Fisher College; 
MS, PhD, Michigan State 

Peter Santago (1989) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; 
PhD, North Carolina State 

Jennifer Sault (1984) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, UNC-Greensboro 

William E. Schmickle (1993) 

BA, Davidson; MA, PhD, Duke; 
MLitt, Glasgow (Scotland) 

Donald O. Schoonmaker (1965) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Marianne A. Schubert (1977) 
BA, Dayton; 
MA, PhD, Southern Illinois 

Katie Scott (1985) 

BA Hons., London 

Richard D. Sears (1964) 

BA, Clark; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Timothy F. Sellner (1970) 

BA, Michigan; MA, Wayne State; 
PhD, Michigan 

Catherine E. Seta (1987) 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

Mark S. Sexton (1992) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Dudley Shapere (1984) 

BA, MA, PhD, Harvard 

Bynum G. Shaw (1965) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Adjunct Professor of Biology 

Professor of Psychology 

Associate Professor of Education 

Assistant Professor of Mathematics 

Lecturer in Romance Languages 
(French) 

Assistant Professor of Speech Communication 
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Physics 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Italian, Part-time) 

Visiting Associate Professor of Politics 
(Part-time, Spring 1993) 

Professor of Politics 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

and Lecturer in Education 

(Part-time) 

Assistant Lecturer in Art History (London) 
(Department of Art; Part-time) 

Professor of Politics 
(London, Spring 1993) 

Professor of German 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 
Visiting Assistant Professor of English 



Reynolds Professor of Philosophy and 
History of Science 

Professor of Journalism 
(Department of English) 



240 



Kurt C.Shaw (1987) 

AB, Missouri; MA, PhD, Kansas 

Walter W.Shaw (1987) 

BA, Berea; MA, Georgia 

Howard W. Shields (1958) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; MS, 
Pennsylvania State; PhD, Duke 

Carol A. Shively (1988) 

BA, Hiram; MA, PhD, California (Davis) 

Robert N. Shorter (1958) 

BA, Union; MA, PhD, Duke 

Gale Sigal (1987) 

BA, City College (New York); MA, Fordham; 
PhD, CUNY (Graduate Center) 

Wayne L. Silver (1985) 

BA, Pennsylvania; PhD, Horida State 

Michael L. Sinclair (1968) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Stanford 

Alison T.Smith (1990) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

J. Howell Smith (1965) 

BA, Baylor; MA, Tulane; PhD, Wisconsin 

Kathleen B.Smith (1981) 

BA, Baldwin- Wallace; MA, PhD, Purdue 

Wesley E.Snyder (1990) 

BS, North Carolina State; MS, PhD, Illinois 

Margaret Supplee Smith (1979) 

BS, Missouri; MA, Case Western Reserve; 
PhD, Brown 

Cecilia H. Solano (1977) 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Loraine Moses Stewart (1991) 

BA, MA, North Carolina Central; 
EdD, UNC-Greensboro 

DeLeon E. Stokes (1982) 

BA, Duke; MBA, Michigan; 

David HStroupe (1990) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Anna-Vera Sullam (1972) 
BA, Padua 



Assistant Professor of German and Russian 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 

Professor of Physics 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 

Professor of English 
Associate Professor of English 



Associate Professor of Biology 
(Leave, Fall 1992) 

Professor of History 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(French) 

Professor of History 
(London, Fall 1992) 

Associate Professor of Politics 
(Leave, Spring 1993) 

Professor of Computer Science 
Professor of Art 

Associate Professor of Psychology 
Assistant Professor of Education 



Lecturer in Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Instructor in Health and Sport Science 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Italian; Part-time, Venice) 



241 



Charles H.Talbert (1963) 

BA, Howard; BD, Southern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Ian M.Taplin (1985) 

The College of Architecture, Oxford (England); 
BA, York (England); MPhil, Leicester 
(England); PhD, Brown 

Thomas C. Taylor (1971) 

BS, MA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
PhD, Louisiana State 

Harold C. Tedford (1965) 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; 
PhD, Louisiana State 

Stanton K.Tefft (1964) 

BA, Michigan State; MS, Wisconsin; 
PhD, Minnesota 

Claudia Newel Thomas (1986) 

BA, Notre Dame; MA, Virginia; 
PhD, Brandeis 

Olive S. Thomas (1978) 

BS, Wake Forest; MBA, 
UNC-Greensboro 

Stan J. Thomas (1983) 

BS, Davidson; PhD, Vanderbilt 

C. Michael Thompson (1991) 
BA, JD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Harry B. Titus Jr. (1981) 

BA, Wisconsin (Milwaukee); MFA, 
PhD, Princeton 

Patricia W. Toole (1990) 

AB, Smith; MA, Wake Forest 

Todd C. Torgersen (1989) 

BS, MS, Syracuse; PhD, Delaware 

Ralph B. Tower (1980) 

BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
MBA, Cornell 

Florence Toy (1988) 

BA, Lenoir-Rhyne; MA, Michigan 

George William Trautwein (1983) 

BMus, Oberlin; MMus, Cleveland 
Institute; MusD, Indiana 

Robert W. Ulery Jr. (1971) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 



Wake Forest Professor of Religion 



Assistant Professor of Sociology 



Hylton Professor of Accountancy 

(School of Business and Accountancy) 

(Leave, Spring 1993) 

Professor of Theater 



Professor of Anthropology 



Associate Professor of English 



Lecturer in Accounting 

(School of Business and Accountancy) 

(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Computer Science 



Lecturer in Business 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Associate Professor of Art 



Lecturer in Theater 
(Part-time) 

Dana Faculty Fellow and Assistant 
Professor of Computer Science 

Professor of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(French; Spring 1993) 

Director of Instrumental Ensembles 
(Department of Music) 

Professor of Classical Languages 



242 



RobertL.UtleyJr.(1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Antonio Carlo Vitti (1986) 
BA, MA, Wayne State; 
PhD, Michigan 

Marcellus E. Waddill (1962) 

BA, Hampden-Sydney; MA, PhD, Pittsburgh 

Kenneth M. Walker (1992) 

BS, Chaminade University of Honolulu; 
MA, Central Michigan 

C. Anne Wallen (1989) 

BS, UNC-Greensboro; PhD, Rochester 

Sarah L. Watts (1987) 

BA, Oklahoma College of Liberal Arts; 
MA, PhD, Oklahoma 

Mary R. Wayne (1980) 

BFA, Pennsylvania State; MFA, Ohio State 

David S. Weaver (1977) 

BA, MA, Arizona; PhD, New Mexico 

Peter D. Weigl (1968) 

BA, Williams; PhD, Duke 

Kari Weil (1985) 

BA, Cornell; MA, PhD, Princeton 

David P. Weinstein (1989) 

BA, Colorado College; MA, Connecticut; 
PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Mark E.Welker (1987) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Florida State 

Byron R.Wells (1981) 

BA, MA, Georgia; PhD, Columbia 

Larry E. West (1969) 

BA, Berea; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Robert M. Whaples (1991) 

BA, Maryland; PhD, Pennsylvania 

M. Stanley Whitley (1990) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Cornell 

Ulrike Wiethaus (1991) 

Colloquium at Kirchliche Hochschule 
(Berlin, Germany); MA, PhD, Temple 

Jack E. Wilkerson Jr. (1989) 

BS, Bob Jones University; 
PhD, Texas 



Associate Professor of Humanities 

Dana Faculty Fellow and Associate 

Professor of Romance Languages 

(Italian) 

Professor of Mathematics 
Professor of Military Science 

Adjunct Associate Professor of Physics 
Associate Professor of History 



Lecturer in Theater 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Anthropology 

Professor of Biology 

Associate Professor of Romance Languages 
(French; Leave, 1992-93) 

Assistant Professor of Politics 



Associate Professor of Chemistry 

Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 

Professor of German 

Assistant Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Assistant Professor of Religion 



Associate Professor of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 



243 



Alan J. Williams (1974) 

BA, Stanford; PhD, Yale 

George P. Williams Jr. (1958) 

BS, Richmond; MS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

John E. Williams (1959) 

BA, Richmond; MA PhD, Iowa 

Richard T. Williams (1985) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Frank M. Williamson (1989) 

BA, Newberry; MEd, South Carolina 

David C. Wilson (1984, 1987) 

BS, Wake Forest; MAT, Emory 

Edwin Graves Wilson (1946, 1951) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Donald H.Wolfe (1968) 

BS, MS, Southern Illinois; PhD, Cornell 

Frank B. Wood (1971) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; MDiv, South- 
eastern Baptist Theo. Seminary; PhD, Duke 

John H. Wood (1985) 

BS, Ohio; MA, Michigan State; PhD, Purdue 

Ralph C.Wood Jr. (1971) 

BA, MA, East Texas State; MA, PhD, Chicago 

J. Ned Woodall (1969) 

BA, MA, Texas; PhD, Southern Methodist 

Beverly Wright (1989) 

BA, Grambling State; MA, PhD, SUNY (Buffalo) 

Richard L.Zuber (1962) 

BS, Appalachian; MA, Emory; PhD, Duke 

Margaret D. Zulick (1991) 

BM, Westminster Choir College; 
MA, Earlham School of Religion; 
MTS, Garrett-Evangelical Theo. Seminary 



Professor of History 

Professor of Physics 

Wake Forest Professor of Psychology 

Reynolds Professor of Physics 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 

Instructor in Mathematics 
(Part-time) 

Professor of English 

Professor of Theater 

Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 

Reynolds Professor of Economics 

Easley Professor of Religion 

Professor of Anthropology 

Associate Professor of Sociology 
(Leave, 1992-93) 

Professor of History 
Instructor in Speech Communication 



Emeriti 



Dates folloiving names indicate period of service. 



Charles M. Allen (1941-1989) 

BS, MS, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

John William Angell (1955-1990) 

BA, Wake Forest; STM, Andover Newton; 
ThM, PhD, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Bianca Artom (1975-1990) 

Harold M. Barrow (1948-1977) 

BA, Westminster; MA, Missouri; PED, Indiana 

Merrill G. Berthrong (1964-1989) 

BA, Tufts; MA, Fletcher; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Russell H. Brantley Jr. (1953-1987) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Professor Emeritus of Biology 
Easley Professor Emeritus of Religion 

Lecturer Emerita in Romance Languages 
Professor Emeritus of Physical Education 



Director of Libraries Emeritus 
Director Emeritus of Communication 



Germaine Bree (1973-1985) 

Licence, EES, Agregation, Paris; LittD, Smith, 
Mount Holyoke, Alleghany, Duke, Oberlin, 
Dickinson, Rutgers, Wake Forest, Brown, 
Wisconsin (Milwaukee), New York, Massachusetts, 
Kalamazoo, Washington (St. Louis), University of the 
South, Boston, Wisconsin (Madison); LHD, Wilson, 
Colby, Michigan,Davis and Elkins; LLD, Middlebury 

George McLeod Bryan (1956-1987) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; BD, PhD, Yale 



Kenan Professor Emerita of Humanities 



Professor Emeritus of Religion 



Shasta M. Bryant (1966-1987) 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Ruth F. Campbell (1962-1974) 
BA, UNC-Greensboro; 
MA, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Duke 

Robert L. Carlson (1969-1987) 

BS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 
MBA, PhD, Stanford 

Dorothy Casey (1949-1988) 
BS, UNC-Greensboro; 
MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Cyclone Covey (1968-1988) 
BA, PhD, Stanford 

Marjorie Crisp (1947-1977) 

BS, Appalachian; MA, George Peabody 

Hugh William Divine (1954-1979) 

BS, Georgia; MA, Louisiana State; 
JD, Emory; LLM, SJD, Michigan 



Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 
Professor Emerita of Spanish 

Professor Emeritus of Management 



Associate Professor Emerita of Health 
and Sports Science 

Professor Emeritus of History 

Associate Professor Emerita 
of Physical Education 

Professor Emeritus of Law 



245 



Robert Allen Dyer (1956-1983) 
BA, Louisiana State; 
ThM, PhD, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Walter S. Flory (1963-1980) 

BA, Bridgewater; MA, PhD, Virginia; 
ScD, Bridgewater 

Ralph S. Fraser (1962-1988) 

BA, Boston University; MA, Syracuse; 
PhD, Illinois 

Caroline Sandlin Fullerton (1969-1990) 
BA, Rollins; MFA, Texas Christian 

Ivey C. Gentry (1949-1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; BS, New York; 
MA, PhD, Duke 

Christopher Giles (1951-1988) 

BS, Florida Southern; MA, George Peabody 

Balkrishna G. Gokhale (1960-1990) 
BA, MA, PhD, Bombay 

Thomas F. Gossett (1967-1987) 

BA, MA, Southern Methodist; PhD, Minnesota 



Professor Emeritus of Religion 



Babcock Professor Emeritus of Biology 



Professor Emeritus of German 



Lecturer Emerita in SCTA 
(Theater Arts) 

Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 



George J. Griffin (1948-1981) 

BA, Wake Forest; ThB, Southern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; BD, Yale; PhD, Edinburgh 

Paul M. Gross Jr. (1959-1987) 
BS, Duke; PhD, Brown 

William H. Gulley (1966-1987) 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Emmett Willard Hamrick (1952-1988) 
BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Duke 

Carl V.Harris (1956-1989) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, STM, Yale; 
PhD, Duke 

Lucille S. Harris (1957-1991) 
BA, BM, Meredith 

Delmer P. Hylton (1949-1991) 
BS, MBA, Indiana 

Lois Johnson (1942-1962) 

BA, Meredith; MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Alonzo W. Kenion (1956-1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Duke 

Harry L. King Jr. (1960-1981) 
BA, Richmond; MA, PhD, 
UNC-Chapel Hill 



Associate Professor Emeritus of Music 

Professor Emeritus of History 
and Asian Studies 

Professor Emeritus of English 
Professor Emeritus of Religion 

Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

Professor Emeritus of Sociology 

Albritton Professor Emeritus of Religion 

Professor Emeritus of Classical Languages 

Instructor Emerita in Music 

Professor Emeritus of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Dean of Women Emerita 

Professor Emeritus of English 

Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 



246 



Robert E.Lee (1946-1977) 
BS, LLD, Wake Forest; 
MA, Columbia; LLM, SJD, Duke 

Harry B. Miller (1947-1983) 

BS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Carlton T. Mitchell (1961-1991) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Yale; STM, 
Union Theo. Seminary; PhD, New York 

Carl C. Moses (1964-1991) 

AB, William and Mary; MA, PhD, 
UNC-Chapel Hill 

John W. Nowell (1945-1987) 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

James C. OTlaherty (1947-1984) 

BA, Georgetown; MA, Kentucky; PhD, Chicago 

A. Thomas Olive (1961-1988) 
BS, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, 
North Carolina State 

F. Jeanne Owen (1956-1991) 
BS, UNC -Greensboro; 
MCS, Indiana; JD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

John E. Parker Jr. (1950-1987) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Syracuse 

Clarence H. Patrick (1946-1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Andover Newton; 
PhD, Duke 

Percival Perry (1939, 1947-1987) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Rutgers; PhD, Duke 

Elizabeth Phillips (1957-1989) 

BA, UNC-Greensboro; MA, Iowa; 
PhD, Pennsylvania 

Lee Harris Potter (1965-1989) 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Herman J. Preseren (1953-1983) 

BS, California State (Pennsylvania); 
MA, Columbia; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Beulah L. Raynor (1946-1979) 

BA, East Carolina; MA, Wake Forest 

Mark H. Reece (1956-1988) 
BS, Wake Forest 

C. H. Richards Jr. (1952-1985) 

BA, Texas Christian; MA, PhD, Duke 



Professor Emeritus of Law and 
Dean Emeritus of the School of Law 

Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

Professor Emeritus of Religion 

Professor Emeritus of Politics 

Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

Professor Emeritus of German 

Associate Professor Emeritus of Biology 



Professor Emerita of Business Law 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor Emeritus of Education 
and Romance Languages 

Professor Emeritus of Sociology 



Professor Emeritus of History 
Professor Emerita of English 

Professor Emeritus of English 
Professor Emeritus of Education 

Associate Professor Emerita of English 

Dean of Students Emeritus 

Professor Emeritus of Politics 



247 



Mary Frances Robinson (1952-1989) 
BA, Wilson; MA, PhD, Syracuse 

Paul S. Robinson (1952-1977) 

BA, Westminster; BM, Curtis; 
MSM, DSM, Union Seminary 

Wilmer D. Sanders (1954, 1964-1992) 

BA, Muhlenberg; MA, PhD, Indiana 

John W. Sawyer (1956-1988) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Missouri 

James Ralph Scales (1967-1983; 1984-1988) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MA, PhD, Oklahoma; 
LittD, Northern Michigan, Belmont Abbey; 
LLD, Alderson-Broaddus; LLD, Duke 

Ben M. Seelbinder (1959-1988) 
BA, Mississippi Delta State; 
MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Richard L. Shoemaker (1950-1982) 
BA, Colgate; MA, Syracuse; 
PhD, Virginia 

David L. Smiley (1950-1991) 

BA, MA, Baylor; PhD, Wisconsin 

Blanche C. Speer (1972-1984) 

BA, Howard Payne; MA, PhD, Colorado 

Henry Smith Stroupe (1937-1984) 

BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

Anne S. Tillett (1956-1986) 

BA, Carson-Newman; MA, Vanderbilt; 
PhD, Northwestern 

J. Van Wagstaff (1964-1992) 

BA, Randolph-Macon; MBA, Rutgers; 
PhD, Virginia 

Raymond L. Wyatt (1956-1992) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

W. Buck Yearns Jr. (1945-1988) 

BA, Duke; MA, Georgia; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Professor Emerita of Romance Languages 
Professor Emeritus of Music 



Professor Emeritus of German 

Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 
and Computer Science 

President Emeritus and 

Worrell Professor Emeritus of 

Anglo-American Studies 

Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 



Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 

Professor Emeritus of History 
Associate Professor Emerita of Linguistics 

Professor Emeritus of History 
Professor Emerita of Romance Languages 

Professor Emeritus of Economics 

Professor Emeritus of Biology 
Professor Emeritus of History 



iKfiSfiRsjSig; 



The Committees of the Faculty 



September 1, 1993 

The terms of members, except where otherwise shown, expire on August 31 of the year indicated. 
Each committee selects its own chair except where the chair is designated. 

Executive Committees 



The Committee on Academic Affairs 



Non-voting. Dean of student services, associate deans of the College, and one undergradu- 
ate student. Voting. Dean of the College; 1996 Robert A. Browne, John C. Moorhouse; 1995 
Nina S. Allen, John A. Carter Jr.; 1994 John E. Collins, Dolly A. McPherson; and one 
undergraduate student. 

The Committee on Admissions 



Non-voting. Director of admissions and financial aid, two members from the administra- 
tive staff of the Office of the Dean of the College, and one undergraduate student. Voting. 
Dean of the College; 1996 Patricia M. Cunningham, David K. Evans; 1995 Win-chiat Lee, 
Barbee M. Oakes; 1994 Michael J. Berry, David W. Catron; and one undergraduate 
student. 

The Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid 



Non-voting. One undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, director of admis- 
sions and financial aid, two members from the administrative staff of the Office of the 
Dean of the College; 1996 Bernadine Barnes, Philippe Falkenberg; 1995 Robert H. Evans, 
Gale Sigal; 1994 Barry G. Maine, Alton B. Pollard; and one undergraduate student. 

The Committee on Curriculum 



Voting. Provost, dean of the College, dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, 
registrar, and the chairs of each department of the College as follows: Division I. Art, 
Classical Languages, English, German and Russian, Music, Romance Languages, The- 
ater. Division II. Biology, Chemistry, Health and Sport Science, Mathematics and Com- 
puter Science, Physics. Division III. Education, History, Military Science, Philosophy, 
Religion. Division IV. Anthropology, Economics, Politics, Psychology, Sociology, Speech 
Communication. (The School of Business and Accountancy is included in Division IV.) 



249 



Advisory Committees 



The Committee on Academic Planning 



Non-voting. Provost, dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, and one under- 
graduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, 
one undergraduate student, and 1997 Terry D.Blumen thai, RalphC. Wood Jr.; 1996 David 
B. Levy, Herman E. Eure; 1995 Ian M. Taplin, TBA; 1994 Roger A. Hegstrom, Milorad R. 
Margitic. 

The Committee on Athletics 



Non-voting. Director of athletics. Voting . Vice president for financial resource management 
and treasurer, dean of the College, faculty representa tive to the Atlantic Coast Conference; 
and 1998 Anne Boyle, Alan J. Williams; 1997Robert C. Beck, Susan H. Borwick; 1996 Eddie 
V. Easley, Sarah L. Watts; 1995 Ronald V. Dimock, Howard W. Shields; 1994 Robert Knott, 
Ronald E.Noftle. 

The Committee on Institutional Planning 



Non-voting. Provost, vice president for financial resource management and treasurer, vice 
president for administration and planning, and one undergraduate student. Voting. Dean 
of the College, dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, one undergraduate 
student; and 1997 Ralph C. Kennedy, David P. Weinstein; 1996 Harold C. Tedford, Mark 
E. Welker; 1995 Marcus B. Hester, Beverly Wright, Dale R. Martin; 1994 James Kuzmanovich, 
Robert W.Ulery Jr. 

The Committee on Nominations 



Voting. 1996 Robert Knott, Teresa Radomski; 1995 Elmer K. Hayashi, Timothy F. Sellner, 
Jack Wilkerson; 1994 Gillian R. Overing, Charles H. Talbert. 

The Committee on Library Planning 



Non-voting. Provost, dean of the Graduate School, one faculty representative from the 
Committee on Academic Planning, and one undergraduate student. Voting. One faculty 
representative from each academic department of the College, dean of the College, one 
faculty representative from the School of Business and Accountancy, the director of the Z. 
Smith Reynolds Library, and one undergraduate student. 



250 



Special Committees 



The Committee on Publications 



Voting. Dean of the College, vice president for financial resource management and 
treasurer, university editor, three faculty advisers of Old Gold and Black, The Student, and 
the Howler; and 1996 W. Dillon Johnston; 1995 Claudia N. Thomas; 1994 Andrew V. Ettin. 

The Committee for Teacher Education 



Voting. Dean of the College, dean of the Graduate School, chair of the Department of 
Education; and 1996 Sarah Barbour, Allin Cottrell; 1995 Charles F. Jackels, Michael L. 
Hughes; 1994 David L. Faber, Stephen P. Messier. 

The Committee on Honors 



Non-voting. One student from the College. Voting. Dean of the College, the coordinator of 
the Honors Program, one student from the College, and 1 997 Peter Kairoff; 1996 Anthony 
S. Parent; 1995 George E. Matthews Jr.; 1994 Perry L. Patterson. 

The Committee of Lower Division Advisers 



Dean of the College, chair of the lower division advisers, and members of the faculty who 
are appointed as advisers to the Lower Division. 

The Committee on Orientation 



Dean of the College, chair of the lower division advisers, who shall serve as chair, dean of 
student services, a designa ted member of the administrative staff, president of the Student 
Government or a representative, and other persons from the administration and student 
body whom the chair shall invite to serve. 

The Committee on Records and Information 



Non-voting. Registrar. Voting. Dean of the College, archivist, who shall be secretary, vice- 
chair of the faculty, secretary of the faculty, and 1996 Marcellus E. Waddill; 1995 Paul R. 
Anderson; 1994 Todd Torgersen. 



251 



The Committee on Open Curriculum . 



Dean of the College, 1997 Cecilia H. Solano, Brian L. Gorelick; 1996 Dilip K. Kondepudi, 
Linda N. Nielsen; 1995 Antonio Vitti, John C Moorhouse; 1994 John V. Baxley, Robert H. 
Evans. 

The Committee for the AROTC 



Voting. Dean of the College, AROTC coordinator, professor of military science; and 1 9% 
Allan D. Louden; 1995 James F. Curran; 1994 William L. Hottinger. 

Joint Faculty/Administration Committees 

The Joint Admissions Committee 



Dean of the College, director of admissions and financial aid, provost, and three faculty 
members of the Committee on Admissions. 

The Judicial Council 

Administration. 1996 Kenneth A. Zick; 1995 Patricia Johansson. Alternate. 1995 Toby A. 
Hale. Faculty. 1998 Katy Harriger; 1997 Mary L. Friedman; 1996 Fred L. Horton Jr.; 1995 
Candelas Newton; 1994 Stewart Carter. Alternate. 1994 Leonard Roberge; 1997 M. Stanley 
Whitley; two students from the College and one student alternate. 

The Committee on Student Life 



Dean of the College or his designate, dean of student services, a designated member of the 
administration; 1996 Jack E. Wilkerson Jr.; 1995 Ronald V. Dimock; 1 994 Stephen B. Boyd; 
and three undergraduate students. 



Other Faculty Assignments 



Faculty Advisers to the Honor Council 

1996 TBA; 1995 James T. Powell; 1994 Doug Bland. 

Faculty Advisers to the Student Judicial Board .. 

1996 TBA; 1995 John H. Litcher; 1994 Richard Barnett. 



252 



Faculty Marshals 



John V. Baxley, Richard D. Carmichael, 
Barbee M. Oakes, Catherine T. Harris 

University Senate 



President, provost, treasurer, the deans of the several schools, the associate dean of the 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine, the director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, the 
secretary of the University, and, with the consent of the Senate, any person holding the 
position of vice president of the University or equivalent rank, and the following: 

Representatives of the College: 1997 Stephen B. Boyd, Kathleen M. Glenn, Claudia N. 
Thomas; 1996 Katy Harriger, Ellen K. Kirkman, Peter D. Weigl; 1995 Nancy J. Cotton, 
Claire H. Hammond, Donald Schoonmaker; 1994 Donald E. Frey, Jill J. McMillan, Harry 
B.Titus Jr. 

Representatives of the School of Business and Accountancy: 1996 S. Douglas Beets; 1994 Ralph 
Tower. 

Representatives of the Graduate School: 1996 Gale Sigal; 1995 Douglas S. Lyles. 

Representatives of the School of Law: 1996 J. Wilson Parker; 1994 Suzanne Reynolds. 

Representatives of the Babcock Graduate School of Management: 1995 Peter Peacock; 1994 
Bobby Lamy. 

Representatives of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine: 1996 Carolyn R. Ferree; 1995 Charles 
S. Turner, W. Frederick McQuirt, Frederick R. Kahl; 1994 Judy Brunso-Bechtold. 

Institutional Review Board 



Director of research and sponsored programs, Robert Jones, Daniel Frankel, Richard 
Vance, and 1995 Dale Dagenbach, Michael J. Berry, Cecil D. Price; 1994 Robert C. Beck, 
Mary Jane Berman, Fred L. Horton Jr., Jack Rejeski. 




Index 




Academic Calendar, 2, 22 

Accountancy, 204 

Accreditation, 12 

Administration, 211 

Admission, 17 

Admission Application Fee, 18, 21 

Admission Deposit, 18, 21 

Admission Requirements, 17 

Advanced Placement, 19 

Advising, 22 

Advisory Council, School of Business 

and Accountancy, 210 
Anthropology, 58 
Application for Admission, 17 
Applied Music, 140 
Applied Music Fees, 21 
AROTC, 32 
Art, 61 

Art History, 62 

Asia, Pacific Rim Courses, 195 
Asian Studies (minor), 65 
Auditing Courses, 24 
Babcock Graduate School of 

Management, 7 
Bachelor of Arts Degree, 49 
Bachelor of Science Degree, 49 
Basic Requirements, 50 
Beijing (China), 48, 191 
Biology, 67 
Board of Trustees, 208 
Board of Visitors, 209 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 7 
Buildings and Grounds, 8 
Bulletins of WFU, 256 
Burgundy, University of, 47 
Business, 201 

Business and Accountancy, 7, 197 
Calendar, 2 

Caribbean, Courses in, 196 
Carswell Scholarships, 31 
Charges, 20-21 
Chemistry, 73 
China, Study in, 48 
Chinese, 65, 82, 83 
Chronological History of WFU, 16 



Class Attendance, 23 

Classical Languages, 76 

Classics, 78 

Classification, 23 

CLEP, 19 

College History and Development, 15 

Combined Degrees in Medical 

Technology, 55 
Committees of the Faculty, 248 
Communication Services, 11 
Composition Condition (cc), 51 
Computer Center, 9 
Computer Science, 127 
Concessions, 43 
Course Numbers, 58 
Course Repetition, 26 
Courses of Instruction, 58 
Courses on Other (Overseas) Sites, 195 
Cultural Res. Preservation (minor), 80 
Dance, 188 
Dean's List, 26 
Degree Requirements, 49 
Degrees Offered, 49 
Dentistry Degree, 56 
Dijon Semester (University of 

Burgundy), 47, 191 
Divisional Requirements, 50 
Double Majors, 53 
Dropping a Course, 24 
Early Christian Studies (minor), 81 
Early Decision, 18 
East Asian Languages and 

Literatures, 82 
East Asian Studies (foreign area), 83 
East European Studies (foreign area), 84 
Economics, 85 
Education, 89 
Emeriti, 244 
Engineering Degree, 56 
England, Study in, 46 
English, 95 

English, Proficiency in the Use of, 51 
Enrollment, 207 
Europe, Courses in, 191-196 
Examinations, 25 



254 



Exchange Scholarships, 41 

Expenses, 19 

Experiment in International Living, 48 

Faculties, Undergraduate, 223 

Fees, 19 

Federal Financial Aid Programs, 41 

Fields of Study, 49 

Financial Aid, 30 

Five-Yr. Program, Accountancy, 197-8 

Food Services, 20 

Foreign Area Studies, 46, 54 

Forestry and Environmental Studies 

Degree, 57 
France, Study in, 47, 170, 191 
Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Germany, 191 
French, 167 

French Exchange Scholarship, 42 
General Requirements, 49 
Geographical Distribution, 207 
German, 102 

German Exchange Scholarship, 41 
German Studies (foreign area), 105 
Governing and Advisory Boards, 208 
Grade Reports, 26 
Grading, 25 
Graduate School, 7 
Graduation Distinctions, 26 
Greek, 77 

Handicapped Students, Admission, 18 
Hankins Scholarships, 31 
Health and Sport Science, 105 
Health and Sport Science Requirement, 

51, 105 
Hebrew, 165 

Hiratsuka (Japan), 48, 192 
History, 110 

History and Development, WFU, 15 
Honors Study, 45 
Hospital Charges, 21 
Hospital Insurance, 21 
Housing, 22 
Humanities, 116 
Immunization, 17 
Incomplete Grades, 25 
Institute of European Studies, 47 
Interdisciplinary Honors, 120 
Interdisciplinary Minors, 54 



International Studies (minor), 123 

International Studies, Office of, 46 

Italian, 174 

Italian Studies (foreign area), 124 

Italy, Study in, 47 

Japan, Study in, 48 

Japanese, 66, 82, 84 

Joint Majors, 53 

Journalism, 97 

Kiev, Ukraine, 192 

Latin, 77 

Latin American Studies (foreign area), 125 

Law School, 7 

Libraries, 11 

Library Fines, 21 

Linguistics, 120 

Loans, 30, 42 

London Semester, 46 

Major, Declaring a, 52 

Major Requirements, Options for 

Meeting, 53 
Majors, 49 

Master's Degree in Accountancy, 198 
Mathematical Economics, 53, 127 
Mathematics, 127 
Maximum Number of Courses, 53 
Medical School, 7 
Medical Technology Degrees, 55 
Microbiology Degree, 56 
Microcomputer Center, 10 
Middle East, Courses in, 196 
Military Science, 133 
Ministerial Concessions, 43 
Minors, 54 

Moscow University, 48, 193 
Motor Vehicle Registration, 21 
Music, 135 
Music Ensemble, 139 
Natural Sciences, 142 
Near Eastern Languages and 

Literature, 165 
Non-Wake Forest Programs, Study 

Abroad, 48 
North Carolina Legislative Tuition 

Grants, 43 
Open Curriculum, 45 
Orientation and Advising, 22 



255 



Overseas Courses, 191 

Part-Time Students, 23 

Pass/Fail Grades, 25 

Philosophy, 143 

Physician Assistant Program, 55 

Physics, 147 

Politics, 150 

Presidents of WFU, 16 

Probation, 27 

Procedures, 17 

Proficiency in the Use of English, 51 

Psychology, 156 

Purpose, Statement of, 14 

Readmission Requirements, 28 

Recognition and Accreditation, 12 

Refunds, 21 

Registration, 23 

Religion, 160 

Repetition of Courses, 26 

Requirements for Acceptable Academic 

Standing, 27 
Requirements for Degrees, 49 
Requirements for Readmission, 28 
Residence Hall Charges, 20, 22 
Residential Language Centers, 46 
Reynolds Scholarships, 30 
Romance Languages, 166 
Room Change Fee, 21 
Room Charges, 20 
Russia, Study in, 48 
Russian, 102 

Salamanca Semester, 47, 173, 180, 193 
Salem College, Study at, 45 
Scholarships, 30 

School of Business & Accountancy, 197 
School of Business & Accountancy 

Advisory Council, 210 
School of Law, 7 
Senior Testing, 55 
Sociology, 176 

Spain, Study in, 47, 173, 180, 193 
Spanish, 171 

Spanish Exchange Scholarship, 41 
Spanish Studies (foreign area), 180 
Special Programs, 45 
Speech Communication, 181 
Student Health Service, 17, 21 



Student/Student Spouse Employment, 

44 
Study Abroad Opportunities, 46 
Study Abroad in Non-WF Programs, 48 
Summer Study, 28 
Teaching Cert. /Requirements, 90 
Theater, 185 
Traffic Fines, 21 
Transcripts, 21, 26 
Transfer Credit, 19, 29 
Transfer Students, Admission of, 19 
Trustees, 208 
Tuition, 20 
Tuition Deposit, 21 
Undergraduate Faculties, 223 
Undergraduate Schools, 12 
University, 7 
Vehicle Registration, 21 
Venice, Semester in, 47 
Veterans' Benefits, 44 
Vienna, Austria, 195 
Visitors, Board of, 209 
Wake Forest College, 14 
Withdrawal from the College, 24 
Women's Studies (minor), 189 
Writing Center, 52 




Bulletins of Wake Forest University 




The Undergraduate Schools 

Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

Box 7305 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

*(919) 759-5201 

The Graduate School 

Dean of the Graduate School 

Box 7487 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

*(919) 759-5301 

The School of Law 

Director of Admissions 

Box 7206 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

*(919) 759-5437 

The Babcock Graduate School of Management 

Director of Admissions 

Box 7659 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

*(919) 759-5422 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine 

Associate Dean for Admissions 

Medical Center Blvd. 

Winston-Salem, NC 27157 

*(919) 716-4265 

The Summer Session 

Dean of the Summer Session 

Box 7293 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 

*(919) 759-5664 

*Area code will change to 910 as of November 14, 1993. 

The undergraduate bulletin is published by the University Editor's Office, Room 
220 Reynolda Hall, Reynolda Campus. Adele LaBrecque, bulletin editor. Tele- 
phone: *(919) 759-5960 



Wake Forest administers all educational and employment activities without discrimination because 
of race, color, religion, national origin, age, handicap, or gender except where exempt. 




Director of Admissions 
Wake Forest University 
Box 7305 Reynolda Station 
Winston-Salem, NC 27109 



Second Class Postage Paid 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 

USPS 078-320 



WAKE FOREST 



UNIVERSITY